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From the collection of the 


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San Francisco, California 







Publications for Party Planners 


Suggestions for conducting community or public dances or small group dances. 
Includes dance games and stunts. 


A few stunts that can be used at banquets, community gatherings, and so on. 


Includes a complete party plan, playlet and other program suggestions. 


Prepared with large group in mind. Reprinted from RECREATION, January 1941. 


Activities galore for this colorful day. 


A party honoring famous Americans born in February. Reprinted from RECREATION Janu- 
ary 1941. 


Colorful party with an exotic theme. Reprinted from RECREATION, July 1941. 

Back to the recreation of the horse-and-buggy days. 

Contest evening for any season, for fun and profit. Reprinted from RECREATION, January 



Selected by NRA training specialists. 

Songs, games, dances and other entertainment enjoyed in our neighboring countries. 

Equipment game parties and puzzle parties. 

A party for every letter of the alphabet. 








8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York 


&4tkletic Cquipment 


W. J. Voit Rubber Corp. 
2945 East 12th Street 
Los Angeles 11, Calif. 

New York 1 1 , Chicago 1 0, Los Angeles 1 1 


Now, for first time, you can buy full sides of 
top grain cowhide at our special, amazingly 
low "Tannery-to-you" prices. For details, 
write Dept. 6, W. D. Byron & Sons, Williams- 
port, Md. Fine cowhide tanners since 1832. 

All manuscripts submitted for 
publication in RECREATION 
should be double-spaced, have 
good margins, and should be a 
first copy NOT a carbon ! 



The Only Net 
for 3 YEARS ! 

outdoors or indoors Send for Free Catalog 


Dept. R, Box 1065, NEW LONDON, CONN. 

Recreation as a Profession 
in the Southern Region 

A Report of the Joint Study by the National Recreation Association and the 
Southern Regional Education Board 

Special pre-publication offer on orders received before 
January 15, 1955 $3.00 per copy 

Price after January 15 will be 

Mail this coupon today! 


8 West Eighth Street 
New York 11, New York 


Send. . . .copies of Recreation as a Profession in the Southern Region 
at the special pre-publication price of $3.00 per copy to : 


Address . . 

Enclosed: $ (remittance or purchase order) 


Whatever the craft 

you are teaching: woodworking, model 
building, leather, metal, plastics, ceramics 

x-acto knives, 
tools & sets 

designed by craftsmen and precision-made 
for fine craftsmanship 

will help you 
do a better job 

by helping your students get better results 

and more creative satisfaction. 

Bui/d Model Airplanes send 25* for 32 

page booklet "Building Your First Flying 

Models." Full size plans and instructions 

for 4 models plus articles and helpful 


Complete X-acto 28 page catalog- FREE 
dept. R-l 

x-acto, inc. 

48-41 Van Dam Street 
Long Island City 1, N. Y. 


Write for Free Booklet 

A Top Spinning Contest makes an 
ideal youth activity for Boys' Clubs, 
Veterans' Organizations, Fraternal 
Orders, Industrial Firms, Schools, 
Outing Clubs, Churches, Newspapers, 
Playgrounds, Civic Groups, Business 
Clubs and others. Mail coupon for 
Free Booklet published by the manu- 
facturer of Cropper Official Wood 
Spinning Tops. 

The Jerome Gropper Co. R-1-55 

11 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. . 
Please send FREE copy of. "Organizing 
A Top Spinning Contest." 





When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 


OTTO T. MALLEHY Chairman of the Board 

PAUL MOORE, JR First Vice-President 

SUSAN M. LEE Second Vice-President 

GRANT TITSWORTH Third Vice-President 


GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY Treasurer Emeritus 



F. GREGG BEMIS Boston, Mass. 


HOODING CARTER Greenville, Miss. 

MRS. AKTHUR G. CUMMER Jacksonville, Fla. 

MRS. ROLLIN BROWN Los Angeles, Calif. 





MRS. HOWARD A. FRAME Los Altos, Calif. 


ROBERT GARRETT Baltimore, Md. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX Michigan City, Ind. 

MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON Tucson, Ariz. 

SUSAN M. LEE New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MALLERY Philadelphia, Pa. 

HENRY W. MEERS Chicago, 111. 


CARL F. MILLIKEN Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OCDEN L. MILLS New York, N. Y. 

PAUL MOORE, JR Jersey City, N. J. 


MRS. RICHARD E. RIECEL Montchanin, Del. 

WILLIAM S. SIMPSON Bridgeport, Conn. 

MRS. SICMUND STERN San Francisco, Calif. 



J. C. WALSH Yonkers, N. Y. 


Executive Director's Office 




Correspondence and Consultation 


Program Service 


Recreation Magazine 


Special Publications 



Personnel Service 


Research Department 


Hospital Recreation Consulting Service 


Work with Volunteers 


International Recreation Service 


Field Department 




Service to States 

Areas and Facilities Planning and Surveys 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Secretary 
for Women and Girls 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses 




New England District 
WALDO R. HAINSWORTH Whitinsville, Mass. 

Middle Atlantic District 

JOHN W. FAUST East Orange, N. J. 


Great Lakes District 

JOHN J. COLLIER Toledo, Ohio 

ROBERT L. HORNBY Madison, Wis. 


Southern District 

Miss MARION PREECE. . .Washington, D. C. 
RALPH VAN FLEET Clearwater, Fla. 

Midwest District 

ARTHUR TODD Kansas City, Mo. 

Southwest District 


Pacific Northwest District 

WILLARD H. SHUMARD Seattle, Wash. 

Pacific Southwest District 

LYNN S. RODNEY Los Angeles, Calif. 

Affiliate Membership 

Affiliate membership in the National 
Recreation Association is open to all non- 
profit piivate and public organizations 
whose function is wholly or primarily the 
provision or promotion of recreation serv- 
ice* or which include recreation as an im- 
portant part of their total program and 
whose cooperation in the work of the asso- 
ciation would in the opinion of the asso- 
ciation's Board of Directors, further the 
ends of the national recreation movement. 

Active Associate Membership 

Active associate membership in the 
National Recreation Association is open to 
all individuals who are actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed basis 
or as volunteers in a nonprofit private or 
public recreation organization and whose 
cooperation in the work of the association 
would, in the opinion of the association's 
Board of Directors, further the ends of the 
national recreation movement. 


The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
to year is made possible by the splendid 
cooperation of several hundred volunteer 
sponsors throughout the country, and the 
generous contributions of thousands of sup- 
porters of this movement to bring health, 
happiness and creative living to the boys 
and girls and the men and women of 
America. If you would like to join in the 
support of this movement, you may send 
your contribution direct to the association. 

The National Recreation Association is a nation- 
wide, nonprofit, nonpolitical and nonsectarian civic 
organization, established in 1906 and supported by 
voluntary contributions, and dedicated to the serv- 
ice of all recreation executives, leaders and agen- 

cies, public and private, to the end that every child 
in America shall have a place to play in safety and 
that every person in America, young and old, shall 
have an opportunity for the best and most satisfy- 
ing use of his expanding leisure time. 

For further information regarding the association's services and membership, please write to the 
Executive Director, National Recreation Association, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 






Editorial Assistant, AMELIA HENLY 

Business Manager, ALFRED H. WILSON 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 


Price 50 Cents 

No. 1 

On the Cover 

MISS NEW YEAR brings greetings from the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, and promises a beau- 
tiful year for 1955. In your hands locally, nation- 
ally, and internationally, lies her future. May her 
efforts be worthy of her trust! (Photograph of 13- 
month-old Christine Giroux is used through cour- 
tesy of her parents, and of The Assembler, a maga- 
zine published by Automotive Body Division of the 
Chrysler Corporation. 

Next Month 

February is party month and RECREATION will 
carry party ideas, of course. In addition, special 
emphasis will be given to recreation programs for 
senior citizens. Don't miss: the good editorial on 
the relation of recreation and adult education, by 
Malcom Knowles, Administrative Coordinator of 
the Adult Education Association; or "Recreation 
Goes Underwater" the fascinating story of the new 
Los Angeles County sports activity; or "The Rec- 
reation Board Member's Creed." 

Photo Credits 

Page 4, K. D. Swan, U. S. Forest Service; 12, 13, 
American Music Conference, Chicago ; 14, Sun Valley 
News Bureau; 16, Ruth Strode, Park Bureau, Port- 
land; 22 (top), John W. Barry, Cedar Rapids; 22 
(bottom), Star Newspaper Service, Toronto; 24, Rec- 
reation Department, Oakland; 26, Wallace Danley, 
Tennessee Conservation Department; 27, Thomas 
Airviews, Bayside; 34, Frank Associates, Chicago; 
35 (right), Courier Journal and Louisville Times, 
Louisville; 35 (left), Department of Parks and Rec- 
reation, Detroit; 38, Harold Winder, Oakland Park 

RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a 
service organization supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, at 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
York; is on file in public libraries and is indexed in 
the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. 
Canadian and foreign subscription rate $4.50. Re- 
entered as second-class matter April 25, 1950, at the 
Post Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. Microfilms of cur- 
rent issues available University Microfilms, 313 N. First 
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Space Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 East 
44th Street. New York 17, New York; Mark Minahan, 
168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; Keith 
H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, and 
593 Market Street, Suite 304, San Francisco 5, 

Copyright, 1955, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. ,)=? 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 


The Intangible Values in Nature Protection .... Sigurd F. Olson 4 

New Members of the Board of Directors (NRA) 8 

Music Comes to Main Street H. W. Heinsheimer 12 

Are You Hibernating This Winter? W. E. Powers 14 

Community Recreation Robert L. Horney 16 

The Topeka Recreation Story John C. Drake 19 

Synchronized Swimming A New Sport. . . .Myron C. Hendrick 21 

New Park Projects 23 

Fighting the Litter Bugs 38 


Outdoor Swimming Pools Part I 

Considerations in Planning George D. Butler 24 

Trends in Swimming Pool Design 28 

Research Reviews and Abstracts George D. Butler 30 

Check List for Swimming Pool Construction 31 

Planning a Show Wagon Robert A. Lobdell 32 


How to Start Synchronized Swimming Betty Spears 36 

Leaf Printing (How to Do It!) Frank A. Staples 39 

A Klondyke Party Stanley Rough 40 

Costume Contest at a Library Silvia Schuster 41 

Taking Stock (Idea of the Month) 42 


Things You Should Know 6 

Letters 9 

Editorially Speaking 10 

Reporter's Notebook 34 

Listening and Viewing 43 

Personnel Will aril C. Sutherland 44 

On the Campus 45 

Market News 46 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Periodicals, 

Magazine Articles 47 

New Publications 48 

Advertisers Index 48 

Idea of the Month, How to Do It! See Program 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses Inside Back Cover 




In Mure 

Sigurd F. Olson 

You CAN measure soil and you can 
measure water and trees, but it is 
difficult to measure intangible values. 

Let us define, if we can, what intangi- 
ble values are. They are those which 
stir the emotions; which influence our 
happiness and contentment; values 
which make life worth living. They are 
concerned with the good life. We know 
that they are so important that without 
them life loses much of its meaning. 

The practical considerations of con- 
servation are important also. Surely we 
cannot embark on any conservation or 
nature protection program depending 
on theory alone. Always back of such 
efforts, however, are the other factors 
which we call the intangibles. They 
give substance to the practical and pro- 
vide the reasons for everything we do. 
Their values are so involved and in- 
tegrated in all conservation and nature 
protection work that it is impossible to 
separate them. 

There is no question about the intan- 
gible values of works of art. We have 
always recognized them. In the Chica- 
go Art Institute, recently, I saw a wom- 
an engrossed before a great painting. 

This editorial has been adapted from a talk 
given before the 1954 National Convention 
of the Izaak Walton League of America, held 
in Chicago, and reprinted from the July-Sep- 
tember 1954 issue of National Parks Maga- 
zine. Mr. Olson is president of the National 
Parks Association. 

She stood there in reverence. I looked 
at her closely, and in her eyes was a 
happy light. 

What was she getting out of that pic- 
ture? She was certainly not inter- 
preting it in terms of the canvas, the 
frame, or the oil and pigment the artist 
had used. She was catching something 
that inspired her as it has inspired many 
others. She was enjoying the intangi- 
ble values in that work of art. It af- 
fected her deeply and that was all that 

Is it possible to explain the intangi- 
ble values in a beautiful piece of music? 
As you listen to a Beethoven sonata, 
can you explain exactly what it does to 

Do you know why you like William 
Cullen Bryant's "To a Waterfowl"? 
What do these lines mean to you? 

Whither, 'midst falling dew 
While glow the heavens with the last steps 
of day . . . 

I know what they mean to me. They 
mean sunsets on the marshes, the whis- 
per of wings . . . Bryant caught some- 
thing in those lines, something which 
you and I know, the intangible values 
of ducks against the sky. 

There have been many definitions of 
conservation. Aldo Leopold said, "Con- 
servation means the development of an 
ecological conscience." What I think 
he meant was that unless man develops 
a feeling for his environment and un- 

derstands it, unless he becomes at one 
with it and realizes his stewardship, un- 
less he appreciates all of the intangible 
values embraced in his environment, he 
cannot understand the basic need for 
preserving nature and wilderness. 

I think of Louis Bromfield's: "Con- 
servation is living in harmony with the 
land." What is meant by ''in harmony 
with the land" ? Certainly not the crea- 
tion of dust storms, or gullies, or min- 
ing the soil. It means living the good 
life on the land, having the ability and 
the understanding to enjoy the sights, 
sounds, and smells of the land. 

Paul Sears of Yale said, "Conserva- 
tion is a point of view and involves the 
whole concept of freedom, dignity, and 
the American spirit." A beautiful thing 
to say and something that will be re- 
peated for generations to come. The 
conservation of resources, the protec- 
tion of nature and wild land, reveal a 
point of view a philosophy and a way 
of life. 

What do we mean by our way of life? 
Generations of Americans have enjoyed 
the thing we call the good life. In fact, 
we have taken it for granted as part of 
our heritage without ever trying to de- 
fine it or wonder where it came from. 
This much we know, that the good life 
is a life of plenty, of breathing space 
and freedom, and for most Americans 
it means the out-of-doors. If the open 
country were taken away from us, 


would we still be able to live the good 

Is our country heading toward a 
state of mechanized civilization in which 
the good life, as we understand it, is 
going to disappear? Are we going to 
mistreat our natural resources to the 
point where it is no longer possible to 
enjoy them? 

I flew over the city of New York the 
other day. The plane circled over the. 
miles and miles of tenements and slums 
that are Brooklyn. I looked down and 
thought of the children there who never 
saw grass or trees or clean running wa- 
ter, and wondered what they thought 
about the good life, and if they knew, 
or ever would know, what it meant. 

I also saw Central Park that day, a 
little green oasis surrounded by the 
roaring, bustling city of New York. 
That tiny natural area was worth un- 
counted millions of dollars, but I knew 
its intangible values to the people of the 
city were far more important than any 
others. Here was a sanctuary of the 
spirit in the midst of one of the greatest 
industrialized cities of the world. 

How is all of this involved with the 
conservation of our natural resources 
and the protection of nature and wilder- 
ness? What does it actually have to do 
with the practical problems of soil and 
water and living things? Sterling North 
said: "Every time you see a dust cloud 
or a muddy stream, a field scarred by 
erosion or a channel choked with silt, 
you are witnessing the passing of Amer- 
ican democracy." I would have added 
to that statement five words and our 
way of life. 

One of our great historians, in de- 
scribing the migration of races from 
east to west, said, "In dust and rubble 
along those great migration lanes are 
the palaces, pyramids, and temples of 
the past." 

What happened to those ancient peo- 
ples? They mistreated the land, their 
forests and their waters, and thereby 
lost their way of life. 

It is easier for me to think of the in- 
tangibles with respect to water than 
with respect to most other resources, for 
I have always lived close to it. I instinc- 
tively think of my home, the Quetico- 
Superior, and the wilderness canoe 
country of the international border. 
What is the importance of that country, 

its timber, its vast deposits of iron, and 
other resources? There is no denying 
the part this area plays in our economy, 
but when I think of it, I remember the 
vistas of wilderness waterways, the soli- 
tude and quiet, and the calling of the 
loons. They are the intangible values 
which someday in the future, with our 
zooming population, may far outshad- 
ow the others in importance. 

Mention water, and I think of Izaak 
Walton and the line in the stained-glass 
window of the cathedral at Winchester, 
England, where he is buried; only four 
words there - "Study to be quiet" - 
but they embodied his whole philosophy 
and way of life. Here was his search for 
tranquillity and peace, the whole rea- 
son for his communion with the out-of- 
doors. He did not mention the number 
of fish he caught. He remembered the 
intangible values of the things he wrote 

I visited Crater Lake, Oregon, last 
summer, and I remember its startlingly 
blue water, its high peaks and snow- 
fields. I remember how it looked in the 
early morning when it was half covered 
with mist. Intangible values? Capture 
them? You take them with you. How, 
you do not know. 

I remember a little trout stream of 
a long time ago. I followed it to the 
headwaters on the advice of an Indian 
who told me I would find a pool that 
no one had ever fished. I found that 
pool after looking for it two whole days. 
I have never been back there and I do 
not want to go back, because I have 
heard that the pool has changed. 

There were greaf trees around that 
pool - - primeval yellow birch, huge 
white pines, and hemlocks. It was a rock 
pool. I climbed out on a ledge and 
looked down into its clear, deep water. 
On the bottom, schools of speckled trout 
were lying and fanning their fins. I sat 
on that ledge for a long time and I 
thought, "This is a part of America as 
it used to be." 

It is hard to place a price tag on these 
things, on the sounds and smells and 
memories of the out-of-doors, on the 
countless things we have seen and loved. 
They are the dividends of the good life. 

Have you ever stood in a virgin for- 
est where it is very quiet and the only 
sounds are the twittering of the nut- 
hatches and kinglets away up in the 

E ditor ial 

tops? John Muir once said, "The se- 
quoias belong to the solitudes and the 
milleniums." I was in the sequoias not 
long ago and it was a spiritual experi- 
ence. To realize that those great trees 
were mature long before the continent 
was discovered, that their lives reached 
back to the beginnings of western civili- 
zation, was sobering to short-lived man. 

We need trees. We need them for 
lumber, for industry, for paper. We 
must have them for our particular kind 
of civilization. They are an important 
factor in our economy. But let us never 
forget that there are values in trees oth- 
er than the material, values that may be 
more important in the long run. 

You have heard that by 1970 there 
will be a fifth mouth to feed at every 
table of four. What is that going to do 
to our way of life? What is it going to 
do to the places where one can still find 
silence and peace? 

I read an editorial in the New York 
Times last year, when the Supreme 
Court of the United States made its fa- 
vorable decision on the validity of the 
air space reservation over the roadless 
areas of the Superior National Forest, 
in northern Minnesota. The heading of 
the editorial was "Tranquillity is Be- 
yond Price." Tranquillity is one of the 
intangibles. Solitude is also one of 
them. Truly both are beyond price. 

Much of my time is spent in the ef- 
fort to preserve wilderness regions of 
the United States. They are the wild 
areas set aside by the states and the fed- 
eral government as forests and parks. 
Constant effort is necessary to save them 
from exploitation. 

The fact that forty-six million people 
visited our national parks, and over 
thirty million our national forests last 
year, indicates that there is a hunger, a 
need in the American people, to renew 
their associations with unspoiled na- 
ture. We are trying to hold the line and 
pass these areas on unimpaired to fu- 
ture generations. 

The protection of waters, forests, 
soils, and wildlife are all involved with 
the needs of the human spirit. 


standards, registration, and profes- 
sional membership will be discussed 
when the Council for the Advancement 
of Hospital Recreation meets at Na- 
tional Recreation Association head- 
quarters Friday morning, February 18, 
1955. At the November meeting, held 
at National Education Association 
headquarters in Washington, the coun- 
cil recommended standards for hospital 
recreation workers. The recommenda- 
tions have been referred to the three 
constituent professional organizations, 
the Recreational Therapy Section of 
AAHPER, the Hospital Section of ARS, 
and the National Association of Recre- 
ational Therapists, for approval. The 
National Recreation Association serves 
as consultant organization to the coun- 
cil which was established in 1954. 


therapeutic value of recreation for pa- 
tients in non-government hospitals is 
scheduled for production this spring. 
Funds for the project which has been 
developed by Mrs. Beatrice Hill, Na- 
tional Recreation Association Hospital 
Recreation Consultant have been 
made available by the Nathan Hof- 
heimer Foundation of New York City. 
The script has been written by Mrs. Hill 
and Robert Wald, producer of the radio 
series, "American Inventory." Mr. Wald 
will direct the film, which will be in 
three reels, color and sound. 

TIONAL MONUMENT by inducing Con- 
gress to authorize Echo Park Dam were 
defeated decisively as Congress ad- 
journed last fall. S. 1555, which would 
have initiated the gigantic Upper Colo- 
rado River Storage Project, was de- 
bated on the floor of the Senate, but was 
dropped without a vote; H. R. 4449, the 
companion bill, was held in the House 
Rules Committee. This victory, which is 
owing to the vigorous expression of 
opinion from the people of every state, 
emphasizes public insistence that our 
national park system continue to be pro- 

\ A SURVEY OF CAMPS serving families, 
adults, or mothers and children is being 

mentary basis. Recipients are asked to 
pay the postage which amounts to 
twenty cents per copy. The volumes 
cover the years 1909-35. Requests for 
these will be honored in the order of 
their receipt. (One volume to a person.) 
These are extra copies which the Asso- 
ciation would like to dispose of 

undertaken by the American Camping 
Association. Any such camps which 
have not received a survey question- 
naire are asked to write for a copy to the 
American Camping Association, 343 
South Dearborn Street, Chicago 4, Illi- 
nois. One of the objectives of this sur- 
vey is to compile a directory of family 
camps for distribution to interested 

URGED to "call together a group of lead- 
ing citizens and government officials 
federal, state, and local" to assist the 
federal government in the development 
of a comprehensive federal policy and 
program with respect to "human prob- 
lems created by the national defense 

The proposal was made in a letter to 
the President from Louis B. Seltzer, 
editor of the Cleveland Press and chair- 
man of the Board of United Community 
Defense Services, a federation of na- 
tional non-profit health and welfare or- 
ganizations. The letter accompanied a 
thirty-six page report, "People and Na- 
tional Defense," which analyzes the fed- 
eral government's responsibilities for 
the problems of social adjustment inten- 
sified by the national defense effort. 

^ THE REPORT Recreation as a Profes- 
sion in the Southern Region.* published 
January 1955, will be the basis for a 
special conference to be held February 
20-22 in Atlanta, Georgia. Sponsoring 
the conference will be the Southern 
Regional Education Board and the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. Con- 
ferees will discuss the findings of the 
report, and consider plans for a regional 
action program to improve professional 
education for recreation leadership. 
Representatives of interested groups, or- 
ganizations, and institutions are being 
invited to take part in the meeting, the 
first of its kind in recreation. 

years, are available from the National 
Recreation Association on a compli- 

* See page 1. 

Painting by William Fisher 

Because of the interest shown in the 
picture of our new National Recreation 
Association home, which appeared on 
the cover of our December 1954 issue of 
RECREATION, we would like to tell you a 
little about William Fisher, the artist. 

Mr. Fisher has a studio across the 
street from the Eight Street building 
and is one of our new neighbors. He 
has not only participated in Greenwich 
Village art shows for the last twenty 
years, but has won one hundred prizes 
for his oils and water colors. His paint- 
ings are represented in a number of 
leading collections, and are hanging in 
the St. Louis, Missouri, and New Haven, 
Connecticut, museums. He has illus- 
trated stories for such magazines as the 
Saturday Evening Post, Ladies Home 
Journal, Harpers Bazaar. 


In the listing, Magazine Articles, for 
November 1954, under Park Mainte- 
nance: California's 3,000-A/z7e Riding 
and Hiking Trail Takes Shape; Cutting 
Down the Turf Traffic Toll, William H. 

Job Opening 

Director of public recreation in St. 
Paul, Minnesota at a monthly salary of 
$617 to $737. For requirements, appli- 
cation blank, and further information 
write to: Civil Service Bureau. 265 City 
Hall, St. Paul 2. Applications must be 
filed before February 16, 1955. 



A.C.A. membership can be of value to 
you as it is to an increasing number of 
Recreation Departments incorporating 
Organized Camping in their programs. 


Write for Information 

American Camping Association 

343 So. Dearborn St. 
Chicago 4, III. 

.or a 


Gymnasium Equipment 
Telescopic Gym Seats 
Basketball Scoreboards 
Basketball Backstops 

Steel Lockers, Lockerobes 
and Grade-Robes 


3566 DE KAIB ST. ST. LOUIS 18, MO. 

I For 78 Years 

The Standard Of Quality 


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days before the date of the issue with which it is to take 
effect, if possible, in order to receive your magazines 
without interruption. Send both your old and new ad- 
dresses by letter, card or post office form 22 S to : 




NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 

The post office will not forward copies unless you pro- 
vide extra postage. Duplicate copies cannot be sent. 


Subscription rates for RECREATION magazine are: 

1 year $4.00 

2 years 7.25 

Foreign 4.50 

Library subscriptions 3.70 

Club subscriptions 3.50 

(Ten or more individuals subscribing at one time) 

Single issues 50 

National Recreation Association 
8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 


Heavy simulated leather 
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8 West Eighth Street 
New York 11, N. Y. 

This is my order for ..copies 

of the RECREATION magazine binder. 

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When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


The National Recreation Association is proud of the devoted, outstanding service given by the lay members of 
its Board of Directors, the policy-making body of the National Recreation Association. The following mem- 
bers have been recently elected to this board : 

Hodding Carter 

Greenville, Mississippi 

William C. Menninger 

Topeka, Kansas 

Richard A. Farnsworth 

Houston, Texas 

MR. CARTER, a well-known newspaperman, is a graduate of Bowdoin College, and has done graduate work 
at Columbia, Tulane, and Harvard. He founded the Delta Courier in Hammond, Louisiana, and later the 
Delta Star, and is now editor and publisher of the Delta Democrat-Times. As a publisher of a small town paper, 
Mr. Carter has become nationally known for outspoken leadership on some of the nation's basic problems 
political, economic, and social. He serves constantly on many varied committees and boards working for 
community, state, and national objectives; and his leadership has had tremendous influence in the economic, 
educational, and recreational advancement of Negroes in his area and throughout the South. 

Mr. Carter received the Nieman Fellowship for Newspapermen at Harvard and is a Pulitzer Prize winner. 
He is now a member of the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board; and he serves on the National Commission for 
Public Schools. In addition to many magazine articles, he has written several books, the latest, Where Main 
Street Meets the River, in 1953. His active interest in recreation and in community, national and international 
affairs makes him a valuable addition to the National Recreation Association Board. 

MR. FARNSWORTH is chairman of the board of Farnsworth and Chambers, contractors, in Houston, Texas. 
In addition to his wide business interest throughout the South, he is active in the fields of education, religion, 
and race relations. He attended Tulane University and Washington University in St. Louis. He is president 
of the Houston Council of Churches and vice-president of the Young Men's Christian Association in Houston. 
He is also a member of the Council of Christian Relations of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, a 
member of the board of directors and vice-president of the National Council of Churches, a member of the bi- 
racial board of trustees of Stillman College, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and a member of the International Com- 
mittee of the Young Men's Christian Association. 

Mr. Farnsworth comes to the board as an old friend, having served as Houston sponsor of the National 
Recreation Association for eight years. 

DR. MENNINGER is known nationally and internationally as an authority on mental health. He was edu- 
cated at Washburn College, Kansas, and did graduate work at Columbia University and Cornell University 
Medical School. 

He has held numerous offices in societies and on committees working on various aspects of mental health, 
including the presidency of the American Psychiatric Association and chairmanship of the Expert Advisory 
Panel on Mental Health, World Health Organization. He is a trustee of the National Society for Crippled 
Children and Adults, board member of the Boy Scouts of America, and the author of numerous books and 
published scientific papers. 

Dr. Menninger is a great believer in recreation, and has emphasized it both in preventative and curative 
aspects of mental health. His address on recreation and mental health at the Omaha National Recreation 
Congress, which was published in RECREATION, has been reprinted and used widely in this country and trans- 
lated in other lands. With his scientific background and wide experience in working on problems of children, 
youth, and adults he brings a special contribution to the board. 



Request for Correspondence 


I have recently been appointed as the 
first warden secretary of a community 
association in a rural district of Glou- 
cestershire serving a population of 
10,000 people. For a number of reasons 
I am anxious to make some internation- 
al contacts on behalf of the members 
who consist of individual subscribers 
and those affiliated (3,000) through 
membership of social, educational, re- 
ligious and political groups. 

I am taking the liberty of writing to 
you in the hope that you can give me 
information or forward the content of 
this letter directly to any communities 
in the United States who might be in- 
terested in an exchange of news and 
thoughts with an English association. 

Apart from the interest in exchanging 
views, both for the adult and younger 
members of our various groups, I have 
a feeling that there is an urgent need 
for social intercourse between indivi- 
duals in both of our countries if we are 
to survive the horrors of further ag- 
gression which follow the trends of 
wrong thinking which are being con- 
stantly fanned by those irresponsible 
extremists (in both directions) with fa- 
natical doctrines resulting from periods 
of uncertainty, which both follow and 
precede wars. 

Coleford is a small country town, 
once a market center which, after a pe- 
riod of depression, was revived by the 
arrival of light industry. With the sur- 
rounding villages, which form its ad- 
ministrative area, it is situated in the 
heart of the lovely Forest of Dean, 
flanked by the valleys of the Wye and 
the Severn. 

The management committee of the 
community association in Coleford con- 
sists of a retired schoolmaster, the edi- 
tor of the local newspaper, a farmer, a 
chemist's assistant, a 'small mine' own- 
er, an Anglican Clergyman, a Non- 
conformist minister's wife, a consult- 
ant engineer, the head of an old family 
drapery business. Therein lies its 
strength. There are so many more peo- 
ple of various interests who have com- 
bined in this great social adventure. 
DAVID HOBMAN, Warden Secretary, 
Coleford District Community Asso- 
ciation, Coleford, Gloucestershire, 

Kind Words 


. . . May I again compliment you on 
the outstanding make-up of RECREA- 
TION magazine. It is being more appre- 
ciated with each issue. This does not 
mean that it was not appreciated in the 
past but, rather, that new heights have 
been established. 

Youth Leadership, Recreation and 
Community Services, Springfield 
College, Springfield, Massachusetts. 

Synchronized Swimming 


Mrs. Norma Olson, who is national 
chairman of synchronized swimming, is 
a person to whom questions on the sub- 
ject of synchronized swimming can be 
referred. She can be reached at 919 
McKinley Avenue, Oakland, California. 
MIN HENDRICK, Director of Recrea- 
tion, Niagara Falls, New York. 

About the Editorial 


You might be interested in the back- 
ground of Mr. Olson's editorial. [See 
page 5 Ed.] This was delivered as a 
talk by Mr. Olson at the annual meet- 
ing of the Izaak Walton League of 
America in Chicago last spring. It was 
entirely extemporaneous, without notes, 
and I have seldom seen an audience so 
instantly in harmony with the speaker. 
Actually, it suddenly became an almost 
spiritual occasion. While the editorial 
[condensed from the stenographic rec- 
ord of what he said] conveys the 
thoughts he expressed, it could not re- 
construct the surge of feeling that all 
of us who heard it experienced. I felt 
very proud that Mr. Olson was speak- 
ing as president of the National Parks 

FRED M. PACKARD, Executive Secre- 
tary, National Parks Association. 

READERS! You are invited to 
send letters for this page to Edi- 
tor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, New York 
so that your ideas and opinions 
may be exchanged with others on 
the wide range of subjects in the 
recreation field. Here is your 
chance to agree or disagree with 
our authors. The Editors 





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When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 

Editorially Speaking 

On the New Year 

We turn another page of life ; 
May it not be one of strife ; 
May there be peace the whole world o'er ; 
And good will passed from door to door. 
John G. Ickis (age ninety -three) 

This Month's Editorial 

The editorial, "The Intangible Values 
of Nature Protection," by Sigurd F. 
Olson, which appears on page 4 of this 
issue of RECREATION, has an interesting 
background. (See letter from Fred M. 
Packard, executive secretary of the Na- 
tional Parks Association on page 9.) 

Areas Invaded or Abolished 

The American people do not know 
that demands are constantly being made 
by a misinformed portion of the public 
for uses of the national parks and monu- 
ments that were never intended, uses 
that are in direct conflict with the ideal 
of leaving them unimpaired for all 
time. They are unaware of the power- 
ful pressures that exist for the invasion 
of such areas as Dinosaur National 
Monument and Glacier and Olympic 
National Parks. 

The Father Millet Cross on the south- 
ern shore of Lake Ontario is one exam- 
ple of an area no longer regarded as 
a national monument; another is the 
Mount of the Holy Cross in the high 
mountains of central Colorado; and an- 
other, the former Wheeler National 
Monument an area of fantastic splen- 
dor, also in Colorado. Even casual men- 
tion of this last area, in fine type, is 
omitted on today's road maps. 

In Mt. Rainier National Park the 
landscape has been unnecessarily dis- 
figured for, in places, roads have been 
built where roads should never have 
been built along slopes too steep for 
construction. Gaping scars can be seen 
for miles scars that can never heal be- 
cause cuts are too steep or in solid rock. 
Further proposals are to invade the 
park with a tramway and other "im- 

A storm of protest has arisen over 
tactics used to pass the multi-billion 
dollar Upper Colorado River Storage 

Project through Congress before sound 
appraisal. This project includes the 
construction of Echo Park Dam within 
Dinosaur National Monument. This 
park is considered by many to be the 
scenic climax of this national monu- 
ment. According to National Parks 
Magazine, "The Echo Park aspect of 
the project contains such inept plan- 
ning, the question arises as to whether 
equally serious errors may not exist in 
the computation of other dams." 

Dinosaur Films 

The National Parks Association has 
prints of two superb color motion pic- 
tures about Dinosaur National Monu- 
ment, taken by Charles Eggert, which 
may be rented by members and inter- 
ested groups. This Is Dinosaur is a 
spectacular scenic presentation of the 
beauty of the great canyons, with dra- 
matic sequences of mounted dinosaurs, 
and of a boat trip down the rivers. It 
rents for ten dollars a showing. Wilder- 
ness River Trail is a record of the now- 
famous expeditions led by the Sierra 
Club to enable visitors to explore the 
rivers. The tranquillity of the streams, 
and the delight of camping there, is con- 
trasted with the exhilaration of running 
the rapids; the film closes with scenes 
of what changes may be anticipated 
should Echo Park Dam be built. This 
can be rented for five dollars a show- 
ing. Both films, for 16mm. sound pro- 
jector, run a little less than half an 
hour. Shipping costs one way are paid 
by the Association. 

Swimming Pools 

The significant boom in municipal 
outdoor swimming pool building in this 
country (see Editorially Speaking, Oc- 
tober 1954 RECREATION) has stimulated 
a special series of articles for RECREA- 
TION on their planning and construc- 
tion. The first article appears in this 
issue, on page 24. 

Some few among many facts and fig- 
ures about new construction, culled 
from recent reports: 

Alabama. The new municipal pool in 

Selma, population 22,840, cost $106,- 

California. The city planning commis- 
sion in Corona, population 10,223, has 
plans for a new park and swimming 
pool. ... In La Junta, population 7,712, 
the citizens recently approved, by an 
advisory vote of 637 to 348, the city 
building and maintaining a pool. . . . 
Oakland's fifth bond-issue swimming 
pool and bathhouse, including bleachers 
to accommodate six hundred, will in- 
corporate the most modern features and 
design. ... In Los Angeles County a 
$14,000 floating fishing dock and a 
$262,000 swimming pool are planned 
for Puddingstone Dam in the recreation 
area of San Dimas, to be built by county 
funds. . . . The San Francisco Recrea- 
tion and Park Commission, with a bud- 
get of $4,939,817 for 1954-55, has ap- 
proved plans for an elaborate recreation 
facility, Garfield Square, which will in- 
clude a swimming pool; and Paul Op- 
permann, city planning director, plans 
and hopes for fifteen new swimming 
pools for the near future. 

Florida. Miami Beach has included a 
municipal swimming pool in this year's 

Iowa. Dubuque passed a $225.000 bond 
issue for a new swimming pool. 

Michigan. In addition to its four out- 
door, three indoor-outdoor, and thirty- 
seven school pools now in operation. 
Detroit is completing four others. All 
pools measure 42 by 75 feet and have 
adjoining sundecks. ... In Dearborn, 
within the next few years, there will be 
an outdoor swimming pool in each ma- 
jor section of the city's twenty-five 
square miles. When the network is com- 
plete there will be one within walking 
distance of every home. A two-year pro- 
gram, already started, calls for eight 
such pools. 

Ohio. Cleveland has ten new ultra- 
modern swimming pools costing ap- 
proximately $1,000,000. Located in an 
area of 35,000 people within a three- 
quarter-mile distance, they are called 
"walk-to" pools because they can be 
reached in a matter of few minutes. . . . 
Norwalk also boasts a new outdoor pool. 
60 by 120 feet, costing $73,000. 

Oregon. A wedge-shaped pool accom- 
modating 550 persons is the latest acqui- 
sition of Klamuth Falls, population 15.- 
875. It has underwater and overhead 

Vermont. The Parks and Recreation 
Commission in Springfield, population 
4,940, completed its $100,000 Spring- 
field Memorial Pool. 

Washington. Citizens of Bremerton, 
population 27,678, opened their new 



pool last August. In Evergreen Park, 
the ovoid pool measures 90 by 60 feet 
and can accommodate 300. . . . Seattle 
has a new all-year indoor swimming 
pool on the east side of Green Lake 
Fieldhouse. Underwater lights are re- 
cessed along the edge o,f the pool. . . . 
Part of Tacoma's $500,000 improve- 
ment program will be a salt-water swim- 
ming pool at Titlow Beach Park to be 
ready next summer. This is one of the 
last projects under a special millage 
voted in 1952. 

"Comic" Books 

"Concern about so-called 'comic' 
books, and action to try to protect 
young people from the horror and crime 
'comics' are not new, although there has 
in recent months been a growing appre- 
hension over them. Experts are saying 
that more youngsters are becoming in- 
volved in crimes of violence. They be- 
lieve that many of these violent, destruc- 
tive and vicious acts are in part directly 
traceable to stories or suggestions they 
have read in the so-called 'comics.' 

"The National Congress of Parents 
and Teachers has an Action Committee 
on Comics, Motion Pictures, Radio and 



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For all your skate equipment needs, Johnny Jones, Jr. guarantees same-day 
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"Play is life ; play is one of the ways 
in which you express what is most free 
in you, what is most human." Eduard 
C. Lindeman. 
When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 11 

TV. Watch for the standards on comic 
books this committee is working out. 
These have been promised for an early 
issue of the National Congress bulletin. 
"Have you actually read even one 
'bad' comic book through from cover to 
cover and picture by picture? Or are 
you taking someone else's word that 
many comic books are awful beyond de- 
scription? We recommend that you 
take the time to gain firsthand informa- 
tion for yourself. Do you know what 
kinds of comic books the young people 
in your community can find and buy on 
the counters and shelves of your local 
newsstands and stores?" Clara Peter- 
son, Chairman, California State Juve- 
nile Protection, in Parents Magazine, 
September 1954. 

Quotes for the New Year 

"Society has ever been in great peril 
when it has failed to provide recreation 
and adventure as well as food."- 
Howard Braucher. 

"We may smother the divine fire of 
youth, or we may feed it."- Jane 

"Emotional health looks like action 
that is happy and that is producing hap- 
piness. ... It sounds like laughter that 
has no malice in it. ... It expresses 
itself in the language of relationships." 
Bonaro W . Overstreet. 

"Double is the joy in a tree that is 
shared." Howard Braucher. 

"Play is the word that best covers the 
things which man is wound up to do, in 
the doing of which he is most himself. 
It is by being citizen, nurturer, poet, 
creator, scientist, by actively filling out 
the ideal waiting for him, that a man 
can win or save his life." Joseph Lee. 

"There are no city deficits so terrify- 
ing and so terrible as deficits for liv- 
ing." Howard Braucher. 

"The hours that make us happy make 
us wise." John Mase field. 

"A city is a community of equals for 
the purpose of enjoying the best life 
possible." A ristotle. 


H. W. Heinsheimer 

TODAY a joyous sound is rising 
from every Main Street as millions 
of young and old, once content 
merely to listen to canned music, are 
now making music themselves. Playing 
a musical instrument, they have dis- 
covered, is a hobby that can be a satis- 
fying outlet for the universal desire to 
be creative and a relaxing antidote to 
the tension of our era. 

One reason for this astonishing trend 
is that new teaching methods make 
learning to play a joy instead of drudg- 
ery. No longer are lessons a boring 
series of mechanical exercises whose 
chief aim is to produce a polished tech- 
nique. Enjoyment is now the goal, and 
technique is regarded as unimportant. 
After all, the average amateur wants to 
play fairly simple classical or popular 
tunes for his own pleasure, not for a 
critical concert audience. 

Here's an example of the new method 
at work: A year ago a young composer 
and music teacher in New York City 
put an ad in the newspapers offering 
to teach how to play the piano by ear. 
He was amazed at the response. Re- 
cently I asked if I might visit his studio 
in Carnegie Hall and see how he con- 
ducted the first lesson of a new pupil. 
The new pupil was Edward Jones, a 
travel agent about forty years old, who 
had never taken music lessons but who 
had a good ear and knew the melodies 
of a number of popular songs. The 
teacher, Morton S. Citron, mentioned 
four songs and asked Jones which one 
he'd like to begin with. Jones selected 

H. W. HEINSHEIMER, formerly a music 
publisher in Vienna, is now an execu- 
tive of G. Schirmer, Inc., of New York 
City. He is the author of Menagerie in 
F Sharp and of Fanfare for 2 Pigeons. 


"Blue Moon" and, after being shown 
the key of C, managed to play the 
melody with one finger of his right 

Citron then showed him four simple 
chords: C major, A minor, D minor, 
and G major. Jones repeated them 
several times until he was sure of them. 
Citron next showed him how to combine 
the melody and the chords, playing the 
tune with the right hand and the chords 
with the left. Jones now tried it and 
to his surprise heard himself play the 
first four bars of "Blue Moon." I 
looked at the clock; the travel agent 
had been a pupil for twelve minutes. 

By the end of the half-hour lesson he 
could play eight bars, and had also tried 
a few additional chord patterns. When 
he left he was an excited and happy 
man. At the second lesson, after twenty- 
three minutes, he could play the entire 

Not all of Citron's pupils catch on as 
quickly as Jones, who has an excellent 
ear for music, but after a few lessons 
they can play simple popular songs. "If 

a person can hum or whistle a tune I 
can teach him to play it on the piano," 
Citron told me. 

Among his adult pupils are an as- 
sistant manager of a hotel, a nurse, a 
typesetter, and several doctors. One of 
the doctors is head surgeon of a large 
hospital. "The strain of operating is 
magically relieved when I get home and 
sit down at the piano," he told Citron. 
"Making music is a tonic and a perfect 

Learning to play other instruments 
has similarly been simplified and trans- 
formed from a chore into a delight. As 
a result, the sale of musical instruments 
has boomed from some $87,000,000 
worth in 1939 to about $325,000.000 
worth last year. Since Arthur Godfrey 
began popularizing the ukulele, sales 
have risen from 60,000 to 1,000,000 a 
year. Before the war 180.000 guitars 
were sold in a good year; in 1953 ad- 
mirers of Les Paul bought 300,000. 

The instruments now most in demand 
are pianos, guitars, accordions, ukule- 
les, and electronic organs. One reason 

Clarinetist Ev Blobaum, 
studentand football play- 
er, joins farmers, house- 
wives, in community or- 
chestra, Waverly, Iowa. 

for the outstanding ^popularity of the 
piano is that maker! have designed 
small ones that take up little space in 
modern small rooms; for example, a 
spinet that is only fifty-seven inches 

The new chord organ can be played 
with only two fingers. A finger of the 
right hand plays the melody and a 
finger of the left pushes the proper 
chord button for each tone of the 
melody. No knowledge of musical no- 
tation is needed just memorize the 
various chord buttons. 

The piano course is a favorite of the 
nine educational courses which the Uni- 
versity of Houston, Texas, offers on 
its non-commercial TV station, KUHT. 
Music of all types is taught : opera melo- 
dies, easy themes from symphonies, folk 
songs, cowboy songs, current popular 
hits. Pupils of all ages are enrolled, in- 
cluding an eighty-five-year-old man. 
After the first six weeks of this eighteen- 
week course pupils without previous in- 
struction can play about thirty pieces. 

Industries are giving music increas- 
ing prominence in their recreation pro- 
grams. On a recent trip to Chicago I at- 
tended a class conducted by Jean Clin- 
ton, who teaches a piano course created 
two years ago by the local branch of 
Western Electric Company as part of an 
adult education program for employees. 
An employee pays twelve dollars for ten 
lessons and the firm pays the rest of 
the cost. 

A man in the class began to play "Old 
Black Joe." His face was strained as he 
searched out the notes with thick, un- 
trained fingers. As he hit a wrong note 
he turned to me and said, "Five weeks 
ago I didn't know the difference be- 
tween a door key and the key of C." 
When he finished he looked up 
with a happy smile, as satisfied 
as if he had played a recital in 
New York's Carnegie Hall. 

About twenty firms in the 
Chicago area have similar mu- 
sic instruction for employees. 
"Every man finally gets too old 
to play baseball or go hunt- 
ing," Miss Clinton said, "but 
he can always get enjoyment 
and relaxation from playing an 

Throughout the nation about 
seven hundred industrial plants 


pride themselves on the organized musi- 
cal activities of their people. The Dow 
Chemical Company in Midland, Michi- 
gan, has a string quartet, a symphony 
orchestra, choruses and various other 
groups, in which all employees are in- 
vited to participate. The groups' concert 
season includes thirty concerts, operet- 
tas, oratorios and a spring festival, all 
drawing big audiences. 

In Peoria, Illinois, the Pabst Brewing 
Company's four-year-old musical pro- 
gram has resulted in a men's glee club, 
a mixed chorus, and lessons on several 
instruments. Two concerts are given 
each year for employees and their fam- 
ilies as part of this program. 

In 1920 there were less than one hun- 
dred symphony orchestras in this coun- 
try; now there are about one thousand, 
only a tenth of which are professional. 
Some two hundred are college groups 
and seven hundred are community or- 
chestras composed of citizens who gath- 
er together for the sheer pleasure of 
making music. A third of the seven 
hundred are in cities of 50,000 popula- 
tion or less; one is in Clarksville, Ar- 
kansas, whose population is 4,343. 

The symphony orchestra of Kearney, 
Nebraska, recruits its sixty players from 
eight towns in the central part of the 
state, and some members make hun- 
dred-mile trips to attend weekly rehears- 
als. There is an "Over-Sixty Symphony" 
group in New York City whose only re- 
striction is that all members be sixty 
or older, and a "Youth Symphony" in 
Seattle whose eighty members are high 
school and college youngsters. 

In 1947 a few amateurs in Mobile, 
Alabama, formed a small chamber or- 
chestra ; today they have a full-size sym- 
phony and a paid conductor. Members 

include housewives, doctors, salesmen, 
lawyers, engineers, and ten music teach- 
ers from local schools. Two members 
are mothers with four children each. 
The group sets aside a fifty-dollar fund 
for baby-sitters in its five thousand dol- 
lar a year budget, and the mothers rare- 
ly miss a rehearsal. 

A new branch of the do-it-yourself 
movement is "little" opera a type sim- 
pler than grand opera. Only a handful 
of little opera workshops existed a dec- 
ade ago; now there are three hundred. 
They have wonderful names: Grass 
Roots Opera, Lemonade Opera, Penin- 
sula Players. Some combine efforts with 
the local community orchestra but most 
of them have only a piano for accom- 
paniment. They use barns, school audi- 
toriums any space they can get. There 
is opera on the beach at Kennebunk. 
Maine, on a roof in Los Angeles, and 
in a cellar in New York City. 

Opera offers a perfect opportunity for 
community effort. Costumes must be 
sewed, wigs made, scenery designed and 
built. Others who don't sing or play an 
instrument serve on committees that sell 
tickets, address envelopes, and prepare 
publicity. All have fun in joining hands 
in an inspiring cultural adventure. 

The Grass Roots Opera of Raleigh, 
North Carolina, is headed by an elderly 
lawyer who has taken it to about one 
hundred and twenty-five towns and vil- 
lages of the state. On its posters and 
programs is a slogan that might well be 
the motto of all who are making music 
in America's Main Streets, and are hav- 
ing a whale of a time doing it: 

" We could follow no precedents, for 
there are none; we had to blaze a new 

Conductor Forstat, Westchester County Symphony Orchestra, New York, rehearses section. 



W. E. Powers 

Each year our northland is covered 
with a snowy cloak which attracts over 
three million families to the wintry 
slopes to enjoy the sport of skiing. The 
first mantle of snow transforms this 
mass of ski addicts into uncompro- 
mising, resolute individuals who head 
for the nearest ski resort where their 
contagious enthusiasm is rewarded with 
soaring runs down the broad white 
slopes. Yet, there is at least an equal 
number of potential skiers who forego 
the pleasures of the ski slope, choosing 
instead a winter of hibernation indoors. 

Many married and single folks pro- 
fess an interest in skiing, yet shy away 
from it because they have heard that 
appreciable expense, danger or time is 
involved. Each year these rumors lead 
many to a winter of inactivity instead 
of snowy months outdoors enjoying one 
of the cleanest, healthiest, and most ex- 
hilarating of all sports. 

Money is, of course, a prime consid- 
eration, but a little originality will usu- 
ally solve this problem without sacrific- 
ing the fun involved. For instance, a 
group of office workers in Boston were 
plagued by limited finances. Acting on 
the premise that only tow charges are 
tolerable, they decided to beat the extra 
expenses a weekend skier must endure: 
meals, lodging, and transportation. 

The group, which numbered over 
twenty, first mapped out a sector which 
included three or four major ski areas 

WILLIAM E. POWERS, JR., is an aeronau- 
tical research engineer whose hobbies 
skiing and writing inspired this article. 

and then conducted a concentrated sur- 
vey of the available real estate in that 
region. They soon found an old, par- 
tially furnished, eight-room house 
which had little appeal as a permanent 
rental but was ideal for a weekend of 
"roughing it." For a seasonal rent of 
two hundred dollars, a ton of coal, and 
a bottle of cooking gas, the lodging 
problem was licked and moderately 
priced, cook-it-yourself meals were pos- 
sible. For another moderate fee a near- 
by neighbor fired the furnace so that a 
warm house greeted the skiers on Friday 
evenings. A transportation pool was 
formed to assure use of a minimum 
number of cars to get the twenty-odd 
skiers "up country," and a shuttle serv- 
ice allowed them to ski at the resort of 
their choice. The initial investment in 
this venture, split up among the parti- 
cipating group, was less than twenty 
dollars per person and permitted all the 
members to enjoy an unrestricted sea- 
son of weekend skiing. 

While most of the people involved 
in this plan were single, it can work 
equally well for married groups, especi- 
ally where the children are grown up. 
It's usually difficult for married couples 
with young children to get away for 
even a single day's skiing if grand- 
mother isn't handy to alleviate the cost 
of baby-sitting. Many resorts are now 
setting up nursery schools so mom and 
dad can get out on the slopes while the 
kids have a time playing in the snow. 

Next to ice cream, snow is perhaps 
the most magic thing that exists in a 
child's world. They love to slip and 

slide on it and to imitate their parents 
skiing. Introduce your child to skiing 
at an early age on a pair of ski-skates 
or a pair of the red-tipped, toy-store 
variety skis. You'll be many times re- 
warded as you see their inherent abili- 
ties blossom into skill and the develop- 
ment of courage, alertness, comrade- 
ship, and sportsmanship. 

There are many other possibilities for 
married couples who just "can't find 
time to go skiing anymore." If every- 
thing else fails you might consider go- 
ing separately on alternate weekends; 
or why not get together with other ski- 
ing couples, the men doing some fast 
and fanciful skiing on Saturday, the 
women getting in their bit on Sunday? 

One way to solve the problem of get- 
ting away during the winter is to shift 
part of your vacation schedule to the 
winter. It's an opportunity to break up 
that long fifty-week interim between 
rest periods. A week at the shore dur- 
ing the summer and a week at a moun- 
tain lodge during the winter will add 
a new twist and zest to your vacation 
time. And, for economy, why not take 
advantage of the special all-expense ski 
weeks offered by the resorts which in- 
clude meals, lodging, ski instructions, 
and lift tickets at nominal prices? 

A winter lodge is a great asset and 
encouragement to winter vacations. 
However, most confirmed skiers and 
skiing families only dream of such as 
a luxury, placing it out of the realm of 
possibility. If you have aspired to own- 
ing a ski cabin but have been stopped 
by the price of the land, there is one 



golden opportunity which should not be 
overlooked. The government leases 
many small tracts, principally in the 
West or Northwest, on which rustic- 
type cabins may be constructed. If 
you're lucky you might manage to ac- 
quire a tract around such famous ski 
areas as Aspen, Colorado, Sun Valley, 
Idaho, or in skiing sections of Washing- 
ton, Nevada, California, or Oregon. 
There are other possibilities elsewhere 
about which the Department of the In- 
terior, Washington, D. C., will be happy 
to supply information. 


Skiing is not expensive. Your initial 
investment is really a subscription to 
pleasure. Moderately priced skis, poles, 
boots, and bindings will give countless 
afternoons of fun. For good quality in 
these items you may expect to pay twen- 
ty dollars for skis, six dollars for bind- 
ings, four dollars for poles, and another 
twenty dollars for boots. With care 
they'll last ten years; that's only five 
dollars a year for all the skiing you can 
pack into a season. 

Ski clothes need not be stylish, latest 
model creations. There are many wind- 
proof, water-repellent clothes on the 
market at reasonable prices which will 
serve for everyday wear. 

The lodging expenses, if you choose 
to go for a weekend, can be shared by 
accepting bunkroom accommodations, 
with meals, at about $3.50 to $5.50. 

The beginner skier should not over- 
look the advantages to be realized by 
joining a local ski club. Dues may run 
from three to five dollars, but the return 
on your money is significant. For ex- 
ample, most clubs have certified ski in- 
structors who give you free lessons al- 
most every weekend on the club slope. 
Their equivalent at a resort is worth at 
least two dollars per lesson. You'll find 
that day or weekend trips are all planned 
for you in advance. You benefit from 
the special group lodging and tow rates 
which can be arranged for, as well as 
transportation privileges extended by 
other members who own cars, and they 
usually expect only a reasonable con- 
tribution for gasoline. Many clubs have 
ski lodges and slopes which you can use 
at no cost. There are many film shorts 
on skiing which are made available to 
skiing clubs, and you can enjoy these 

at club meetings when there is no snow. 


There is a common fallacy that ski- 
ing is only for the young and healthy, 
that once you've passed thirty "you've 
had it," so to speak; but the truth is 
that the insurance mortality rate is the 
same for skier and non-skier alike. Your 
bones aren't really that brittle nor your 
limbs that stiff. If you feel that they 
are, then try herringboning spread- 
eagled fashion up a slope. There is no 
better conditioner for aging limbs. 

The dangers of skiing are, like those 
of flying, vastly exaggerated. Your 
safety is assured if you obey a few sim- 
ple rules and employ a little common 
sense. You'll find that there is a speed 
beyond which you feel unnaturally wob- 
bly and off-balance when you attempt 
to turn. Learn it, and stay below it, or 
a trip down the slope on a toboggan will 
be your fate. The same rule applies to 
steepness. Don't tackle slopes, and es- 
pecially trails, beyond your ability. An- 
other foremost consideration is your 
physical condition. When the sun starts 
to dip and you're rushing downslope 
so you can squeeze in another run be- 
fore the lift shuts down, remember your 
legs are tired, it's harder to see the 
ruts, and that last run will be icier. 

It has been estimated, in a study, that 
approximately one-third of all skiing 
accidents can be attributed to skiers at- 
tempting feats beyond their ability. Al- 
most another third are due to inability 
or poor judgment exercised when faced 
with icy conditions, sticky snow, im- 
pending collision, or poor visibility. In 
other words, over half of the skiing ac- 
cidents recorded could probably have 
been avoided at the skier's option. So, 
if you follow the simple safety rules, 
your chances of avoiding an accident 
are at least twice as good as those of the 
more reckless skier on the slope. 

Remember that most of the action of 
skiing centers about the legs. It's es- 
sential that you provide good support 
for your ankles. This means good boots. 
If you really fear that wrenched knee 
or ankle then invest in a pair of safety 
bindings which let go of the boot in a 
spectacular fall. Invest your money in 
good equipment rather than tailored ski 

Anybody, at any age, can have fun 
on skis. If you have any doubt about 
this matter, visit one of the larger re- 
sorts some snowy weekend and watch 
toddling tots come bouncing down the 
slope, teen-agers whiz recklessly by, 
middle-aged folks glide through effort- 
less looping turns, oldsters (and we 
mean those who have seen seventy 
' years) performing their cautious turns. 

The skiing family should not over- 
look the possibilities in suburban ski- 
ing or backyard skiing, meaning the 
small rope tows or local hills where leg 
power takes over. The rope tows allow 
a lot of skiing in one afternoon because 
they can handle a large capacity even 
on a busy weekend. The economy- 
minded family, after a dollar-saving 
Sunday dinner at home, will drive prob- 
ably less than twenty miles to a rope- 
tow-serviced slope and, for a reasonable 
charge, enjoy a solid afternoon of ski- 
ing for not a great deal more than a 
movie would cost. 


You'll be wise if you can manage 
most of your skiing during weekdays. 
Pick spots not too accessible by snow- 
trains or snow-buses. You'll also get 
more skiing for your money if you take 
advantage of a good snowfall in your 
own community. Reserve your trips for 
the time when local conditions are poor 
and the resort you plan to visit has the 
maximum snow cover. 

The wise skier will check the snow 
reports published regularly in the news- 
papers or the late reports given on ra- 
dio broadcasts so he may realize the 
most value for his dollar. It will also 
pay to check reported conditions against 
those you actually find at the resorts 
you visit so as to gauge their reliability. 

The answer to the question, "What's 
the fun in skiing?" cannot be obtained 
by assuming the role of spectator. Ini- 
tial self-consciousness regarding skill 
and technique will give way to a fierce 
pride at each new accomplishment. You, 
as a skier, will dwell in a snowy para- 
dise of breathless beauty, travel feath- 
ery-white trails, and experience the un- 
inhibited freedom of the skier. Then at 
the close of day, gathered around the 
open fire in the company of fellow ski- 
ers, you will realize the fun and satis- 
faction that skiing can bring you. 



Robert L. Homey 

Highlights of seven different talks by Mr. Horney 
on community recreation, presented at state region- 
al park and recreation meetings under the sponsor- 
ship of the Illinois Association of Park Districts. 

It is difficult to define recreation be- 
cause it has a different meaning to the 
individual at different stages of his life. 
It would be safe to say that each of us 
needs a change or release from routine. 
The things we do when we are free to 
do what we will may be classified as 
recreation or relaxation. 

It is interesting to know what people 
do with their free time, but even more 
important to know what selections they 
make when there is a freedom of choice. 
If a quality and quantity of activities 
is not offered to help stimulate the wise 
choice of free time, we cannot justifi- 
ably criticize people who make unwise 

Although planned community rec- 
reation is winning the support of parti- 
cipants, civic leaders, and parents in 
community after community, there still 
is insufficient understanding of its limit- 
less benefits. In many instances this is 
the fault of recreation leaders who have 
built a narrow little program around 
the known athletic interests of the male 
population, offering a few activities for 
men and boys only. 

As important as these activities are, 
such a program limits the expenditure 
of the recreation tax dollar to only a 
portion of the citizenry. There are 
still too many well meaning "city fa- 

MR. HORNEY is a field representative for 
the Great Lakes District of the National 
Recreation Association. 

thers" who feel that the recreation 
budget should be spent only for chil- 
dren. We agree that children should be 
on the priority list, but other age groups 
in the community must not be over- 
looked. A purposeful and diversified to- 
tal community recreation service should 
be the goal. Unless members of park 
and recreation boards, their employees, 
and the taxpayer understand more fully 
the philosophy, purpose, and values of 
an inclusive community recreation serv- 
ice, the citizens will receive only partial 
benefits for the tax dollars appropriated 
for recreation. 

Some of the stock phrases we hear 
voiced by the laymen are: "Recreation 
keeps children off the streets"; "Rec- 
reation is a fun-program" ; "Recreation 

cures delinquency" ; "Recreation Keeps 
'em busy." 

These are only half-truths. If the 
present and future competition for the 
tax dollar goes toward a recreation pro- 
gram, that program must provide for 
the basic needs of the citizens through 
opportunities in creative expression, fel- 
lowship, adventure, outdoor recreation, 
relaxation, and service to our fellow 
man. Equal opportunities for both sex- 
es and family recreation offered on a 
year-round basis are only two of the 
aims of a desirable program. A wide 
variety of program content for all age 
groups with ample opportunity to learn 
skills will help to attract and hold parti- 
cipants to activity centers. 

If the recreation budget is insufficient 

A diversified, total 
community recrea- 
tion program, serv- 
ing both sexes, fam- 
ilies, and all age 
groups providing 
ample opportunity 
to learn many skills 
should be goal. 



to meet the mounting requests for serv- 
ices, the citizens should be encouraged 
to accept part of the planning responsi- 
bilities, and to interpret and support 
drives for additional funds. Often citi- 
zens can be stimulated to provide their 
own recreation opportunities in their 
backyards and home recreation rooms, 
through guidance from the recreation 
staff. Resourceful recreation directors 
are inviting civic clubs, fraternal or- 
ganizations, and neighborhood parents' 
groups to underwrite and co-sponsor ac- 
tivities that will add quantity and qual- 
ity to the program, and thus make it 
possible to include many more partici- 
pants in the total community program. 

A publication of the National Recrea- 
ation Association has defined recrea- 
tion simply as "a leisure time activity 
engaged in for its own sake." The ac- 
tivity may take the form of indoor and 
outdoor games and sports, hiking, pic- 
nics, dancing, drama, singing, playing 
instruments, arts and crafts, or clubs 
and discussion groups. If we can ac- 
cept the fact that what a person does 
under conditions of free choice may al- 
so affect his character, isn't it highly 
important to provide the experiences 
that are wholesome and good for him? 

An individual may be attracted to an 
organized recreation activity for one or 
more reasons. It may be only through 
curiosity. He may be influenced be- 
cause his friends are interested. He 
may like the person in charge, or the 
way the facilities are maintained. 

Since he attends of his own volition, 
it behooves the leader to encourage him 
to sample one or more activities. Often 
the leader's example will set the charac- 
ter pattern for the participants, whether 
attendance is casual or regular. Win- 
ning with modesty, losing without bit- 
terness, participating with courage, and 
respecting the rights and privileges of 
others are the values a person may learn 
from sharing in group activities. Good 
character habits are learned under the 
wholesome guidance of qualified lead- 
ers of community recreation. 

Of equal importance is the learning 
of skills which will develop hobbies and 
life-long interests. During the learning 
process participants discover new 
friends and associates interested in the 
same activity. This social aspect often 

is of as much value as the hobby itself. 

It is highly important for the com- 
munity recreation program to reach 
children, teen-agers, adults, and the 
elderly people of the community, for 
each age division experiences loneli- 
ness, insecurity, and an adjustment to 
new conditions. Unless a person can feel 
comfortable, useful, and accepted by 
his fellow men, at least within his own 
age level, there follows a shrinking, 
rather than an outgoingness, that may 
take him out of his rightful group. It is 
through hobbies and special interests 
during his leisure time that he is given 
a sense of belonging and a degree of 
personal satisfaction and recognition 
that cannot be duplicated in spectator 

Organized recreation programs of- 
fered in the neighborhoods of the cities 
and towns throughout the country will 
aid with the control of delinquent acts 
of various age groups. We need have 
little concern about an individual when 
he is eating or sleeping or working. It 
is free time that weighs heavily on idle 
minds. Although recreation is not pre- 
scribed as a "cure-all," it can be de- 
pended upon as a good antidote. Reli- 
able testimonials from court judges, 
police officers and probation authorities 
support the fact that when young peo- 
ple have playgrounds and indoor rec- 
reation centers to rely on for their free 
time, delinquent problems are few. 

Delinquency and vandalism know no 
boundaries and may break out in any 
neighborhood, rich or poor. It has been 
said that every child without guidance 
is a potential delinquent. It follows that 
all welfare agencies, churches, schools, 
parks and recreation agencies and par- 
ent groups should join hands to offer 
the type of community recreation pro- 
gram which will challenge the interest 
and participation of all young people. 
This requires cooperative planning, am- 
ple financing, and adequate facilities 
not more than a half-mile distance frorrt 
each home in the community. 

Recreation contributes generally to 
good citizenship. It involves the capa- 
city for and a willing attitude toward 
cooperative effort. It offers the experi- 
ence of group work and team work. 
These experiences learned early by 
young people lay the groundwork for 
cooperative adult citizenship. 

The "How" of Program 

It would be quite impossible to pre- 
pare a "blueprint" on starting a recrea- 
tion program applicable to every com- 
munity. However some basic principles 
can be followed. While the needs of the 
various age groups are much the same 
in every community, the techniques and 
procedures for stimulating an awaken- 
ing of the citizens to the needs may vary 
somewhat. Many communities fail with 
their attempt to establish a community 
recreation program because of lack of 
professional guidance. 

A short cut to successful community 
organization is available to communi- 
ties who request the services of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association field rep- 
resentative wjio will guide the initial 
planning, make recommendations, and 
assist the local citizen's group in get- 
ting a community recreation program 

The following ideas and suggestions 
have been used successfully in a number 
of communities: 

A citizen's group composed of repre- 
sentatives from all the organized groups 
of a given community could be formed 
to study the needs, finance a study or 
survey by an experienced planner to 
obtain the facts to support the contem- 
plated drive for an organized depart- 
ment of parks and recreation. When 
findings are available, an approach is 
outlined. The combined efforts of the 
citizen's group will be necessary to in- 
terpret the needs to all citizens. 

This citizen's group will also need to 
be responsible for raising funds to fi- 
nance either a demonstration program, 
pass a referendum tax to give perma- 
nency to the year-round program, or 
solicit funds to finance a seasonal pro- 
gram to meet temporary needs. What- 
ever method is selected, it will require 
professional guidance to minimize the 
responsibilities of the citizen's group 
and to obtain the results desired. 

If plans are made for a referendum 
tax, it is important to let the citizens 
know how much additional tax will be 
added on an annual basis; what will be 
offered in the way of a program; and 
how the funds will be administered. 
These three points are extremely im- 
portant and should be presented at the 
start of the educational campaign for 



support of the recreation tax. 

Other methods used to raise funds 
for part-time or seasonal program in- 
clude benefits, voluntary donations, and 
solicitations. There are examples, too, 
of programs being started with volun- 
teers and later taken over by the city, 
the school board, or the park board. In 
most cases, however, a tax referendum 
campaign was conducted to authorize 
a tax-supported body to collect an an- 
nual tax and supervise the conduct of 
the recreation program services. 

There are many factors that affect 
the planning, conduct, and supervision 
of a given community recreation pro- 
gram. Population, industrial, residen- 
tial, and racial groups, available facili- 
ties, adequate finances, availability of 
qualified leadership are some of the 
most important factors. It often follows 
that the larger the city the more the fac- 
tors that must be taken into considera- 
tion by a legal or advisory board. 

Regardless of the size of the com- 
munity the minimum program of acti- 
vities should include all age groups. A 
program for all is the only justification 
for spending tax funds. Unless the rec- 
reation board and the director are fa- 
miliar with the basic needs of age 
groups the program will fall short in 
its effectiveness. The age group classi- 
fications to be considered are: children 
from four to eight years; eight- to fif- 
teen-year-olds; teen-agers; adults and 
citizens over sixty-five years of age. Al- 
though details cannot be provided here, 
suggestions for desired activities for 
communities according to their differ- 
ent sized budgets, may be obtained free 
of charge by sending request and a 
stamped self-addressed envelope to REC- 
REATION magazine. 

We should not overlook the great 
wealth of volunteer leadership that is 
to be found in almost every communi- 
ty.* The job of the director and his 
board is to discover this potential lead- 
ership and to encourage these people 
to lend their skills to the enrichment of 
the community program. The secret of 
using volunteer leadership successfully 
is not to overload the work schedule of 
the volunteer, yet to give him the recog- 
nition that is his due. Volunteers may 
be found in every walk of life, parents, 

* See Editorial, page 4. Ed. 

skilled laborers, professional people, 
and so on. One way to discover the peo- 
ple with skills who may work into vol- 
unteer leaders is to promote a city-wide 
hobby show. Use volunteers wisely, 
but do not overuse them. 

There is available a wide range of 
cost figures for recreation program 
services. Unless we understand the lo- 
cal circumstances these figures are not 
of much value. We can find evidence 
in some cities where less than fifty cents 
per capita is spent on recreation, yet 
the community recreation department is 
providing a well-balanced program of 
activities. However, in most of these 
situations, facilities are provided at a 
minimum rental, maintenance is given 
without cost, charges and fees help pay 
the bills, and volunteer help is of the 
best quality. By way of contrast there 
are many communities spending the 
same per capita cost where there is very 
little to show for the expenditure. 

The records show that some cities 
spend as high as $3.00 per capita for 
public recreation. Where the park and 
recreation departments are combined 
the figure may reach $6.00 per capita. 
This does not mean that cities with com- 
bined departments of parks and recrea- 
tion must spend $6.00 or more for a 
recreation program. The reports do 
show, nevertheless, that in cities where 
the cost for recreation alone is over 
$1.50 per capita and from $4.00 to 
$6.00 where the parks and recreation 
are combined, a good job is being done 
in interpreting the program to the peo- 
ple of the community. 

The time will come when most cities 
will spend as much as $5.00 to $8.00 
per capita for recreation alone and from 
$8.00 to $15.00 per capita for a com- 
bined department of parks and recrea- 
tion. However, park and recreation 
services will need to be improved, and 
this means better trained leadership to 
plan, conduct, and sell the program to 
the citizens. These predictions are not 
pipe dreams. If taxpayers would add 
up the costs they are now paying for 
mental institutions, penal institutions, 
crime, vandalism, and so on, they would 
find these tax costs overwhelmingly 
high. When communities are willing to 
spend more for diversified public rec- 
reation programs the tax costs for crime 

and mental illness may be reduced. 

Additional funds for the support of 
the public recreation program may not 
come from the taxpayer if he has not 
been convinced that the increased costs 
will be useful and important to him and 
his family. 

The total cost of community recrea- 
tion need not always be borne by the 
recreation tax funds. The public school, 
private agencies, fraternal and other 
civic groups have a stake in the total 
program for the city. In the long run 
the total cost of the program may be 
held to a minimum if cooperative plan- 
ning can be developed. An organization 
with representatives from many groups 
in the city, both public and private, 
could be developed to coordinate their 
efforts, monies, leadership and facilities 
in working out a community recreation 

Cooperative planning reduces compe- 
tition for participants, a duplication of 
activities, and expenditures, with the re- 
sult that the total costs may be held 
down. Before much progress can be 
made, community leaders involved must 
be willing to be less concerned about 
identities and to forget personality con- 
flicts that have prevented previous coop- 
erative planning. 

There is no excuse for smugness on 
the part of boards and directors with 
the programs they are offering. The 
point to remember is that we should not 
be satisfied just with the passage of a 
tax referendum. We need to keep build- 
ing and evaluating the program from 
then on. This must go on throughout 
the year if the confidence and support 
of the citizens is to be won and held. 
Evaluating the program also aids in 
long-range planning and in finding out 
the needs of the people which change 
with times and conditions. The work of 
the leaders and the lay board must also 
come in for an evaluation. Only through 
taking an unbiased look at what we are 
doing, may we grow and expand our 

Surely there is a limit as to how far 
you may go in planning for people. 
There is no limit to growth if we plan 
with people. 

Condensed from the July-August issue of 
Illinois Parks, published by the Illinois Asso- 
ciation of Park Districts. 






It took sixteen years to bring recreation to 
this community. This story is designed 
to help you do the same job quicker. 

Topekans believe the truth of the old saying about water 
wearing away stone. They saw it happen in the sixteen 
years it took them to get a full-time recreation department 
headed by a professional executive experienced in the rec- 
reation field, R. Foster Blaisdell. 

It's a familiar story to hundreds of communities who have 
fought their way to a coordinated public recreation program 
supported by tax money. But to many other cities and towns 
not yet so fortunate, it may be a help to see how this com- 
munity went about it. 

Several basic principles emerged from this project: It 
takes a great many different kinds of people to put anything 
across. It is difficult to get the general public stirred up over 
recreation. People don't see this need as they see the need 
to give bread to the hungry. You need both husbands and 
wives concerned and working on a project to insure success. 

Topeka is the capital city of Kansas. For many years, 
until World War II, its population was just under fifty thou- 
sand. There was some industry, mostly the Santa Fe rail- 
road shops and offices. Hotel and convention facilities were 
good. Playground and recreation facilities were not. 

In 1937, the president of the Topeka Woman's Club asked 
Mrs. Benson Powell, wife of a Methodist minister, to be 
chairman of the citizenship committee. Mrs. Powell, feeling 
that such chairmanships should not be routine, looked about 
for a job under that committee heading. With the trained 
eye of a minister's wife, she noticed that many Topekans 
lived in crowded areas with far too many children for the 
far too few yards or play areas. 

Mrs. Powell had with her Mrs. Will Menninger and Mrs. 
Aubrey McDonald as committee members. Their first 
thought was of the city's schools. Why couldn't Topeka do 
as Milwaukee was said to be doing light its school build- 
ings at night, use them as centers for creative leisure for 
these overcrowded families? 

MR. DRAKE is editorial promotion manager of Capper Pub- 
lications, Inc., in the city of Topeka, Kansas. 


John C. Drake 

Several women's organizations cooperated to get the WPA 
to conduct a study of the city's recreation facilities and 
needs. They met with John Gronseth of the National Rec- 
reation Association and worked out a detailed plan calling 
for a law to provide tax support for a paid, professional 
director. Here they met two big problems. Even though 
several organizations had become involved, the number of 
people actually close to the situation formed a drop in the 
bucket. Not enough people had any real conception of prob- 
lem or solution. And this was still depression time. War- 
time economy had not yet come into being Kansas wheat 
crops had been few and cheap during the thirties the state 
did not have the diversified industry it has today. 

The mayor discussed the project with the city commis- 
sioners. They would not consider or favor anything calling 
for increased taxes. A state senator told the committee 
bluntly that a bill could be introduced in the legislature but 
that it would never even get out of committee so long as the 
local city commissioners did not favor it. Various social 
agencies began to worry. If the ladies succeeded, got their 
tax levy through to support recreation, what would happen 
to the annual fund drives of these agencies? The whole 
idea seemed hopelessly bogged down. 

World War II created a fresh interest in recreation prob- 
lems, however, and broadened that interest through a wider 
segment of Topeka. The National Recreation Association, 
through Arthur Todd and others, kept putting in a word 
when it could. 

In 1945, Coffeyville in southern Kansas helped to get an 
enabling act through the legislature this made it possible 
for cities to conduct referenda and set up levies for recrea- 
tion purposes. As several cities took advantage of the new 
law, Topekans found themselves discussing their needs more 
pointedly. Mr. C. S. Hettinger, chairman of the Council of 
Social Agencies' Recreation Committee, led in planning a 
leadership training institute for Topeka in 1946 and NRA's 
Anne Livingston conducted it. 

The terrible 1951 flood of the Kaw River did a good bit, 


too it welded a lot of folks closer together, forced some 
community activity. More people became conscious of the 
city's lack of adequate leisure-time facilities. 

On the southwest side of Topeka, where the city was ex- 
panding most rapidly, Dr. Henry Blake bought a home for 
his family and found he was an even mile from the nearest 
playground. He and his wife found their neighbors con- 
cerned, joined them in discussions which led to a neighbor- 
hood fund-raising campaign, the donation of some land, 
and a self-supported Westwood neighborhood playground. 

Jim Reed, editor of the Topeka Capital, had moved into 
another new area where there were few or no playground 
facilities. Long sports-minded, Reed saw something needed 
to be done if Topeka were to remain a good place in which 
to raise a family. He employed Mrs. Victor Hawkins, wife 
of a research director, to make a thorough study of existing 
Topeka facilities. Meantime, through the National Recrea- 
tion Association, and from editors in similar communities, 
he found out how Topeka compared with others. The com- 
parison was not good, especially since the city had grown 
to almost twice its former size. 

Barney Barnett enjoyed playing tennis in Topeka as a 
boy, and he worked with a group to provide tennis courts 
and maintain them. This made for another recreation-con- 
scious group to help the chain reaction along. 

These persons are, of course, only a handful of the many 
who had a share in bringing organized recreation to Topeka. 
The Chamber of Commerce sports and recreation committee 
was giving attention to the problem. The enlarged and now 
extremely active recreation committee of the Council of 
Social Agencies was holding frequent sessions. 

Among other developments over the years had been a bul- 
letin on available recreation facilities, developed by the 
council and printed by the Kiwanis Club. A youth center 
program had been started at the end of the war; a "senior 
citizens" project was under way. 

The next step was formation of an executive committee 
for a recreation referendum. This committee had to be 
apart from the Council of Social Agencies in order to take 
in every facet of the community and still have the council's 
background of experience, its facilities for getting jobs done, 
keeping records, and so on. It was vital that this committee 
have a clearly defined objective; otherwise it would bog 
down in a morass of mixed goals. 

Seven articles in the daily Capital helped spark public 
interest and clarify the objective. It is often possible for 
a number of large committees to be functioning at full speed 
while thousands of people do not know the committees even 
exist, unless the town's newspaper really takes hold. The 
titles of these articles [see illustration] tell the story. 

The executive committee, with representatives from a 
wide variety of local businesses and organizations, showed 
the breadth and depth this project had finally achieved. 
Mayor Kenneth Wilke and Board of Education President 
M. C. Oberhelman expressed willingness to cooperate with 
the committee and to follow whatever mandate the voters 

By 1952 fifteen years of work were behind the project; 
it had what it needed for success : an awakened community ; 

a careful, intelligent planning group; a definite goal; and 
lots of energetic salesmanship. Barney Barnett expressed 
it well in words of advice to any community anywhere: "If 
you can find some way to correlate the efforts of the many 
people interested then never give up you're in." The 
Council of Social Agencies and its patient director, Romana 
Hood, had provided the correlating machinery. 

The executive committee then organized itself for the last 
big push on this pattern: 

(Trouble Shooting) 


(Contact special groups) 

Get out vote - telephone . 
visit - transport and so on 

An estimated budget was set up, door-to-door visitations 
made on merchants by merchants to raise the money for a 
recreation referendum campaign. The sum agreed upon 
was $850. A big general public meeting was an initial 
ma j or step. Out of town speakers told of the need, the gains 
it would bring, and why everyone should back such a pro- 
gram. The promotion and publicity committee prepared 
five thousand leaflets and other printed materials. Arrange- 
ments were made for a large billboard ad on a principal 
boulevard, and for a plug on a bread wrapper. Another 
series of articles, about recreation in other Kansas towns, 
began to appear in the Topeka Capital. 

Next came petitions for the election. These had to be in, 
signed by five per cent of the registered voters, thirty days 
before election day. Speeches were made before all service 
clubs and PTA's, and pamphlets were delivered to all of 
them in gross. The Council of Social Agencies provided 
valuable help again by having machinery to arrange speak- 
ing dates before all community groups. Local women's 
groups were very active throughout the campaign. 

Posters were put up just a week before election day. 
Copies of the newspaper stories were put together in book- 
let form and distributed. Special interest angles were de- 
veloped to help papers and radio stations. Local merchants 
put promotion material on their regular radio advertising 
spots. A special broadcast was planned and aired the day 
before election; and full page ads ran in both newspapers. 
On election day, the committee worked hard and long. The 
news came every precinct carried! The totals were 23,506 
for the proposal, 10,247 against. 

So now Topeka has its five member recreation commis- 
sion. The city commission and school board accepted sug- 
gestions made by the executive committee. 

This brings us back to Mr. Blaisdell, the recreation di- 
rector employed by the commission on January 4, 1954. 
Of course, he feels that the job has just begun. He has 
found scores of community agencies with some phase of rec- 
reation; but there is much still to be done. Keep at it. Mr. 
Blaisdell water will wear away stone! 



Some "Clippers" of the YWCA, Honolulu, in a fine team routine at Niagara Falls. 



Myron N. Hendrick 

The newness of synchronized swim- 
ming, a sport which boasts but six years 
of recognition, still causes many per- 
sons to ask, "What is it, and how does 
it differ from water ballet?" 

Actually, water ballet contributed 
much to its development, but synchron- 
ized swimming combines additional 
skills and variations of strokes which 
are adapted to musical accompaniment. 
Its relation to regular swimming is the 
same as that of "fancy skating" to regu- 
lar skating, and in competition its judg- 
ing is comparable to that of diving. 

Synchronized swimming presents a 
field which is open to the majority of 
persons while the speed field is open to 
only a few. It creates and maintains 
interest among all levels of swimmers, 
as everyone can participate to one de- 
gree or another.* Use of supported 
floats in shallow water, floating devices, 
and simple arm strokes can be used to 
give a non-swimmer a place in the pro- 
gram otherwise denied him. 

In its earlier stages, synchronized 

* Synchronized swimming, as well as being 
fco-recreational, presents an excellent women's 
and girls' activity; trying out these beautiful 
strokes will strongly appeal to them. A WORD 
OF CAUTION, however: it is most IMPOR- 
TANT that leaders require a doctor's certifi- 
cate from all participants, no matter what 
their sex, and that all usual safety precautions 
be strictly enforced. Ed. 

MYRON N. HENDRICK, is the director of 
recreation, Niagara Falls, New York, 
and a member of the National Synchro- 
nized Swimming Committee, A. A. U. 

swimming was known as rhythmic 
swimming. It was then just the perform- 
ance of standard strokes to music. As 
additional swimming skills were learned 
and perfected, music was introduced as 
background for formation swimming 
or water ballet. Then began the 
interpretation of music in the water, 
variations of standard strokes and a 
combination of these phases. Thus syn- 
chronized swimming was developed. It 
covers a wider range than ballet, or just 
keeping time to the music; it tells a 
story as well. 

The American Red Cross, in recog- 
nizing the activity by including instruc- 
tions for it in its aquatic schools, has 
this to say, "The primary objective of 
our water safety services is to make peo- 
ple safe while in, on, or about the water. 
This objective is realized by teaching 
people how to swim and how to handle 
small craft. However, it is Red Cross 
thinking that the objective can be 
reached more easily if we are able to 
provide meaningful and enjoyable out- 
lets for the skills learned in the swim- 
ming and small craft classes. In casting 
about for meaningful and enjoyable 
outlets, we were impressed by the pos- 
sibilities offered in the field of synchro- 
nized swimming. Therefore, Red Cross 
is prepared and is working with estab- 
lished agencies with the express pur- 
pose of developing leadership in this 

Another agency that is recognizing 
the activity is the YWCA which always 

has encouraged swimming programs, 
but has frowned on representation in 
competition. Now, in every community 
where synchronized swimming has be- 
gun to flourish, the "Y" has been an im- 
portant factor through classes, clinics, 
exhibitions, and meets. This might very 
well be because synchronized swimming 
offers a real challenge to the interests of 
any girl who likes to swim. Realizing 
that the opportunity to attempt the 
stunts is contingent upon her improve- 
ment of basic strokes, the youngster 
really applies herself in classwork. 

Ballet dancing is an important ad- 
junct to the sport as the girls appreciate 
the grace and poise it develops, and it 
aids them materially in understanding 
and interpreting movements in the wa- 
ter. An understanding and appreciation 
of music is kindled as the girls scan mu- 
sic shops and libraries for material in 
planning routines. It isn't "be-bop" or 
"jazz" that appeals; what they are seek- 
ing is the type of music furnished by 
Andre Kostelanetz, Dave Rose, Percy 
Faith, the Boston "Pops," and the Lon- 
don Philharmonic. 

We are not attempting, here, to pre- 
sent teaching methods or a complete 
story on synchronized swimming tech- 
niques, but rather to point out its grow- 
ing interest and some of its values. 
There are many experts in the field who 
are willing to make their knowledge 
available and a bibliography appears at 
the conclusion of this article. 

In Niagara Falls, we have held two Ca- 



U. S. senior national A.A.I, solo cham- 
pion, Beulah Gundling, in costume for 
"Jewel of the East." Mrs. Gundling has 
given many demonstrations in foreign 
lands and in this country including the 
one at the NRA Congress in St. Louis. 

nadian-American synchronized swim- 
ming meets the second was last July 
when our city, long known as a mecca 
for tourists, really turned out to wel- 
come the visiting swimmers. Jointly 
sponsored by the recreation department 
and the Kiwanis Club of North Niagara 
Falls, with the cooperation of the 
YWCA, Red Cross, Girl Scouts and oth- 
er community groups, the event had 
been in preparation for months and, 
from the time the first visitors arrived 
until the last had departed, every mo- 
ment was planned for competition, clin- 
ics, and entertainment. 

It was well that this planning had 
been so thorough as over two hundred 
competitors, students of the sport and 
coaches, converged on Niagara Falls 
from all corners of the land : from Cali- 
fornia on the West, Texas and Florida 
on the South ; Maine and Quebec on the 
East; and such mid-country states as 
Missouri, Wisconsin, and Illinois. They 
journeyed in by car, by train, and by 
plane from Connecticut, New Jersey, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Mary- 
land, New York and nearby Ontario. 

Why all this enthusiasm, not only on 
the part of the citizens of Niagara Falls, 
but shown by the visitors as well? 
The answer is simple. Niagara Falls 
has had the opportunity to share in de- 
veloping this new sports activity, and 
has learned that its value in the field of 
girls' participation is unequalled. 


Many recreation departments are still 
being censured for offering girls noth- 
ing but "rehashed boys' sports" in their 
athletic programs; but there has been 
no alternative. 

However, as synchronized swimming 
is taking its place on the sports scene, 
it opens to girls a new field of enjoy- 
ment through participation in program 

The first interest in this sport in Ni- 
agra Falls was generated by the appear- 
ance in an exhibition back in 1950 of 
June Taylor, the national indoor cham- 
pion, and of the Ornamental Swim- 
ming Club of Peterborough, Ontario, 
later national U. S. champions. 

Sensing the possibilities of the sport 
as a new girls' activity, the community 
recreation officials formed a committee 
to seek additional information. Further 
clinics and exhibitions were held, which 
stimulated additional interest ; and clas- 
ses were started by the YWCA and the 
recreation department. 

This search for knowledge brought 
to light the fact that many other com- 
munities were also groping for help. 
The idea of a meet that would not only 
offer official competition, but also would 
include clinics and instruction periods, 
was deemed the best means of dissemi- 
nating this information. Securing the 
wholehearted cooperation of Mrs. Nor- 
ma Olson, of Oakland, California, the 
national A. A. U. chairman, and Mrs. 
Peg Seller of Montreal, president of the 
Dominion of Canada association, a Ca- 
nadian-American meet was initiated 
with the Kiwanis Club of North Niagara 
Falls as co-sponsors. 

The meet was an immediate success 

and, in just two years, has become not 
only the most outstanding event staged 
annually in Niagara Falls, but has been 
recognized by swimmers in both the 
United States and Canada as an op- 
portunity to further their knowledge 
and interest in sport. It has taken rank 
with the national championships of both 
countries. Champions and novices both 
have appeared in the Niagara Falls com- 
petition with equal confidence, and na- 
tional committee members have been on 
hand to give words of advice to the as- 
piring youngsters. 

Synchronized swimming competition 
is divided into three classifications: 
solo, duet, and team (four to twelve 
members) . All of the girls participating 
prepare routines not to exceed six min- 
utes, including a maximum limit of 
thirty seconds deck work. These rou- 
tines must include five required stunts, 
one from each grouping listed in the 
A. A. U. synchronized swimming hand- 
book. Five judges, sitting in elevated 
positions, determine the performances 
taking into consideration such points 
as construction of the routine, presenta- 
tion of strokes from the standpoint of 
perfection, and the synchronization of 
the swimmers, one with the other and 
also with the music. In addition they 
view the performance for manner of 
presentation, costuming, and spectator 

California corralled the bulk of the 
honors in the 1954 Niagara Falls meet 
with the Athens Water Follies team 
from Oakland, composed of June 
Young, Joanne Berthelson, JoAnne 
Brobst and Jackie Brown performing a 
brilliant number. "Heralds of Eliza- 

"Sea Sprites" from Lansing, Michigan, were among "fine ambassadors of youth." 

bethan Court." In second place, the 
twelve-girl team from Peterborough, 
Ontario, performed an intricate pattern 
in "The Devil Dance." They were close- 
ly followed by the four from the Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, Aquatic Club with 
their rhythmic "Mambo Tropicana." 

Duet competition was spirited with 
Oakland's Jackie Brown and Joanne 
Berthelson adding to their honors with 
"Aladdin's Dream" ; while the "Mercu- 
ry Maids" presentation by Sandy Gilt- 
ner and Judy Haga from the Lansing, 
Michigan, Sea Sprites was close behind 
in the runner-up spot. The solo com- 
petition resulted in a deadlock with Jo- 
Anne Royer from Riverside, California, 
and Sandy Giltner finishing all even. 
Miss Royer performed a classic number 
"Pygmalion's Dream," while Miss Gilt- 
ner's was a novel performance of "The 

While the big meet has had value to 
the visitors, the reaction of the towns- 
people has been the greatest factor from 
a recreation viewpoint. Without ex- 

ception, the competitors were truly rep- 
resentative of what we as parents hope 
and look for in our youngsters. Whether 
the girls were from Montreal or Quebec, 
California or Maine, Michigan or New 
Jersey, Wisconsin or Texas, they were 
truly fine ambassadors of youth. 

This little story hardly does justice to 
synchronized swimming except to show 
our enthusiasm, but we are willing to 
share what we have. Anyone seeking 
information about initiating a program 
can write to the Recreation Office, Ni- 
agra Falls, New York, or to the nearest 
member of the National A. A. U. Syn- 
chronized Swimming Committee in 
your locality. 


SWIMMING, Peg Seller, 19 Bayview Ave- 
nue, Lakeside, Quebec, Canada. 

gess Publishing Co., 426 South Sixth 
Street, Minneapolis 15. 

Anderson. A. S. Barnes & Co., 232 Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York 16. 

Betty Spears. Burgess Publishing Co., 
426 South Sixth Street, Minneapolis 15. 

SWIMMING) , Dan Ferris. Amateur Ath- 
letic Union, 233 Broadway, New York. 

TIN. Published monthly by the editor, 
Dick Dodson, 1512 South Boulevard, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

ey, Don Gray, Frank Martin. Can be 
secured from Frank Martin, 3528 Que- 
bec Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

MM. FILM) . Billie MacKellar with June 
Taylor. Write Mrs. MacKellar, 729 Gay- 
ley Avenue, Los Angeles 24. 

New Park Projects 

More and more communities are find- 
ing new park and playground sites via 
acquisition of tax-delinquent tracts. In 
Minnesota the city council of Albert 
Lea (population 13,545) recently de- 
cided to purchase such a tract for de- 
velopment as a park. Residents have 
agreed to contribute playground equip- 
ment. Another Minnesota municipality, 
Brooklyn Center (population 4,284) 
has acquired approximately one hun- 
dred and thirty acres of forfeited land 
for park purposes. 

The donation of land for park pur- 
poses by public-spirited citizens is also 
becoming more and more prevalent. In 
California, the town of Placentia (popu- 
lation 1,682) recently received twelve 
acres of land worth $50,000 and the 
services of a landscape architect from 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Backs. More 
than a hundred townspeople started the 
project going with picks, shovels, and 

big equipment. This crew included 
Charles H. Hunt, who laid out the rec- 
reation areas in Long Beach and other 
areas as president of the state associa- 
tion of parks and recreation. He is 
blueprinting the clubhouse and other 
facilities. He says, "Although retired, 
I could not resist the temptation to pro- 
mote one more park and recreation 


A long-term project in Indiana is 
finally nearing completion. Construc- 
tion on the earth-fill dam and concrete 
spillway at Versailles State Park in Rip- 
ley County is finally under way. When 
completed the dam will impound the 
waters of Laughery Creek, forming a 
lake of approximately two hundred and 
seventy acres within the park. Plans 
for the project were formed in 1935 
when citizens of Decatur, Dearborn, 
and Ripley Counties united to contrib- 
ute $28,000 toward purchase of the land 
on which the dam is to be situated. The 

money to buy the land was appropriated 
in 1947, condemnation suits were be- 
gun in 1948 but clear title to the land 
could not be obtained until 1953. 

In addition to increasing the recrea- 
tion value of Versailles State Park, a 
5,400 acre area acquired from the Na- 
tional Park Service in 1943, the lake 
will provide a source of water for the 
town of Versailles and will contain 
enough storage to supply other adjacent 

Broward County, Florida, is busily 
developing its first public park, an area 
of 320 acres. Planting trees and dig- 
ging at least two lakes are first projects 
under way. Tony Salvino, county com- 
mission chairman, believes the park 
should help curb juvenile delinquency 
in this area of 83,933 population, which 
includes Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, 
Pompano Beach, vast stretches of The 
Everglades, and a Seminole Indian res- 




Considerations in Planning 

George D. Butler 

This is the first of a series of three 
articles on planning and construction. 
The second will appear next month. 

The boom in the building of outdoor swimming pools of 
all types has been one of the outstanding recreation phenom- 
ena in the past few years and is based on the insistent de- 
mand by the American people for more places in which to 
swim. Colleges and universities, hotels, lodges, motels, clubs, 
and industries are among the agencies providing pools for 
restricted groups. Commercially-operated pools serve the 
general public; and outdoor pools, chiefly at camps, as well 
as indoor pools, have been built by voluntary agencies such 
as the YMCA and Boys' Clubs, primarily for the use of their 
members. A large number of private home pools have been 
built for family use ; but the pools that have brought swim- 
ming opportunities to the greatest number of people are 
those constructed by recreation, park, and other public au- 

The extent to which the movement for pools has grown is 
illustrated by a recent study in the State of California, 1 
which disclosed a total of 417 pools open to the public or 
to certain age levels for instruction and recreation and an 
additional 51 such pools under construction or in the plan- 
ning and drawing board stages. It estimated that there were 
approximately 19,300 swimming pools in the state, of which 
some 18,500 are private pools; yet it pointed out that "only 
the 468 public pools can be counted on to provide opportu- 
nity for the needs of most of the state's rapidly expanding 
population." Hoffman-Harris, Incorporated, estimate that 
the number of pools in America, exclusive of private estate 
pools, increased from 8,200 to 13,300 during the six years 
beginning January 1, 1948. A large percentage of all pools 
in the country are outdoor pools. 

The American public has come to realize that swimming is 
a delightful form of recreation which can be enjoyed by peo- 
ple of all ages; that it is also a challenging sport and one 
that must be mastered before a person can safely engage in 
boating, fishing, and other aquatic activities. Because it 

MR. BUTLER, director of research for the NRA, is currently 
chairman of the Swimming Pool Study Committee of the 
Conference for National Cooperation in Aquatics. 



1 A Survey of the Swimming Pools in the State of California. Cali- 
fornia State Department of Education. 1954. Pp. 17. Mimeographed. 


More swimming places are needed! Above, typical crowd of 
youngsters register for the Swim-to-Live classes in Oakland. 

contributes to health and physical fitness, swimming has won 
a high place in school and college physical education pro- 
grams, thus affording instruction for large numbers of 
American youth. Ability to swim proved a means of wartime 
survival for countless numbers of servicemen, who conse- 
quently recognize the importance of teaching aquatic skills 
to the younger generation. Since most American commu- 
nities have few, if any, natural facilities for swimming, arti- 
ficial pools must be constructed in order to meet this grow- 
ing demand. 

The chief purpose of this series is to offer advice and sug- 
gestions to communities which lack adequate opportunities 
for swimming and are contemplating the construction of one 
or more pools. Opinions differ widely as to the relative 
merits of different types and shapes of pools, design fea- 
tures, water purification methods, and other factors. It is 
important that a community should consider carefully the 
various questions to be answered in planning and building a 
pool and make its decisions in the light of the best available 
information and experience. The articles outline several 
procedures that are essential in developing a swimming pool 
plan and point out other factors that have been treated at 
length in technical literature which merits careful study. 

Initiating a Pool Project 

Most public outdoor swimming pools are built, controlled, 
and operated by a recreation or park department or some 
other municipal agency, although boards of education have 
built such pools in several states. Occasionally, especially 



in smaller communities, pools designed for community use 
have been financed, constructed, and operated by a citizens' 
committee or a local civic group. The procedure to be fol- 
lowed in setting out to secure a pool naturally varies with 
the local situation, but certain steps are generally advisable 
in order to assure the success of the project. 

The individual or group that wants to secure a pool for 
the community usually must enlist the cooperation of others 
in determining what needs to be done and in developing a 
plan to do it. A recreation or park board may conduct its 
own investigation, but it often appoints a committee of in- 
terested and competent citizens to help with the study. In a 
community where no official group is ready to accept this 
responsibility, such a study committee is essential. Partici- 
pation by a group of citizens in a pool study helps assure 
public support for the project. Whenever possible, a com- 
mittee should include an experienced swimming instructor, 
pool operator, construction engineer, architect, public health 
official, physician, recreation executive, and an expert on 
water purification equipment. Often, however, such per- 
sons cannot be found in the locality and the committee must 
seek the help of outside authorities. 

The importance of seeking the most expert and all-inclu- 
sive advice in the development of plans for a pool cannot be 
overemphasized. The health and safety of the people using a 
pool may be jeopardized, and activities limited, if mistakes 
are made in design and construction. Individuals and com- 
mittees interested in building a pool are therefore urged to 
make a thorough study of the excellent literature available 
which deals with various aspects of pool design and con- 
struction, and to make sure that plans conform to commonly 
approved practice. 

In most states plans for any swimming pools to be open 
to the public must be approved by the state department of 
health before the pool can be built; so, one of the first steps 
is to secure from the state or local health authorities copies 
of their regulations governing pool construction and opera- 
tion. The names of competent, experienced pool architects 
and engineers can generally be secured from this source. Be- 
cause of the many problems peculiar to pools, it is highly 
desirable that a person who has had successful experience 
in pool design be consulted by the committee early in the 
study and be employed to prepare the pool plans. 

Before a final decision is reached as to type and size of 
the pool, it is well for members of the committee to visit other 
communities with pools of types under consideration. Dur- 
ing such visits an attempt should be made to secure as much 
information as possible concerning various pool factors and 
features and to learn what changes have proved advisable 
on the basis of experience in the operation of the pools. In 
making its study the pool committee needs to gather infor- 
mation of several types, as follows (responsibility for vari- 
ous parts of the job may be assigned to subcommittees) : 

1. Existing facilities for swimming that are available for 
use of the local population and that might influence the at- 
tendance at a new pool, if built. 

2. Types of pool activities for which there is present or 
potential demand and which should be considered in plan- 
ning the pool. 

3. Probable volume of use of pool based upon interest, 
population trends, summer temperature, vacation habits and 
swim consciousness of local population, use by neighboring 
communities, and so on. 

4. The size and type of pool that would best serve local 
needs, as determined by the committee, and make possible 
the desired activities at a minimum cost. 

5. Availability of sites suitable in size, nature, and loca- 
tion for a pool of the size and type proposed. 

6. Estimated cost of constructing the proposed pool and 
bathhouse and of purchasing the site, if necessary. 

7. Estimated annual cost of operating the pool and the 
probable income based on volume of use and types of serv- 
ices for which a charge would be made. 

8. Various legal aspects of the project such as the author- 
ity of the municipality to finance and operate a pool or to 
permit a community group to build and operate a p6ol on 
public property; also, the liability of the pool management 
in case of accidents to persons using the pool. The possi- 
bility of joint financing of the pool by public and school 
funds should also be explored. 

On the basis of the information gathered by the commit- 
tee and of the advice from one or more pool consultants, a 
plan of action needs to be worked out, if construction of 
a pool appears desirable and feasible. Such a plan must 
provide not only for the size, type, and location of the pool, 
but for financing, managing, and maintaining it. A deci- 
sion must be reached, for example, as to whether the public 
is to be taxed for building the pool, which usually involves 
a referendum authorizing a bond issue, or whether a cam- 
paign for funds is to be conducted. If tax funds are to be 
used, responsibility for building, operating, and maintain- 
ing the pool is usually assigned to a recreation department, 
park board, or other appropriate departments. If the pool 
is to be built with contributed funds, a corporation may be 
formed to carry out these functions, although in many locali- 
ties responsibility for operating the pool is turned over to 
the municipality and, eventually, title to the pool is trans- 
ferred to the city. 

Public support and approval are essential to the success 
of every pool project. It is therefore highly important that 
the people be kept informed as to progress in the develop- 
ment of pool plans. It is often desirable to include on the 
pool study committee individuals selected from such groups 
as the chamber of commerce, churches, civic groups, volun- 
tary agencies, organized labor, industry, and the press. 
Before a campaign in support of a pool proposal is launched, 
there is value in arranging a public meeting to which all 
local organizations are invited to send representatives and 
at which tentative plans are explained, sketches of the pro- 
posed pool are displayed, reasons for the project are pre- 
sented, and suggestions are requested from the group. Prep- 
aration and distribution of a printed or mimeographed 
statement setting forth the values of a pool, describing the 
proposal, and interpreting the cost are an essential feature 
of a bond issue or fund campaign. 2 

2 For further suggestions see "Promotion of a Mill Levy" by George 
Schaumberg, RECREATION, October 1954. 



Swimming class in Tennessee pool. Teaching children to swim 
is the best and safest way to assure a future pool clientele. 

Factors Influencing Pool Design 

Types of pool activities desired, location, size, and cost, 
as previously mentioned, are among the factors influencing 
pool design which require early consideration. Various 
ways in which these factors affect pool plans are : 

Desired Pool Activities. The outdoor swimming pool, like 
every other recreation facility, has value only because it 
serves specific functions and makes it possible for people 
to engage in desired activities. The first decision in pool 
planning is therefore to secure agreement as to the specific 
activities for which it is to be built and their relative im- 
portance. Most public pools are intended primarily to afford 
opportunities for people of a wide range of ages to enjoy 
bathing and general swimming. Unless designed primarily 
for children, most pools are also constructed to accommo- 
date people wishing to dive. Swimming instruction for chil- 
dren, youth, and adults, is almost universally provided, and 
its requirements are quite similar to those for general swim- 
ming. Life saving, competitive swimming, survival aquat- 
ics, synchronized swimming, water polo, water pageants, 
and swimming for the physically handicapped are among 
pool activities that are growing in popularity in many cities 
that have more or less specific space or facility requirements. 
A careful study of potential aquatic interests in the locality 
may reveal a desire for activities that require modifications 
in the proposed pool plan. It is seldom possible in a single 
pool, especially with limited funds, to meet fully the desires 
of all special interest groups, but an attempt should be made 
to design a pool to serve many diversified uses. 

Site Selection. The pool constructed on a site that is at- 
tractive, easily accessible to the people it is intended to serve, 
and adequate in size has a much greater chance of success 
than one in a less favorable location. For this reason the 
least expensive site may prove costly in the long run. Site 
requirements vary somewhat with the type and size of pool 
although every pool site should meet certain criteria. A 
small pool designed to meet the day-by-day needs of the 
people of a neighborhood should obviously be located as 
near the center of the neighborhood as possible. Location 

on a heavily traveled thoroughfare should be avoided. Since 
the pool will serve relatively small numbers of people at one 
time and since many of these will walk to the pool, a com- 
paratively small site or a small portion of a neighborhood 
recreation area may be adequate. It should be ample to 
make possible plantings and other protection to neighbor- 
hood properties. A large pool, on the other hand, providing 
a center for city-wide aquatic events and used by people 
from a wide radius, requires a considerable area, not only 
for the pool and bathhouse, but for the parking of auto- 
mobiles. Many of the most successful municipal pools are 
located in large parks, which also contain picnic and other 
sports facilities which help attract individuals, families, and 
community groups. A pool serving an entire community 
or a large geographic area should be located where it can 
be reached easily by public or private transportation. 

Desirable features for a pool site are: easy access to an 
adequate water supply; the availability of sewers ample to 
permit the pool to be emptied within a few hours without 
flooding the basements of nearby homes; a high, dry loca- 
tion; a terrain capable of supporting the weight of the pool 
without expensive excavation and supports ; and satisfactory 
subsurface drainage. Locations to be avoided include those 
with high prevailing winds, limited exposure to the sun, and 
prevalence of dust, smoke, soot and acid resulting from 
proximity to factories, unpaved roads, and railroads. The 
existence of other recreation facilities on the site or the pos- 
sibility of developing them is an advantage. 

Whenever the city has a long-range recreation plan, the 
pool should be located in relation to it and in any case the 
over-all plan of community development should be con- 
sidered in locating the site. The present trend toward the 
construction of small neighborhood pools reflects the em- 
phasis in recreation planning upon the development of facil- 
ities near the homes of the people they are designed to serve. 

Size of Pool. One of the first questions bound to arise 
is, "How large a pool should we have?" It is one of the 
most difficult to answer with authority because attendance 
is influenced by climatic conditions, competition from other 
recreation facilities, local habits and economic factors, the 
program offered, and the quality of operation. Several for- 
mulas or criteria have been proposed for estimating the 
amount of pool water area required to serve a city's needs. 
Most cities of twenty thousand or less require only one pool ; 
hence a formula would indicate what its size should be. 
Larger cities, on the other hand, are likely to have more than 
one pool ; and, since these may be designed to serve different 
aquatic needs, they vary widely in size. Experience has 
shown that public demand for pools, as for other types of 
recreation facilities, often varies directly with the availa- 
bility of these facilities; in other words, a city with one or 
more successful pools is likely to want more pools and to be 
willing to pay for them, whereas cities with no swimming 
facilities may evidence little desire to acquire them. 

The National Recreation Association has long proposed 
that a city provide outdoor swimming space in pools or 
beaches to take care of three per cent of the population at 
one time, allowing 15 square feet of water area per person, 



or a total of 450 square feet for each 1,000 people. One 
company which has built many pools proposes 200 square 
feet of water area for each 1,000 of the total population the 
pool is designed to serve, and warns communities against 
building too large a pool. 3 

The Tile Council of America, in a folder entitled Com- 
munity Swimming Pools, suggested typical pool sizes for 
communities varying from 4,000 to 90,000 population, rang- 
ing from 600 square feet per 1,000 people in the former to 
320 square feet per 1,000 in the latter. 

The need to qualify any formula for determining the size 
of pool area a city needs in the light of local conditions is 
illustrated by the situation in Levittown, Long Island, New 
York, a new community of nearly 80,000 people. It has 
nine outdoor pools, each measuring 75 by 125 feet, or more 
than 1,000 square feet of pool area for each 1,000 people. 
This amount is far in excess of suggested standards. In 
spite of this, and of the fact that Levittown is only a few 
miles from the exceptional bathing facilities at Jones Beach 
State Park, the pools are so popular that it is often neces- 
sary to close the pool gates to prevent overcrowding. 

Estimating Pool Capacity. The estimated number of per- 
sons who are likely to use the pool for various types of acti- 
vities must be taken into account in calculating the required 
size. A frequently quoted study of pool attendance, made 
at Iowa State College* indicates that: 

1. The smaller the community the larger the proportion which will 
use the pool. 

2. For cities under 30,000 the maximum daily attendance will be 
between five to ten per cent of the population. 

3. The average daily attendance is about two to three per cent of the 

4. Maximum daily attendance at any one time is about one-third of 
the daily attendance. 

5. Maximum daily attendance will generally be two to six times the 
average daily attendance. 

6. The attendance at any one time on maximum days is approxi- 
mately the same number as the average daily attendance. 

One consulting engineer has determined that the people 
of a given community with suitable pool facilities may be 
expected to take a total number of swims equaling twice the 
total population. 5 He estimates that the total swims per 
season will represent the equivalent of twenty peak load 
days, although it may reach the equivalent of twenty-five 
or thirty peak load days in municipal pools. 

Mr. C. P. L. Nichols, municipal supervisor of aquatics in 
Los Angeles, describes the formula he has devised for esti- 
mating pool capacity based upon years of study and experi- 
ence. He allows 15 square feet for each bather and 30 
square feet for each swimmer. He defines a person using 
water less than 5 feet in depth as a bather and one using 
water 5 feet or deeper, a swimmer. The formula for deter- 
mining patron capacity of any pool is therefore: 

Area of shallow water -f- Area of deep water = Total peak capacity 

3 Public Swimming Pools, Paddock Pool Equipment Co., Los An- 
geles. Pp. 3. Undated. 

4 Modern Swimming Pool Data and Design, Elgin-Refinite Division 
of Elgin Softener Corporation, Elgin, Illinois. 1954. Pp. 98. 

5 Wayne A. Becker, "How to Determine Pool Area, Site and Design" 
in Take the Guess Out of Pool Planning. Hoffman-Harris, Inc., New 
York. 1953. 

"Swimming Pool Layout," Parks and Recreat.ion, May, 1953. 

Scene at a Levittown swimming and wading pool clearly illus- 
trates popular use of deck space and of the shallow water area. 

This figure is multiplied by the number of shifts or peaks 
per day to determine the total daily capacity of the pool. 
This formula allows more space per patron than the stand- 
ard proposed by the American Public Health Association, 7 
which estimates that 27 square feet of water 5 feet deep or 
more or 10 square feet of shallower water is required for 
each person in attendance at the pool at one time, whether 
in the water or not. This standard when applied to pools 
with 75 per cent or more of the area less than 5 feet deep, 
calls for about 12 square feet for each person in attendance. 
The bathing capacity of a pool is limited also by the water 
volume and the amount of clean water added, both fresh 
and recirculated. Many states have adopted regulations 
governing the total number of bathers that may use a pool 
during a given period, and these must be taken into account 
in calculating the capacity of a proposed pool. 

Costs. Construction costs are one of the first problems 
that must be taken into account. Like some of the other 
aspects of pool design and construction, cost figures can- 
not be standardized, for they are influenced by many fac- 
tors. Probable costs are affected not only by local wage and 
materials cost-levels, but by the type, size, location, and 
shape of pool, the type and size of bathhouse, the purifica- 
tion system, and a great variety of construction and equip- 
ment items. Until the type of pool facilities desired and 
their specific requirements have been determined, at least 
tentatively, costs of a project cannot be estimated closely. 
Some indication of probable cost ranges may be gained, 
however, from the experiences of other communities and 
of pool designers. The information that follows affords 
a basis for estimating roughly the cost of pools of various 
sizes, although it should be pointed out that some cities 
have reported spending more than twice as much as others 
for a pool of similar size and type. 

The National Recreation Association made a study of 
reported swimming pool costs in sixty-six cities that con- 
structed outdoor pools between 1948 and 1952. It revealed 
that the pools, not including the cost of bathhouses, cost 
on the average between $12.00 and $12.50 per square foot 
of water surface, with a median cost of $12.04 per square 

7 Design, Equipment and Operation of Swimming Pools and Other 
Public Bathing Places. New York. 1949. 



foot. The average cost of sixty pools, including bathhouses, 
was $16.61 per square foot of water surface, with a median 
cost of $15.98. 

A 1954 study of outdoor pools, conducted by the Confer- 
ence for National Cooperation in Aquatics, covered the cost 
of sixty-three pools, not including bathhouses, built between 
1948 and 1954. The average cost per square foot of water 
surface for pools with less than 4,000 square feet was $15.30 
and for pools with 4,000 to 6,000 square feet, $11.46 per 
square foot. For larger pools the average costs for three 
groups were $12.28, $14.65, and $10.90 respectively. 

The opinion that, in general, other factors being compar- 
able, the smaller the pool, the larger the cost per square 
foot of water area, is confirmed in cost estimates by two 
swimming pool designers. The Charles M. Graves Organi- 
zation, park and recreation engineers of Atlanta, Georgia, 
has worked out the following schedule for estimating pool 
costs which include the pool with its fittings, underwater 
lights, fencing, deck and mechanical equipment every- 
thing but the bathhouse itself: 

Size of Pool 
(square feet of water area) 

0- 4,000 
4,000- 5,000 
5,000- 6,000 
6,000- 7,000 
7,000- 8,000 


(per square foot of water area) 
10.00- 11.00 
9.00- 10.00 
8.00- 9.00 
7.00- 8.00 

Kenneth H. Larkin, pool designer of Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, has prepared a graph indicating estimated costs of 
swimming pool projects, which in this instance include the 
pool and bathhouse completely equipped and ready for use. 
The variation in cost per square f o.ot of water area for pools 
of different sizes is evident from the figures for three pools, 
taken from the graph: 

Square Feet of 

Water Area 




Total Cost 



Cost per Square Foot 

of Water Area 




It estimated in 1953 that a well-constructed bathhouse could 
be built for approximately $12.00 per square foot. 

Mr. Larkin has also prepared a breakdown of estimated 
construction costs for a pool 50 by 100 feet. Of the total 
estimated cost of $70,626 for the complete project, $44,091 
was allocated to the pool itself and utilities, $18,735 for the 
bathhouse, and $7,800 for special features and equipment. 
Approximately seven per cent should be added to these 
figures to allow for the engineering design fee. 

The preceding figures afford some basis for determining 
the probable cost range of constructing a pool, but they also 
illustrate the variability of such costs as reported by com- 
munities building pools in the last few years. 

The second article in this series, to appear in our Febru- 
ary issue, will deal with design and construction features. 
Consideration will be given to items such as pool shapes, 
dimensions, water depth, deck, swimming area, overflow 
troughs and water purification equipment. 

Trends in Swimming Pool Design 

Primary Considerations 

Probably the most basic change in 
the thinking of the swimming pool ex- 
pert is a greater understanding of the 
functions of swimming pools in the 
over-all recreation program, together 
with the recognition that it is not 
enough to plan merely an isolated struc- 
ture, but that it should be co-ordinated 
with the over-all recreation area and 
community program. Consequently, we 
see designers integrating the location 
and facilities of the swimming pool with 
existing and planned future community 
facilities. This assures the community 
of maximum usage from the pool. The 
pool site should be selected carefully in 
a park or picnic area which has good 
transportation and sufficient parking fa- 
cilities. Many architects have seen the 
wisdom of cutting costs by getting dou- 

ble usage from the pool bathhouse as 
an athletic locker room for high school 
teams or other athletic organizations. 

Once the pool is integrated with the 
other recreation facilities, a number of 
architects analyze the usage of a pool 
very carefully. This includes a study of 
the ratio of adults to children that will 
be using the pool, together with the an- 
ticipated ratio of divers, men to wom- 
en, swimmers and beginners. Among 
adults, men usually outnumber women 
two to one. The finished swimmer-to- 
beginner ratio is important in that it 
determines the ratio of shallow to deep 

Next in importance, pool designers 
are doing a great deal of thinking about 
the ratio of water area to lounging area. 
It is being recognized that, more than 
ever, people go to a pool to sunbathe 
and lounge, so these lounging areas are 

increasing in size. With this in mind, 
forward-looking designers are increas- 
ing the deck area to equal the swimming 
area. These lounging areas should be 
so located that they can be converted 
to spectator space with the erection of 

In addition, pool design is concerned 
with whether this is a hot climate where 
shade should be provided, or a cool cli- 
mate where all possible sunshine should 
be utilized. This question should be 
studied from the point of view of both 
the swimmers and the loungers. 

The design of a pool is being gov- 
erned increasingly by the ratio of 
swimmers to non-swimmers. In the past 
it has been rather common to design a 
pool in which forty per cent of the area 
is over five feet in depth (which is usu- 
ally considered to be "deep" water). 
However, in most public pools it is fre- 




quently observed that as high as eighty 
per cent of the people frequent the non- 
swimming areas, and, consequently, 
pools are now being designed with a 
higher percentage of the water being 
under five feet in depth. Of course, it 
is the desire of the designer to have the 
pool meet the dimensional requirements 
for competitive swimming, but lately 
there seems to be a feeling that the basic 
problem is to design a pool that will 
meet all needs. Consequently, there is 
a de-emphasis on ironclad competitive 

Lounging Areas 

Park commissioners and recreation 
directors have all confirmed the fact 
that when a pool is designed for a cer- 
tain number of people, and that number 
has entered the pool area, there is usu- 
ally no more than one-third of the peo- 
ple in the pool at any one time. The 
others are on the sidewalk and loung- 
ing areas around the pool. A large per- 
centage of these non-swimmers actually 
spend very little time in the water and 
the rest of the time is spent sunbathing 
and in other activities. Pool designers 
have very wisely come to the conclusion 
that the six- and eight-foot walkways 
surrounding pools years ago are today 
completely inadequate. They have re- 
versed their thinking and are now at the 
point where they feel that the walkway 
and lounging area should be far larger 
in fact it should approximate the wa- 
ter area. Most important to the pool 
designer is the fact that, since not more 
than one third of the people are in the 
pool at any one time, smaller pools with 
greater lounging areas will meet the 
need, and such pools can be provided at 
lower cost. This being the case, there 
is a definite trend toward designing 
smaller pools with larger lounging areas 
around them . 

In line with the greater emphasis 
given to lounging and recreation areas 
adjoining swimming pools, designers 
are going a step further in many cases 
by providing areas for refreshment or 
eating. These areas are always fenced 
off so that no food can be taken back 
into the pool area itself. 

Other recreational facilities that can 
be provided in a pool area include such 
games as shuffleboard and also grass or 
sand play areas where volleyball, bad- 

minton, and other games can be played. 
These again must be fenced off from the 
pool proper so that entrance and exit to 
the immediate pool area can be con- 
trolled. Showers are so located that all 
sand and dirt can be washed off the 
swimmer before he reurns to the pool. 

Wading Pools 

The practice of providing wading 
pools in connection with swimming 
pools is a trend which is definitely on 
the increase. In the past they have been 
located immediately adjacent to the 
pool but we now find that the trend is 
to move them away from the swimming 
area. The reason for this is that there 
is usually a mother or sister watching 
the toddler in the wading pool. Con- 
sequently, a congestion occurs if the 
wading pool is too close to the swim- 
ming pool. 

The play appeal of these wading pools 
has been increased by the use of spray 
fittings or small fountains. Sand beach- 
es are often provided beside the wading 
pool. When these wading pools are lo- 
cated near the swimmer pools, it is wise 
to fence them to prevent the toddlers 
from falling into them and also to keep 
the swimmers out of the wading area. 
Architects are increasingly specifying 
additional benches for the comfort of 
the parents who accompany the chil- 

Pool experts have recognized the ne- 
cessity of using chlorinated water of 
pool temperature in the wading pool in 
place of the old draw-and-fill method 
where the water is cold when it comes in 
and then is no longer safe by the time it 
warms enough for comfort. Consequent- 
ly, the wading pool water is now being 
filtered by the same filtration equip- 
ment serving the main pool. The water 
can thus be cleaned and purified regu- 
larly. This is quite necessary because 
the pollution is usually higher in the 
small pool than in the regular swim- 
ming pool. 


A matter that has frequently troubled 
the recreation director and park com- 
missioner is the high cost of the bath- 
house in ratio to the cost of the pool. 
It frequently has been found that the 
bathhouse cost is equal to that of the 
entire pool. This does not seem to be 

justified and architects are doing what 
they can to eliminate such high costs. 
One way to do this is to have the bath- 
house used as a locker room for some 
other athletic activity, thereby having 
this other activity share in its cost. 

In the Southwest, dressing rooms are 
frequently built without tops in an effort 
to cut costs as well as to keep the bath- 
house well lighted and dry. 

Another trend in bathhouse design is 
the recognized necessity of providing 
better sanitation. Bathhouses are now 
built so that they can be hosed down 
and scrubbed with a mild disinfectant. 
For this reason most bathhouses now 
have floors of concrete slab or non- 
glazed ceramic tile, frequent floor 
drains, and partitions that are either 
open at the top so that wash water can 
drain off rapidly, or concrete block or 
glazed tile walls with floors pitched to 
the drains. 

Another changing concept is that of 
the footbath. Many public health offi- 
cials now state that a simple flow- 
through footbath that is designed to 
wash dirt and sand from the feet is the 
most practical answer. They reason that 
a disinfectant solution strong enough to 
last the whole day would burn the feet 
during the early morning hours and, if 
comfortable for the feet during the 
morning, would be diluted and weak- 
ened to the point of ineffectiveness dur- 
ing the afternoon and evening. 

Pool Safety 

Water sport promoters, such as the 
American Red Cross, have long advo- 
cated the use of lifeguard chairs, and 
every outdoor pool should have one or 
more of these elevated chairs. The ex- 
tra height of the chair raises the guard 
to the proper level where he can see the 
entire area he is to protect. It also raises 
him above distractions which occur 
around the pool edge. Recently, we have 
seen several pool lifeguards armed with 
a shepherd's crook or long bamboo 
pole which they extend to a swimmer 
who is in difficulty. This seems very 
practical in that a lifeguard is certainly 
much more effective on the shore than 
he is in the pool. 

Reprinted with permission from Trends in 
Swimming Pool Design, published by Elgin- 
Refinite, Elgin, Illinois. 





M Hi 


George D. Butler 

Making Teen Centers Succeed* 

This booklet has been prepared by Sidney G. Lutzin from 
a study and evaluation of fifty teen-age centers located in all 
sections of New York State. It could well serve as a primer 
for organizations or groups contemplating the beginning of 
a teen center. There is also much information included that 
will prove helpful to those now operating such a program. 

This report is written in a very logical and interesting 
manner and will appeal to both lay and professional folks. 
It describes methods that have been successful, as well as 
pointing out the many pitfalls to be avoided. A number of 
pictures are used to illustrate specific points. 

The author recognizes that the type of teen program will 
vary from community to community; however, he very 
clearly sets forth the basic principles which are necessary 
to insure success in any situation. 

One finds in this well-prepared booklet the highlights of 
the problems and procedures involved in organizing and 
operating a teen center. FRANCES DoNNON, Executive Sec- 
retary, Philadelphia Recreation Association. 

Alumni Rate Undergraduate Courses 

As part of a study to determine alumni opinions about 
their undergraduate preparation, conducted at Pennsylvania 
State University, Charles 0. Micklewright queried thirty- 
four recreation graduates. They were asked to rank the 
courses in their undergraduate preparation according to the 
relative values of the courses to them. The results, as re- 
ported in the October 1954 Alumni Newsletter, were: 

"The ten courses rated highest by recreation graduates 
included (in order of their preference) : Student Leader- 
ship, Public Speaking, Social Recreation, Practice Teaching, 
Recreation Areas and Facilities, Community Recreation, 
Playground Management, Recreation Field Practicum, Eng- 
lish Composition, and Principles of Recreation." 

Census Bureau Reports 1953 Municipal 
Recreation Expenditures 

The Compendium of City Government Finances in 1953, 
issued in 1954 by the United States Department of Com- 
merce, Bureau of the Census, contains valuable information 
with reference to municipal finances in 481 cities with a 
population of 25,000 or more. The following items are 
taken from this publication which is available from the 
United States Government Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C. at $.70 per copy. 

The 1953 expenditures for recreation totaled $259,465,- 
000; of this amount $199,000,000 were for current expense 
and $60,000,000 were for capital outlay, including $46,000,- 
000 for construction only. 

* Available from New York State Youth Commission, 66 Beaver 
Street, Albany, New York. Pp. 43. Free. 

MR. BUTLER is director of the NRA Research Department. 

The 1953 expenditures represented an 11.1 per cent in- 
crease over the comparable 1952 figure. This was a rela- 
tively greater increase than for any other function except 
general public buildings. However, the 1952 total was only 
slightly greater than the corresponding total for 1951. 

The average per capita expenditure for recreation for 
1953 was $4.19. This varied from $3.28 per capita in 126 
cities of 50,000 to 100,000 to $5.68 per capita in 13 cities 
of 500,000 to 1,000,000. (The average expenditure for 
libraries in the 481 cities was $1.42 per capita.) 

The percentage of increase from 1952 to 1953 varied from 
1.6 per cent in the 5 cities of 1,000,000 or more to 22.9 per 
cent in 65 cities of 100,000 to 250,000. 

Property taxes accounted for about three-fourths of local 
tax revenue in 1953. Inter-governmental revenue prima- 
rily fiscal aid and reimbursements from state governments 
was the second largest revenue source. 

Spending was higher than in 1952 for all major municipal 
functions with the exception of public welfare, for which 
a slight decline took place. 

Recreation is defined as follows in the Census report: 
"Cultural-scientific activities, such as museums and art gal- 
leries; organized recreation, including playgrounds and 
playfields, swimming pools and bathing beaches ; municipal 
parks; and special facilities for recreation, such as audi- 
toriums, stadiums, auto camps, recreation piers, and yacht 

State Survey of Swimming Pools 

The California State Department of Education has com- 
pleted a survey of swimming pools in the state revealing an 
estimated total of approximately 19,300 pools. 

A total of 412 pools open to the public or to certain age 
levels for instruction and recreation include 117 owned and 
operated by cities or communities, 117 privately or com- 
mercially owned and operated but open for either limited or 
unrestricted public use, 87 on high school grounds, 20 owned 
and operated by counties, 20 by colleges or universities, 29 
by elementary or unified school districts, 14 jointly financed 
and operated by schools or other governing agencies, and 8 
by recreation districts. Fifty-one new pools, most of them 
on school grounds, are now being built or are in the planning 
and drawing board stages. 

Swimming pools with restricted use include a conserva- 
tive estimate of 18,500 private swimming pools, 270 pools 
maintained by hotels, motels, resorts, and so on, and 40 
pools owned by private and parochial schools, clubs and 
private agencies. 

The Bureau of Health Education, Physical Education and 
Recreation of the California State Department of Education 
is also completing work on a publication to be entitled Swim- 
ming Pool Standards and Recommendations for Planning 
and Construction. 


Check List for Swimming Pool Construction 

A check list for swimming pool construction committee 
chairmen appeared in the June 1954 issue of Beach and Pool 
in an article by Kurt Allen Brod, manager of the Richmond 
County Country Club, Staten Island, New York. The items 
included in the check list are equally useful to a committee 
concerned with the construction of a municipal pool. 

1. Plan your pool project for the future even exceeding 
your present aspiration. 

2. Openly receive all recommendations by experienced 
sales engineers. They'll give you excellent reasons as to 
site, location because of water supply, drainage, landscap- 
ing, prevailing winds, sun and shade, accessibility to bath, 
club and parking facilities, and so on. 

3. Include in pool design outline: 

The style 

The size 

The features 

Location of ladders and boards 

Lighting under water and above 

Inside or outside installation 

Wave troughs 

The number of individuals it 
might be expected to accom- 

Drainage filtration and chlori- 

Diving depths and wading depths 

Type of earth sand, clay, hard- 
pan, rock, and so on. 

4. Have prepared a complete set of blueprints of pool and 
of specifications. 

5. Shop around the market for builders, contractors, gov- 
erning all phases of actual installation. Allow all competent 
contractors a proper audience with the entire committee to 
study proposals. 

6. Inspect and talk with owners of their other installations 
or, at least, correspond with them. 

7. Obtain bids pertaining to specifications and phases. 

8. Be sure that all specifications meet city and state board 
of health requirements. 

9. Study final bids for all details. Obtain unbiased pro- 
fessional and non-professional opinion. 

10. Have a final consultation period with parties who 
have submitted favorable bids not necessarily the lowest 
bidder. Consider their rating, reliability and pool building 

11. Arrive at final decision and contract on a firm price. 
Consult your legal advisers on the wording of this phase. 

12. Obtain a written guarantee that protects your organi- 
zation from possible construction flaws, such as leaking, 


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128 North Grove Avenue, Elgin, Illinois 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




For 3-Fold Purpose 

Side lets down by two cables attached to winches mounted on bark inside wall. 

Robert A. Lobdell 

rR SOME time the public recreation 
commission of Evansville, Indiana, 
has been envious of the activities in 
other cities centered around a show 
wagon. In the past we have stumbled 
along on a makeshift basis with our 
talent shows and street dances. Consid- 
ering the poor facilities that we were 
forced to use as a stage, we experienced 
a fair amount of success. Realizing the 
need of a better stage and one which 
was portable and self-contained, the 
commission authorized the construction 
of a show wagon for the 1954 summer 

Before making plans and specifica- 
tions for the show wagon, it was neces- 
sary to determine the use that would be 
made of it, including the variety of acti- 
vities possible with such a piece of 
equipment. After careful deliberation 
and taking a sample of interests on a 
playground, it was determined the wag- 
on should be built to serve at least a 
three-fold purpose. It was recognized 
that an investment of this kind must 
produce a considerable amount of par- 
ticipant activity in a variety of fields 
and be usable frequently enough to 
warrant the expenditure. Therefore, we 
designed the wagon so it could be used 
for talent shows, street dances, and chil- 
dren's summer theatre. 

With these three activities in mind, 
the design was created to meet the needs 
of each of them. It was our objective 
to produce a show wagon that would be 
completely portable, well lighted, have 

ROBERT A. LOBDELL is superintendent 
of recreation in Evansville, Indiana. 

good sound, sturdy enough to take the 
rough treatment of continual movement 
from playground to playground, and 
large enough to meet our needs. 

We wrote to several other depart- 
ments, who, we had heard, had consid- 
erable success with show wagon opera- 
tion, to get their recommendations as 
to size and type of construction. These 
recommendations proved of consider- 
able help in making our final plans. 

Don't wait until April or May to start 
construction of your show wagon for 
summer use. Many difficulties are sure 
to be encountered. Even though we 
started in January 1954, we didn't have 
much time to spare in completing the 
project prior to the opening of the sum- 
mer program. In order that other de- 
partments might take advantage of our 
experiences, we have engaged an archi- 
tect; and complete plans, specifications, 
and pictures of the completed show 
wagon are available by writing to the 
Public Recreation Commission, 2 
Southeast Eighth Street, Evansville, In- 

The show wagon is 28 feet long, has 
a height of lO 1 /** feet above the ground, 
with a center section roof which may be 
raised to give additional stage height. 
With the side dropped into position, it 
gives a stage depth of approximately 15 
feet. While in transit, with the side in 
folded position, it is 7 l /> feet wide. It 
is fully equipped with safety reflectors, 
directional turn signals, tail- and stop- 
lights which are connected to its IVij- 
ton truck. It is completely wired with 
all circuits of 110 volts with a supply 
line to the wagon requiring 220 volts. 

We established our electrical system 

on the basis of either plugging into a 
220-volt-range receptacle, which is 
found in most home economic rooms in 
school buildings. We also had a 5,000- 
watt generator which could be used in 
the event that regular current was not 
available. We carried 250 feet of No. 4 
3-wire cable to bring the current to the 
show wagon. 

The chassis of the show wagon was 
constructed by the students at the Me- 
chanic Arts High School, the only cost 
to our department being for the mate- 
rials used. The balance of the wagon 
was constructed by the maintenance sec- 
tion of our recreation department, 
which helped keep the cost to an abso- 
lute minimum. 

As can be seen by the pictures of the 
show wagon, the outside design carried 
out the theme of the three activities for 
which it was constructed. Both sides 
were painted identically and both ends 
were painted identically. The designs 
on the sides depicted: talent show use. 
by the clown figures at the extreme left : 
the street dance program, by the music 
staff in the lower center of the side ; the 
summer children's theatre, by the the- 
atre masks at the right. The structural 
details are too numerous to explain 
here; but, as mentioned before, the com- 
plete plans are available. 

The wagon was used five nights a 
week throughout the summer season. As 
part of our summer music program a 
seventeen piece dance band made up of 
high school students was organized and 
it played in addition to a regular Sun- 
day afternoon radio program, at a street 
dance each Tuesday night at the various 
playground locations throughout the 






Identical sides bear design illustrating activities for which the show wagon was built. 

city. The show wagon was used as a 
stage for the band. 

Our talent shows were under the su- 
pervision of a specialist who arrived at 
a playground on Monday and organ- 
ized, costumed, and directed the pro- 
gram, which was produced on Friday 
night. The following week the specialist 
moved to another playground. The show 
wagon was used each Friday night for 
this purpose. 

The third activity use of the wagon 
was devoted to children's summer thea- 
ter. This made up the largest activity 
operation of the wagon and proved to 
be very successful. In cooperation with 
the public schools and Evansville Col- 
lege, it was decided to promote the pro- 
gram with seventh- and eighth-grade 
students in four grade-school areas geo- 
graphically spaced throughout the city, 
so that all the children might be given 
an opportunity to participate. 

Early -in April we conducted assem- 
blies during school hours at the various 
grade schools selected. To these we in- 
vited parochial as well as public school 
students. At this time a scale model of 
the show wagon was shown to the chil- 
dren and the general plan of organiza- 
tion was explained. Each school area 
was considered an operating unit. For 
example, unit number one was organ- 
ized during the middle of April, started 
their rehearsals, costuming, and scenery 
construction, and then produced the 
play, selected by their group, for a two- 
week period beginning June 21. They 
were scheduled to give their production 
for two nights at their home playground 
so that, in case of inclement weather 
the first night, they would have an op- 


portunity to perform before their 
friends at least one night. They pro- 
duced their play six times during the 
ensuing two-week period, twice at their 
own playground and four times at other 
playgrounds in that vicinity; thereby 
using the show wagon three nights of 
the week. Units two, three, and four, 
produced their plays in the same man- 
ner, each for a two-week period. All 
the organization work of each unit 
was completed before school vacation 
started. Some rehearsal schedules were 
necessarily started before school ended. 

The supervision of the summer chil- 
dren's theatre was made possible 
through the cooperation of Evansville 
College. Howard Hill, assistant profes- 
sor in charge of dramatics at the college, 
served as the director of the project, 
and three college seniors who had 
majored in dramatics served as direc- 
tors of each of the individual units men- 
tioned above. One student directed both 
number one and number four units. 

In addition to five-night-a-week use 
by the department, the commission au- 
thorized use of the show wagon by any 
charitable or non-profit organization 

when it was not being used by the de- 
partment. A flat rental fee of fifty dol- 
lars was charged for one evening, which 
included light, sound, and labor neces- 
sary in setting it up for operation. It 
was rented several times on this basis 
by different organizations. Liability 
insurance was purchased and added to 
the blanket fleet policy carried by the 
city on all vehicles. 

The success of the operation of the 
show wagon depended upon good pro- 
gram planning. The success of its struc- 
ture was based upon careful prelimi- 
nary plans. At the end of the summer 
an evaluation, with the directors of its 
various activities and with the mainten- 
ance staff responsible for moving and 
setting it up, surprisingly revealed not 
a single suggestion for improving it or 
changing the structural design. We feel 
that this indicates a completely success- 
ful project. 

The construction and operation of a 
show wagon is not easy, but it has 
proved to be one of the greatest public 
relations mediums that we have had for 
our department. It makes possible a 
greater variety of activity opportunities 
and helps to prove that recreation can 
be something more than just sports and 

Perhaps you wonder how much it 
cost. Because high school students con- 
structed the chassis and our own main- 
tenance department did the other con- 
struction, we were able to keep the over- 
all cost at a minimum. The materials 
and equipment were approximately 
$2,500. This may seem high but, con- 
sidering that it was used five nights a 
week last summer and has many years 
ahead of it, the figure is very low. It 
certainly is an asset to any department 
to have a good show wagon. 

Ready for performance. Roof is raised; spotlight and footlights placed in position. 



Albert L. Cole, general business man- 
ager of the Reader's Digest, is the newly 
elected president of the Boys' Clubs of 
America. A resident of New York City, 
he succeeds William Edwin Hall who 
was president for thirty-eight years. 

"Ted" P. Bank, president of The Ath- 
letic Institute, recently received an 
award from the United States Junior 
Chamber of Commerce for personal 
service and outstanding contributions 
to the Jaycee sports and recreation de- 
partment. The presentation was made 
by Gordon T. Hicks (left), executive 
vice-president of the Jaycees, and Don 
L. Neer (right) , director of the Jaycees' 
sports and recreation program. 

Tom Lantz, recreation director of the 
Metropolitan Park District, Tacoma, 
Washington, is the recent recipient of 
the honor fellowship award of the Wash- 
ington State Recreation Association for 
"outstanding leadership and notable 
achievements in the field of recreation." 
The society emphasized his leadership 
in millage and bond campaigns, the de- 
velopment of teen-age centers in the 
junior high schools, and his work for 
a community swimming pool bond is- 
sue. Mr. Lantz is also an instructor in 
recreation at the College of Puget Sound 
and a consultant with the International 
City Managers Association. 

Sidney Hollander, retired Baltimore 

industrialist and nationally prominent 
health and welfare leader, was elected 
to the presidency of The National 
Social Welfare Assembly at the an- 
nual business meeting in New York, 
December 1954. The Assembly is the 
national coordinating organization for 
health, welfare and recreation, having 
sixty-six affiliated agencies and organi- 
zations, both public and private, in these 
fields. Mr. Hollander succeeds Mrs. 
Douglas Horton, World War II head of 
the WAVES and former president of 
Wellesley College, who has served as 
president of the assembly for the past 
three years. 

Japan Recreation Congress 

At Japan's Eighth Annual Recreation 
Congress, some of the observations on 
the recreation picture in that country, 
according to a report received from 
Earle R. Buckley of the National Com- 
mittee, Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions of Japan, were: (1) rural recrea- 
tion, family recreation, and employee 
recreation are all increasing; (2) school 
facilities are becoming more available 
for community recreation uses, and 
there is also a gain in adult education- 
recreation classes ; (3) active participa- 
tion in programs by older people is 
growing; (4) leadership is still the ma- 
jor problem in recreation in Japan to- 
day. In general, the lectures and dis- 
cussions showed the result of healthy 
research on the part of the speakers and 
the other participants. 

Featured activities were such dis- 
tinctly Japanese forms of recreation as 
the Haiku (seventeen-syllable Japanese 
poem), the famous Japanese tea cere- 
mony, Chinese character calligraphy, 
Japanese style of painting, and other 
national pursuits. The Haiku demon- 
stration was an outstanding program. 
Three hundred monthly magazines with 
approximately a million readers are de- 
voted to this absorbing national pas- 

time of writing a poem to express a 
hope, mood, experience, or passing 

The four days of meetings were timed 
to end as the nationally famous Star 
Festival in Sendai got under way. In- 
strumental in the success of the congress 
were the efforts of His Highness Prince 
Mikasa, Soichi Saito, president of the 
Japan NRA, and Chairman Yoshikiko 
Kurimoto and members of the execu- 
tive committee. 

Square Dance in Indonesia 

Wednesday night in Indonesia is lon- 
lier since Dr. N. E. Winters, agricul- 
tural officer for the U. S. Technical As- 
sistance Mission to Indonesia, retired to 
his home in Oklahoma at the age of 
seventy. Dr. Winters introduced Amer- 
ican square dances in Djakarta, acting 
as teacher and caller to a cosmopolitan 
group of Indonesians, Americans, 
Dutch and Australians. He also intro- 
duced typical cowboy shirts though 
some of the dancers stuck to native 
batik shirts or sarongs. 

Conservation Notes 

Conservation forces have won some 
impressive victories of late. A million- 
dollar contribution by John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., to the Save-the-Redwoods 
League, has assured preservation of the 
impressive primeval forest in Califor- 
nia's Calaveras South Grove of Giant 
Sequoias as a state park. Chairman 
Joseph R. Knowland of the California 
State Park Commission says the pro- 
posed park contains a thousand giant 
Sierra redwoods as well as superlative 
stands of sugar pine, ponderosa pine, 
and other species. 

Meanwhile the Corkscrew Cypress 
Rookery Association won its battle to 
save a wilderness of thousand-year-old. 
125-foot high trees from extinction. The 
country's last great stand of bald cy- 
press, known as "the redwood of the 
east," in southwest Florida, southeast 
of Fort Myers, will be preserved in the 
public interest. 

Another unique conservation organi- 
zation, The Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, 
recently celebrated its twentieth anni- 
versary. In the Kittatinny Ridge near 
Pottsville in eastern Pennsylvania, the 
sanctuary is the only preserve in the 



country dedicated to the protection of 
birds of prey and other predators. 

Local Lends a Helping Hand 

Recently, in Michigan, members of 
the Professional Recreation Workers 
Union Local 836 presented the Detroit 
Parks and Recreation Commission with 
a check for fifty dollars to start a li- 
brary for the recreation workers of the 
city. The presentation, first of its kind 
made by an employee group, highlight- 
ed the activities of the department's 
fortieth anniversary of recreation. In 
the picture, left to right, are James A. 

Here and There 

Kerwin, union research director ; Mich- 
ael "Dad" Butler, parks and recreation 
commissioner; Mrs. Walter R. O'Hair, 
parks and recreation commissioner; 
Karl Lindgren, president of Local 836; 
and Bernard B. Laskey, parks and rec- 
reation commissioner. 
4 The annual conference of the Play 
Schools Association will be held on 
January 29 at the Hotel Statler, New 
York City. The sessions are planned 
especially for leaders in education and 
recreation, group workers, workers in 
hospitals and institutions, and for par- 
ents and members of boards. A special 
feature will be the showing of the as- 
sociation's new color film, And So They 
Grow, a twenty -eight minute film, based 
on a camera study made during the past 
year of a group of nine- and ten-year 
olds at play in the Association's labora- 
tory center at P. S. 125, Manhattan. 

During 1954 play school specialists 
had a part in establishing or maintain- 
ing supervised play programs in a va- 
riety of settings, from trailer communi- 
ties surrounding the site of a future 
atomic energy plant, a shelter for emo- 
tionally disturbed children, a hospital 
for youngsters orthopedically handi- 
capped, to laboratories in New York 
public schools. 

4 In Oregon the Tualatin Hills Park 
and Recreation Council, made up of 
representatives of sixty-one organiza- 
tions is creating a new park and recrea- 
tion district for a community of twenty- 
eight thousand. At present, there are 
no parks or recreation facilities except 
a few undeveloped school grounds. 

4 The Louisiana Art Commission re- 
cently sponsored a three-state photo- 
graphic competition for nineteen cam- 
era clubs and played host to the newly 
formed Gulf States Camera Club Coun- 
cil with forty-five delegates represent- 
ing twelve clubs from Texas, Mississip- 
pi, and Louisiana. 

4 The St. Paul Winter Carnival, which 
will be held from January 28 to Febru- 
ary 6, is rated as one of America's ten 
biggest festivals. It dates back to 1886 
and annually attracts huge throngs of 
fun loving visitors and nationwide pub- 
licity to Minnesota's capital city. This 
year the activities for the week-long 
program will include such exciting 
events as: the Fifth Annual Northwest 
Square Dance Festival; the mammoth 
afternoon Grande Parade and the night- 
time Torchlite Parade; North Ameri- 
can ski jumping championships; na- 
tional majorette championships; na- 
tional speed skating championships ; the 
coronation of the Queen of Snows and 
of King Boreas XIX, reigning monarch 
of the famed carnival; junior and sen- 
ior ice fishing contests; and sports car 
races on ice. 

They Belong . . . 

The number of recreation organiza- 
tions that have become Affiliate Mem- 
bers of the National Recreation Associ- 
ation is increasing continually. The 
following state societies and associa- 
tions have joined the growing ranks: 

Alabama Recreation Society, Arizo- 
na Recreation Association, Connecticut 
Recreation Society, Florida Recreation 
Association, Idaho State Recreation So- 
ciety, Illinois Recreation Association, 
Illinois Association of Park Districts, 
Indiana Park and Recreation Associa- 
tion, Kansas Recreation Association, 
Maryland Recreation Society, Eastern 
Massachusetts Recreation Association, 
Michigan Recreation Association, Mis- 

souri Community Recreation and Parks 
Society, New Jersey Parks and Recrea- 
tion Association, Public Recreation As- 
sociation of New Jersey, New Mexico 
Recreation Association, New York 
State Public Recreation Society, Ohio 
Recreation Association, Oregon Recre- 
ation and Park Association, Pennsyl- 
vania Recreation Society, South Caro- 
lina Recreation Society, Tennessee Rec- 
reation Society, Texas Recreation So- 
ciety, Washington State Recreation So- 
ciety, West Virginia State Recreation 
Society, Wisconsin Recreation Associa- 
tion, Division of Recreation Adminis- 
trators of the Wisconsin Recreation As- 

News notes about what these organi- 
zations are doing will appear in future 
issues of RECREATION. 

Show in Memory of E. T. Attwell 

The Louisville, Kentucky, Depart- 
ment of Parks and Recreation recently 
presented an original fantasy, "Kaleido- 
scope," an extravaganza of twenty-six 
numbers, two acts. The show was dedi- 
cated to the memory of Ernest T. Att- 
well, who was for thirty years a member 
of the National Recreation Association 
staff (See RECREATION, September 
1949) . It was written and produced by 
Mrs. William Moore, wife of the gen- 
eral superintendent of parks and recrea- 
tion. Music was furnished free by the 
local musicians' union, and mothers of 
the College Court Housing Project took 
charge of the make-up department. The 
show, with its all-Negro cast of 140 
members ranging in age from six to 
sixty, was presented without charge to 
an audience of 3,400. The pensive little 
"Kaleidoscope" angel in the picture is 
six-year-old Clarence Johnson. 



How To Start 



SYNCHRONIZED swimming is a comparatively new field of 
^3 rhythmic experience through swimming movements. 
Under good leadership it can be a highly creative activity. 
It is not difficult to teach or use in aquatic programs if the 
basic principles involved are understood. The term "syn- 
chronized swimming" usually denotes rhythmic swimming 
movements performed in a definite pattern to synchronize 
with a prescribed accompaniment. Several criteria for good 
synchronized swimming are: 

1. Swimming strokes, or strokes and swimming stunts, or varia- 
tions of these are combined on the basis of a selected accompaniment. 

2. These are performed in rhythm to a prescribed accompaniment 
and/or rhythmical pattern. 

3. When more than one swimmer participates, the action is per- 
formed in unison or in a definite order. 

Strokes in Synchronized Swimming 

All recognized swimming strokes and many adaptations 
and variations of each stroke are used. As a basic means of 
locomotion in water, the importance of these strokes the 
front crawl, back crawl, side stroke, side overarm, trudgen, 
breast stroke, butterfly breast stroke, inverted breast stroke, 
and elementary backstroke can not be overemphasized. 

Decide on the Form of Each Stroke 

There are many variations of each swimming stroke in 
use at the present time. Since synchronized swimming 
strokes should be performed in an identical manner, the 
teacher, coach, and/or swimming group should decide on 
the form or style which may be best adapted to their particu- 
lar situation. 

Most strokes need to be adapted for their use in synchro- 
nized swimming. Stress the following for all strokes : 

1. Keep the faces above water so that the swimmers may 
hear the accompaniment and see the rest of the group. 

2. Lower the kick sufficiently so that there is no breaking 
of the water, i.e. no splash of the feet. 

3. The parts of the swimmers visible above the water are 
the heads and the arms. Therefore, it is of great importance 
in duo or group synchronized swimming that the arm action 
be practiced so that the lift from the water, the speed and 
direction of the arm movement through the air, and the 
position and timing of the catch will be simultaneous. 

4. Excellent control of breathing and "water poise" 



BETTY SPEARS is instructor for the Department of Health 
and Physical Education for Women, Brooklyn College, and 
faculty advisor to the synchronized swimming group of the 
Women's Athletic Association. 

(sense of body position in the water) are essential for ad- 
vanced synchronized swimming. 

Work on Synchronization 

1. Each swimmer should learn and practice every stroke 
until it meets the standard set by the group and until he can 
keep "time" with simple accompaniment, such as the beat of 
a drum. 

2. The group should learn and practice every stroke until 
their actions are synchronized. 

3. The swimmers should be synchronized to each other 
and to the accompaniment. 

a. From the very first practice the swimmers should syn- 
chronize and swim with the music as an accompaniment 
not with the music as background. 

b. Analyze the accompaniment (recordings, drum, piano, 
and so on) for the basic beat and/or accent. Decide when 
the catch of the stroke should be made, the recovery 
should be made, the glide should be made, which part of 
the stroke should be accented, and so on. 

c. Remember, movements in the water are slower than 
those in the air. Allow for water resistance in analyzing 
the accompaniment and in planning movements. 

Most forms of accompaniment are written with notes 
which are grouped into measures. Measures are grouped to 
form phrases, and a group of measures form a composition. 

J J J J J J J J J 

R Catch with right hand L Catch with left hand K Kick 

Above are four measures of % or waltz time. In swim- 
ming the front crawl to this rhythm each note denotes a 
kick, and the catch is made with alternate arms on the 
first beat of every measure. 

Below is the first line of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" 
analyzed for swimming with the front crawl. 

J( -J 


gh A 1 



i i 


R Catch with right hand L Catch with left hand 

Sing it to yourself, stroke it with your arms, and see how 
the natural place for the catch is at the beginning of Row 
(catch left), Row (catch right), and so on, OR the begin- 
ning of a measure. This is stroking on the accent. In strokes 

Reprinted from Beginning Synchronized Swimming, published by 
Burgess Publishing Company, 426 South Sixth Street, Minneapolis 
15, Minnesota. $2.(K). 




with glides, the stroke motion usually comes on one meas- 
ure and the glide on the next. Try it with "Row, Row, Row 
Your Boat" Row (breast stroke), Row (glide), Row 
(breast stroke), and so on. 

In the following, some few basic strokes are more thor- 
oughly analyzed. Use not only the strokes suggested here, 
but all standard strokes in your total program. 

Front Crawl 

Body position: On face in an extended position with legs 
under the surface of the water and the face above the water. 

Analysis: The kick is an alternate vertical thrash of the 
entire leg with the action from the hips and with the knees 
and ankles relaxed. Ann action is started with the arm 
straight in front of the body and on a line with the shoulder. 
With the fingertips entering the water first, the arm presses 
down under the shoulder to a vertical position. The elbow 
lifts upward until the entire arm is above water and then the 
forearm moves forward to the position for the catch. 

Coordination: The arms move alternately making one 
complete action to every six to eight kicks. 

Analysis with accompaniment: The catch is made on the 
accent. The kick is even and there is a kick made on each 

J J J 

R Catch with right hand 

atch with left hand 

K Kick 

This analysis is only a suggestion and other parts of the 
stroke may be used for accent. While the waltz is analyzed 
above, any meter with suitable rhythm may be used. 

Back Crawl 

Body position: Extended position on the back with the 
hips slightly lower than the shoulders. The chin is tucked. 

Analysis: The legs kick alternately with a vertical "whip" 
from the hips with the knees and ankles relaxed. On the 
catch the arm is extended diagonally overhead. The arms 
pull alternately from the "Y" position. The fingertips enter 
the water first and the pull, which is parallel to the surface 
of the water, continues directly to the thigh. During the 
recovery the arm swings in an arc above the water to the 
position for the catch. 

Coordination: The arms make one complete action to 
every six to eight kicks. 

Analysis with accompaniment: The catch may be made on 
the accent. The kick is even and there is a kick on each beat. 

J J J -^-d-:J J J -j 

R Catch with right hand L Catch with left hand K Kick 

All swimming strokes should be analyzed and practiced 
until the swimmers and coach are satisfied with the per- 
formance individually and as a whole. 

Stroke Variations 

Swimming strokes serve as the basic water movements for 
synchronized swimming just as the waltz, polka, schottische, 

and so forth, form the basic steps for folk dances. Frequently 
the rhythmic pattern of the accompaniment may be made 
more interesting by varying the stroke. Certain parts of the 
recovery may be accented, arm actions may be performed 
above the water, or the action of the stroke itself may be 
changed to make the swimming action more synchronized 
with the music or the accompaniment used. 

Stunts in Synchronized Swimming 

Water stunts, with swimming strokes, form the two basic 
types of movements used in this type of swimming. These 
stunts, which may be described as movements around an 
axis of the body, may be performed above, on, or below the 
surface of the water, or in combinations. 

Stunts may be performed in three different body positions 
or in combinations of these. These correspond to those used 
in fancy diving: 

Tuck position: The body is bunched with the knees and 
hips completely flexed (bent) and the toes pointed. 

Pike position: The body is bent at the hips which are 
held at right angles to the trunk. 

Layout position: The body is extended with both hips 
and knees held straight and the toes pointed. 

Swimmers Should Learn Fundamental Starting Positions 

Back sculling position: In this position the swimmer is 
on the back. The legs are held together with knees straight 
and the toes pointed. The hips are slightly lower than the 
shoulders or toes. The chin is tucked with the head high 
enough to see other swimmers. The placement of the arms 
depends upon the stunt to be performed, but in the basic 
position they are at the sides, usually a little lower than the 

Front layout position: This is similar to the prone float, 
but the head is above water and the legs are held together 
in an extended position with the knees straight and the toes 
pointed. The placement of the arms depends upon the stunt 
to be performed, but in the basic position they are under 
the body near the sides. 

Sculling: Sculling is one of the basic skills needed for 
performing stunts in synchronized swimming. It should be 
thoroughly, mastered. Presented below is an analysis of 
elementary sculling. 

Head first sculling: Hold the body in the starting posi- 
tion. The arms perform the action simultaneously and con- 
tinuously. During the recovery phase, turn the palms down 
and out, using a supplementary action in upper arm and 
shoulder; then whip the palms toward the feet and back 
to the starting position. This is sometimes described as 
a figure-eight motion. 

While sculling is the basis for well-performed stunts, the 
group should master a variety of stunts. Analysis of stunts 
may be found in Beginning Synchronized Swimming, or 
other references listed by Mr. Hendricks (see page 23). 

Stroke and Stunt Combinations 

The skillful combination of strokes and stunts is the basis 
of effective, well-performed synchronized swimming. The 
swimmers will need to master several techniques. They will 



need to learn how to effect a smooth and effortless appear- 
ance in the continuity of various water movements ; to know 
the exact timing of stunts and of underwater movements 
and to relate this to stroking; to adjust spacing in a forma- 
tion easily and inconspicuously; to anticipate strokes and 
stunts by "getting set" for the next movement ; and to adapt 
a situation to the best interests of the group. Good indi- 
vidual performance is essential to group work. 

Procedures in Composing a Synchronized 
Swimming Routine 

Routine Based on Accompaniment Form such as Recording, 
Song, or Poem 

1. Listen to and analyze the accompaniment: (a) find 
the underlying beat and learn the basic rhythm; (b) ana- 
lyze for phrases; (c) analyze for themes; (d) find the 

2. Discover the types of water movements (strokes and 
stunts) which best express the basic melodies or rhythms 
of the music: (a) try the basic ideas in the water; (b) 
experiment with strokes, variations, hybrids, stunts, spe- 

cial effects and original activities. 

3. With these ideas in mind, listen to the accompaniment 
again and make a tentative structure of the routine: (a) 
entrance; (b) basic strokes remember, you don't have to 
use every stroke and stunt in each routine; variety is neces- 
sary for interest but too much variety is confusing; (c) 
climax this should be the fulfillment of the idea and of the 
accompaniment; (d) exit. 

4. Plan a tentative "space pattern" with the techniques 
evolved in 3. 

5. Try the routine in the water. At this stage of develop- 
ment, allow for unlearned skills, space for the correct num- 
ber of performers, and so on. Finish choreography. 

6. Check movements planned with the accompaniment. 
Does it really express the mood and quality of the music? 
After this, go over it with the correct number of swimmers. 

7. Try the routine again in the water. If you are not satis- 
fied, don't be discouraged. It takes time to create a worth- 
while routine. Changes will probably have to be made. 
Learn the routine ! Perform the routine! Have fun through- 

Fighting the Litter-Bugs 

Twenty-three of the nation's largest firms have pledged 
funds for the anti-litter campaign of Keep America Beauti- 
ful, Inc., a non-profit organization which will devote a 1954- 
55 budget of $400,000 to supplement anti-litter, programs 
already in existence and inaugurate field service programs 
in new areas. Smith Rairdon, vice-president of the Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company is president of KAB and William C. 
Stolk, president of the American Can Company, is chair- 
man of the board of directors. 

A recently organized National Advisory Council, com- 
posed of national, civic, and service organizations, with 
Joseph Prendergast as the chairman, will advise the board 
of directors of KAB on how best to conduct its national pro- 
gram of education and how to use the resources of the in- 
dividual council organizations in the fight against litter. 
Members of this council, in addition to the National Recrea- 
tion Association, include such groups as the Camp Fire 
Girls, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, General Federation of 
Women's Clubs. Izaak Walton League, American Institute 
of Park Executives, U. S. Junior Chamber of Commerce, 
and the American Legion. 

Mr. Stolk declares it costs $30,000,000 annually in federal, 
state, and local funds to clear the nation's highways, beaches, 
and parks of carelessly strewn trash. 

The Oakland, California, Park Department recently sta- 
tioned a unique kangaroo trash can at Children's Fairyland 
in Lakeside Park. Designed to appeal particularly to young- 
sters, the kangaroo is constructed of plastic-laminated glass- 
cloth on a wood and chicken-wire frame and is inexpensive, 
strong, and easy to build. Trash is placed in the animal's 
pouch, and a galvanized metal container inside the body is 
removable from a door in the animal's back. Visiting groups 
are provided with paper bags for accumulated lunch wrap- 


pings, candy wrappers, and other litter stuff. These attract- 
ively illustrated bags carry the verse: 

Jack Burroughs 

Los Angeles also adopted a kangaroo as its symbol of 
public cleanliness in a year-round campaign to keep parks, 
roadsides, and beaches clean. Thousands of decals of 
"Parky the kangaroo," were made available through various 
municipal employees' associations; and six thousand bright 
yellow trash receptacles with Parky and his slogan, "Help 
Keep Your Parks, Roadsides, and Beaches Clean," were 
placed in park and beach ardas. For a six-month period a 
likeness of Parky was also used as a cancellation mark on 
first-class mail leaving the Los Angeles Post Office. 


How To Do IT / 

Point Prints 

V I 

lor Nature Printe-lor Paper or C\drh Prints - 

on Cards,5Wionerij , Kerchiefs, Tou;el5,Napkins. 

Whodr you need - 

Enamel painlror u/oter color paint; 
-a inch brush,qla3ed paper or qlass, 
cloth, paper P 

laqer of 
painf on qlass or qla^ed paper. 

2. Place leaf" 

on pairrfand press 

3. Place leaf on 
cloth or paper - press- 
then lift the leaf and prirrh'smade 

Smoke Prinfe 

I. Cover newspaper 
tuilh thin coat of lard ., 
hold over candle flame, 
cover u/ith 500^. 

Whaf LJOU need - 
Canoile^neiuspaper, lard, paper. 

2. Press leaf 
on soof covered side 
of newspaper (vein side afou/n) . 

3. Place leaf (soof covered sic/e c/oa/n)v<\ 
paper-press evenly- lifr leaf and print" of 
leaf shou/inq veins is printed on the paper. 




An idea adaptable to many groups; young 
adults and servicemen would love it. 

For the past seven years the annual Klondyke Party has 
been the top party of the year for Arvidians. Sponsored by 
the local square dance group, who call themselves the Arvida 
College of Square Dancing, it has raised over $5,000 for 
local youth organizations. Arvida, the Aluminum City, lo- 
cated in the picturesque Saguenay District of the Province 
of Quebec, is rich in entertainment talent; and the stage 
shows featured at every Klondyke Party are almost in the 
professional class. 

The Klondyke Party is so popular that the invitation list 
is closed one month in advance. The organizing committee 
notifies all former Klondykers of the date of the party and 
opens an office, for five days, at which invitations may be 
picked up. Vacancies are filled from a waiting list. The 
cost per couple is a modest two dollars and, as accommoda- 
tion is limited to one hundred and fifty couples, it is a ticket 
chairman's dream; his only trouble is advising people that 
they will be accommodated if there is a vacancy. Invita- 
tions can be transferred only through the ticket chairman, 
and all those attending are expected to work on one of the 
numerous committees. No one is overworked and two hun- 
dred people have specific jobs either prior to or at the party. 

Costumes Set Atmosphere 

Everyone is expected to come in costume, and the era 
the Klondyke of the nineties seems to provide plenty of 
scope for the imagination. Prizes are awarded for the best, 
most original, and most comic costumes; and five candi- 
dates are selected by the judges and winners are determined 
by audience applause at suppertime. A beard and moustache 
contest is also popular, and crepe hair and spirit gum can 
be purchased when invitations are picked up. 

Klondyke night is not purely a local affair, as a number 
of invitations are made available to groups in the neighbor- 
ing towns. Former Klondykers living in Montreal, three 
hundred miles away, sometimes arrange their business 
schedules to be in Arvida to join in the fun. 

As fifty per cent of those attending have some knowledge 
of square dancing, four sets make up the dancing part of the 

STANLEY ROUGH is secretary of the Arvida Athletic and Rec- 
reation Association, Province of Quebec, Canada, and is rec- 
reation director of the Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd. 

Stanley Rough 

program. An old-time silent movie and two stage shows of 
forty minutes each provide the necessary breathers. 

The stage show follows a theme such as "Payday at Kiti- 
mat" a skit on the Aluminum Company's new smelter in 
British Columbia as a number of former Arvida citizens 
have been transferred to Kitimat. The theme provides plenty 
of material for wisecracks. Skits and songs poking fun at 
local situations are very popular. Phony radio and televi- 
sion broadcasts using tape recordings and home-made mov- 
ies have also been very effective. Those taking part in the 
stage shows rehearse their numbers separately, and the 
whole is tied together by the M.C. The stage invariably rep- 
resents an old-time barroom using any backdrop that is 
available, a bar and several tables, plus a number of suitable 
wall signs. No general rehearsals are held, and as everyone 
knows that good timing is essential for the success of the 
party, being on time is taken for granted. 

Hall Arrangement Is Simple 

A long table across the front of the hall is used as a bar 
for the serving of soft drinks. This is one of the few parties 
in this section of the country where no liquor is served: Its 
success depends upon good organization and "whole-hearted 
enthusiastic cooperation." 

Additional long tables in the rear of the hall are used to 
set out box lunches, arranged in alphabetically marked sec- 
tions. Cups and coffee urns are located on another table. 
Two rows of chairs along the side walls provide limited 
seating, as the majority of the guests sit on the floor for the 
entertainment and supper. The hall can be set up in an hour 
and is ready for the following group early the next day. 
Members of the organizing committee work hard prior to the 
party, but can relax and enjoy themselves on the night of 
the Klondyke. Everyone is expected to do something, but 
no one is given an assignment that takes more than one hour. 
Confusion is conspicuous by its absence. 

Many Committees Appointed 

The square dance group appoints a committee to run the 
party. The date is set and the hall booked six months in 
advance. The commmittee receives requests for funds and 
decides how they will be allotted on a percentage basis. There 




are no complimentary tickets and expenses never exceed 
twenty per cent of the receipts. Additional committees are 
appointed for program, invitations, makeup, prizes, costume 
and moustache judges, reception committee, bartenders, out- 
of-town delegation leaders, music, square and round dance 

The program committee decides on a general theme and 
ideas for skits or acts. Three pianists are appointed, and 
soloists and quartet chorus lines practice with the pianist 
who will play for them the night of the party. If movies and 
recording tapes are used, experts look after these assign- 
ments. A scriptwriter is commissioned to write a melodrama. 
The person in charge of each part of the program is given a 
time limit. The writer acts as coordinator for all. 

The band which plays for the square dance classes held 
during the year has one rehearsal to brush up on numbers 
to be used. Individual performers have more confidence in 
working with the music they have practiced with and, conse- 
quently, are under less pressure. Quartets, as well as ladies' 
duets, are used to back up the caller in some numbers. The 
orchestra plays for general dancing only. Various games 
have been tried from time to time to give more atmosphere 
but people generally are too busy to bother with them. 

The ten ladies on the refreshment committee receive the 
complete guest list. They telephone each guest and ask him 
or her to bring a box lunch. Bachelors are asked to supply 
sugar, cream, paper plates, napkins, wooden spoons, and 
pickles. Cups are loaned by local merchants. Coffee is made 
by the local hotel and is transported to the hall in two ten- 
gallon construction-camp-type coffee urns with spigots. Cof- 
fee pourers provide themselves with buckets to catch the drip 
so as not to flood the dance floor. 

The refreshment committee is on hand to instruct guests 
to deposit their lunches in the lettered squares on tables re- 

served for that purpose. By dividing the guests into alpha- 
betical groups, ten divisions only are necessary. When sup- 
per is served each alphabetical group collects their lunches 
the ladies the lunch, and the men the coffee as the M.C. 
calls out the various letters. This system prevents confusion 
and is surprisingly simple. Each box is marked with the 
owner's name, and the M.C. receives his cue from a member 
of the refreshment committee as to when to call up the next 
group. Someone is paid to wash and repack the cups in 
cartons so the ladies' duties are surprisingly light. 

The judges for the various events make a list of candi- 
dates for the different contests and turn it over to the M.C., 
who conducts the judging by audience applause during the 
lunch hour. The costumes are so numerous and good that 
this system has been found the most practical; also, it pro- 
vides added entertainment during what might develop into 
a draggy part of the program. Prizes solicited from local 
merchants are modest ones. It is felt that bigger and better 
prizes would eventually spoil the spirit of good clean fun that 
now exists. Good costumes are important and admired but 
they are just part of the fun. Many expensive prizes have 
been refused, much to the surprise of the merchants. 

The bartenders who sell soft drinks and the reception or 
door committee members are divided into one-hour shifts so 
that no one is prevented from taking part in the program. 

Each year when Klondyke Night rolls around, old grads 
write in and the theme is always the same : "Have fun, wish 
we could make it!" 

As a result of the activities of the Arvida College of Square Danc- 
ing, square dancing is part of the program of many local social 
evenings and a number of playroom parties. The "College" has made 
a two-hour recorded program of dances which is on loan for parties. 
A number of graduates have organized other groups in various parts 
of Canada; this year a Junior Klondyke Party was a huge success. 


Silvia Schuster 

A contest in which children repre- 
sented their favorite book or story char- 
acters drew a guest crowd of several 
hundred adults to the North Milwaukee 
Branch Library when it dedicated its 
newly enlarged building. 

Miss Margaret Dewitz and her library 
staff started work on this good-will- 
building contest idea about two months 
before the open house and dedication. 
She knew that several prominent Mil- 
waukeeans would be included in the 
dedication program, but she wanted the 
many hundreds of children who would 
come to the library for this occasion to 
play a big part, too. 

The North Park Garden Women's 
Club members were called upon for 
extra hostess help. These women had 


proved devoted friends already^it had 
been largely owing to their civic efforts 
that this suburb was granted a library 
building of its own. Local merchants, 
who were members of the Thirty-fifth 
and Villard Avenue Businessmen's As- 
sociation, donated refreshments and the 
four top prizes for the best costumes. 

Entry blanks were printed ; and store 
window posters were made and passed 
out to the local business places. The 
posters were put up about two weeks in 
advance of the dedication day event so 
that children who wanted to create cos- 
tumes and enter the contest would have 
enough time for preparations. 

On the day of the big event a Sun- 
day a platform was set up in front of 
the library building, and the program 
was presented from this. The opening 
singing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" 
was followed by accordion solos by 
pupils from a nearby music school and 

brief talks by library personnel and 
community leaders. 

The highlight of the program came 
next: the parade of forty-eight gaily 
clad storybook children. Each one had 
a large paper with a number on it at- 
tached to one shoulder to facilitate the 
judging; and the winners were an- 
nounced at the close of the parade. The 
costume characterizations chosen as 
best were: Long John Silver, complete 
with a peg leg and authentic looking pi- 
rate's outfit ; Aladdin, holding her moth- 
er's best tea pot as her lamp ; the White 
Rabbit irom Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland; and little Rumpelstilstskin. 

The public was then invited into the 
building to inspect the newly enlarged 
quarters and to enjoy the cooling 
orange drinks and cake. The program 
was a lot of work, but the result was 
worth it in the community spirit and 
good will engendered. 


Special Services to the Community Of course your rec- 
reation department conducts a good, community-wide pro- 
gram. But what else do you offer over and beyond the call 
of duty? The more special services the better public rela- 
tions! Here's a check-list. Add any others you provide. 
(The National Recreation Association would like to hear 
about them ! ) 

-game loan library 

_tape recorder 




.carnival booths 

.A. systems 


ecord players 

.comic book exchange 


picnic kits 

game kits 

party kits 



song sheets 


toy loan library 

outdoor cooking 


loan of books, pam- 
phlets and magazines 

sports equipment: 

golf clubs 

tennis racquets 



(To outside groups like industry, churches, civic clubs, 
military installations, and so forth) 

picnic leaders 

party leaders 

iarn-to-Swim instructors 
;olf instructors 
leaders for special groups : 

blind physically handicapped 

mentally retarded shut-ins 

institutions for chil- hospitalized 

dren and old people 

leaders to talk before civic groups 

party planning service 

assistance in organizing clubs, playground associa- 
tions and other interest groups 

assistance in training leaders for recreation in 

church, P.T.A., and other agencies 

assistance in planning and conducting special pro- 
grams on and off base for military personnel and 
their families 


mobile services to in-city, suburban or rural areas 

traveling theatre 

traveling puppet shows 

traveling zoo 

-mobile playgrounds 
-traveling storytellers 
-traveling troubadours 
-contests for better backyards 
-contests for Christmas home decoration 
.special holiday celebrations 
_evenings-in-the-park programs 
-block parties 
.outdoor dances 


cabins that can be rented by camping groups 

day camping sites 

tot lots for child-parking service for shopping mothers 

room for luncheon club groups or for agency parties 

bocci courts for Italian neighborhoods 

special facilities for older people: 

putting green miniature golf 

tables and benches for shuffleboard 

chess and checkers 
outdoor giant checker court 

party building for agencies, organizations and civic 



game and party bulletins 

directions for home-made play apparatus 

suggestions for entertaining convalescent children 

instructions for simple craft projects 

TV and radio programs : 

entertainment instruction 

newspaper weekly column 

maps of recreation areas 

seasonal directories of programs: 

by newspaper 

by flyers, and so on, in all hotels, motels, housing 

units, military installations, trailer courts 

stickers for cars, bicycles, and so on 

welcome signs and posters : 

edge of town 

in railroad and bus stations, and airports 

exhibits : 

on playgrounds 

in public libraries 

.in recreation buildings 
.in 'store windows 

lovies : 

_of indoor program 

.of playground program 

.a good slogan 

.an attractive seal or symbol 

.an attractive letterhead 

If your department provides other extra services, please 
write to the Program Service Department, National Recrea- 
tion Association, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, and 
tell us about them ! 





When winter comes, can baseball 
spring training be far behind? A free 
film, Let's Train with the Cardinals (28 
minutes, 16mm., color), is offered by 
Anheuser-Busch, Inc., Cardinal owner. 
Write Modern Talking Picture Service, 
Inc., 45 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20. 

Sound for three full-color slide-films 
on school music, available for free 
showing, has been now produced on one 
side of 12-inch discs that can be used 
on 33 1/3 rpm phonographs. The orig- 
inal 16-inch discs limited the use of the 
films in some instances. The three films 
(15 minutes, 16mm.) are focused on 
school music and intended to stimulate 
the interest of school children and their 
parents in greater musical participation. 
Write American Music Conference, 332 
South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 4. 

The New York State Youth Commis- 
sion now has an enviable library of 
16mm. films concerned with social prob- 
lems, particularly those relating to youth 
guidance and protection, the prevention 
of juvenile delinquency, recreation, and 
family life. Early in its existence the 
commission found such a dearth of ap- 
propriate films it produced two of its 
own, Families First and Children in 
Trouble, which are available free of 
charge in New York State, and for 
nominal rentals of $3.00 and $2.00 re- 
spectively out of state. Write to New 
York State Department of Commerce 
Film Library, 40 Howard Street, Al- 
bany, New York. 

Of special note to anyone doing rec- 
reation work with the blind is a Cana- 
dian production for the House of Sea- 
gram dealing with the blind golfers 
tournament which took place in Tor- 
onto last summer, A Feel for the Game 
(11 minutes, 16mm., color). Write to 
Crawley Films, Ltd., 19 Fairmount 
Avenue, Ottawa, Canada. 

The history of the United States in 
terms of the development of the na- 
tion's flag from the first Union Jack to 
our present Stars and Stripes is the sub- 
ject of a new film now available for 
schools, community organizations, and 
other local groups. Entitled Our U. S. 
Flag (16 minutes, 16mm., full-color, 
sound) , the film was made by the Dettra 

Flag Company of Oaks, Pennsylvania, 
and was awarded the George Washing- 
ton Honor Medal for excellence by the 
Freedoms Foundation. Write the Det- 
tra Flag Company or see your local 
Dettra dealer; nominal handling charge. 


The difficulty of improving the singing 
or speaking voice without the aid of a 
vocal coach has been solved in part by 
two recent record releases. The first is 
a Canfield Voco-Record album (eight 
10-inch sides, 78 rpm) designed to help 
salesmen, businessmen, actors, students, 
public speakers or readers limber throat 
muscles and develop more pleasing 
voices. This album should be of par- 
ticular help to schools, choir and other 
singing groups in rural areas where 
there is no regular voice teacher. The 
set costs $36.00 and is obtainable from 
Canfield Voco-Records, 2018 Fifth Ave- 
nue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

For vocalists who need practice in 
singing with, a professional accompan- 
ist, Murlyn Recordings have issued a 
new series of 12-inch LP high-fidelity 
discs which feature songs sung by an 
outstanding professional artist. After 
each song the accompaniment is replay- 
ed without the voice enabling the stu- 
dent to sing with the record. The five 
Murlyn Proficiency Records offer from 
five to seven selections each, scored for 
soprano, lyric soprano, tenor, dramatic 
tenor, and baritone. The records are 
available at music stores, through voice 
teachers, or write Murlyn Recording 
Company, Inc., 65 Broadway, New 
York 6. 

St. Louis has opened its educational 
TV station KETC, the seventh non-com- 
mercial station in the country. There 
are thirteen other ETV stations in vari- 
ous stages of construction throughout 
the nation. Students of Edison Tech- 
nical School in Seattle have built and 
will operate the technical parts of KCTS- 
TV, the city's community television 
service. About $2,000 in labor costs 
were saved, and operating costs of the 
station will be reduced by about $30,000 
per year by using technical student vol- 

Chicago's WTTW, to open this spring, 
has appointed Dr. John W. Taylor its 
executive director. Dr. Taylor, a spe- 
cialist in community education, pio- 
neered in the use of radio and TV for 
teaching. As president of the Univer- 
sity of Louisville, he inaugurated, in 
1948, the first college course for credit 
presented over a commercial radio and 
in 1950 the first college course for credit 
over TV. In addition, he established 
"neighborhood colleges" in Louisville 
public libraries for members of the com- 
munity who could not afford a college 

The FCC has reserved 245 channels 
for educational TV stations. The chal- 
lenge and problems of developing these 
channels is assessed in a new pamphlet, 
What Educational Television Offers 
You, by Jack Mabley, radio and tele- 
vision critic of the Chicago Daily News, 
available for twenty-five cents from the 
Public Affairs Committee, 22 East 38th 
Street, New York. 

Among the types of programs the 
public can expect on non-commercial 
channels, says Mr. Mabley, are class- 
room instruction for public schools, di- 
rect adult education, community pro- 
gramming, out-of-schools programs for 
children, and general cultural and en- 
tertainment programs. 

you pay postage only! 

I I 


I I 


I I 



By Walt Disney 



Write for Free List! Dept. R 


347 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Branch libraries! 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



The questions are asked frequently: 
"What is the most active season for 
personnel in the recreation field?" 
"What are the slow periods?" We have 
tried to answer these questions for our- 
selves, for a long time, without too much 
success. There seems to be no special 
pattern, and the situation is not always 
the same year after year. In other 
words, personnel seems to be no respec- 
tor of seasons or of the calendar. 

There are some who take for granted 
that the summer months, primarily July 
and August, represent an off-season. 
This is not an accurate assumption. 
Last August the Recreation Personnel 
Service handled a total of 2,771 pieces 
of incoming and outgoing first-class 
mail: 451 individuals were transferred 
from the active to the inactive list or 
vice versa; 29 new positions were re- 
ported; 41 positions were filled; 118 
confidential personnel records were 
made up and submitted to prospective 
employers upon request ; 50 individuals 
were interviewed; 582 referrals were 
made; 48 people registered with the 
Association for the first time. The types 
of positions handled and the areas of 
placement included executives, assist- 
ants, supervisors and leaders in con- 
nection with municipal recreation, 
schools, settlements, Police Athletic 
League, American Red Cross, voluntary 
youth serving agencies, and teen centers. 

Many individuals think of the fall, 
particularly October, as being a most 
active month for personnel. This is 
true in general but October, at least for 
1954, was pretty much like August 
which preceded it. The Personnel Serv- 
ice handled 2,386 incoming and outgo- 
ing pieces of first-class mail; 99 indi- 
viduals were transferred from inactive 
roles to the active, or vice versa ; 62 new 
positions were reported; 37 positions 
were filled; confidential personnel rec- 
ords were submitted for 73 individuals; 
and 210 persons were interviewed. Re- 

MR. SUTHERLAND is the director of 
the NRA Recreation Personnel Service. 

ferrals to positions numbered 625 and 
49 new people registered with the Per- 
sonnel Service. The types of positions 
and the areas of placement have a great 
deal in common with that reported 
above for the month of August and in- 
cluded executives, assistants, program 
directors, specialists, and leaders in mu- 
nicipal recreation, youth centers, settle- 
ments, state services, welfare councils, 
the U.S. Air Force, hospitals, hotels, 
youth serving agencies, Police Athletic 
League and the U.S.O. From the stand- 
point of demand on the time of the per- 
sonnel staff, there is some difference. 
During August part of our headquar- 
ters' staff is away and there is not the 
same pressure for attending conferences 
and special meetings. Also, special proj- 
ects and assignments and committee 
work are not as pressing as they are 
during the fall, winter and spring sea- 
sons. (If you are not so well acquainted 
with the services of the Recreation Per- 
sonnel Service aspect of the Associa- 
tion's work, it is suggested that you send 
for our free leaflet describing these 
services. ) 

We have been pleased to receive from 
Temple B. Jarrell, superintendent of 
recreation in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 
complimentary reaction to the Associ- 
ation's Personnel Standards in Recrea- 
tion Leadership.^ We quote from his 
recent letter: "You might be interested 
to know that the personnel standards 
which have been developed by the Na- 
tional Recreation Association were pos- 
itively outlined as being of tremendous 
aid to the personnel agencies at the 
Conference on Public Administration 
held this week in Miami." The meeting 
was the annual convention conducted 
by the Civil Service Assembly of the 
U.S. and Canada. 

Standards in general are receiving 
more attention and it is encouraging, 
for instance, to see the National Coun- 
cil for the Advancement of Hospital 
Recreation drafting standards for rec- 

Willard C. Sutherland 

reation personnel in hospitals. The 
council is made up of the hospital sec- 
tions of the American Recreation So- 
ciety, the AAHPER and the National 
Association of Recreation Therapy. The 
latter is an affiliate member of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association and the 
association serves in a consultative ca- 
pacity to the council. 

In an effort to improve standards and 
to advance professional education in 
the south, the Southern Regional Edu- 
cation Board will hold a meeting soon 
to consider what to do about the find- 
ings and recommendations contained 
in the report of the two-year study of 
leadership and training needs for the 
fourteen southern states. The NRA's 
district conferences will also make use 
of the report which is just out in book 
form. 2 The sessions at these meetings 
will deal specifically with standards and 
problems revealed by the study. 

The National Survey of Colleges and 
Universities has been completed and the 
report is now available. 3 This gives a 
general picture as to the present situa- 
tion with reference to professional cur- 
ricula for recreation, and deals with 
such specific subjects as recruiting, en- 
rollment and placement of students: 
conditions affecting faculty, including 
salaries and employment; facilities; 
curricula and student field experience. 
Incidentally, February graduates will 
soon be ready for positions. The recrea- 
tion educators reading this will, I hope, 
make sure that their own students are 
registered with the National Recreation 
Association. Also, former graduates 
who are ready for promotion should 
keep in touch with the Association's 
Recreation Personnel Service. 

'National Recreation Association [19481. 

Recreation as a Profession in the Southern 
Region, National Recreation Association. 
$3.75. ($3.00 on orders received prior to Janu- 
ary 15, 1955.) 

3 The Recreation Curriculum in U. S. Col- 
leges and Universities, P. 215, National Rec- 
reation Association. $.25 




George E. Craft, area recreation di- 
rector, Recreation Department, Orlan- 
do, Florida; Phyllis J. Davis, program 
director, Recreation Department, 
Clarksburg, West Virginia; Barbara 
Edler, executive director, Girl Scout 
Council, Council Bluffs, Iowa; H. Eliz- 
abeth Edwards, recreation supervisor, 
Recreation Department, Sarasota, Flor- 
ida; Harriet Fischer, teen-age director, 
International Institute, Niagara Falls, 
New York ; John K. Martin, director of 
junior division, St. Petersburg, Florida 
Yacht Club; Robert H. Milne, superin- 
tendent of recreation, Clayton, Mis- 

Barbara Patterson, program assist- 
ant, Recreation Department, Skokie, Il- 
linois ; James J . Romano, head of boys' 
department, Lewis Street Center, Roch- 
ester, New York; Ruth Schnepel, su- 
pervisor, Club Group, Children's Vil- 
lage, Dobbs Ferry, New York ; William 
H. Slattengren, superintendent of rec- 
reation, Springfield, Ohio; Gerald M. 
Smith, superintendent of recreation, 
Menasha, Wisconsin; Clifford E. Sulli- 
van, physical director and group work- 
er, YMCA, Scotch Plains, New Jersey. 


February 13-16 California State and 
Pacific Southwest Recreation Con- 
ference, Casa Del Rey Hotel, Santa 
Cruz, California. 

February 21-25 Great Lakes Park 
Training Institute for 1955, Poka- 
gon State Park, Angola, Indiana. 

February 24-26 American Camping 
Association 1955 Region Two Con- 
vention, Claridge Hotel, Atlantic 
City, New Jersey. 

March 21-25 Group Work Institute 
for Employed Workers, Boston 
University School of Social Work. 

March 23-24 Institute for Board Mem- 
bers, Boston University School of 
Social Work. 

March 28 Child Study Association of 
America Annual Conference, Hotel 
Astor, New York City. 

ENT for the City of Nanaimo, B.C., popula- 
tion 15,000. 

DUTIES. Under direction of the Recreation 
Commission, to organize, co-ordinate, and 
direct a full recreational program. 

REQUIREMENTS. College training in recrea- 
tion, or equivalent, as well as experience in 
community recreation organization. 

SALARY. Yearly contract $4,500 to $5,500 de- 
pending on qualifications. 

APPLICATIONS. Applications should give full 
personal details, training, experience, refer- 
ences, if presently employed, and when avail- 

Applications will be considered until January 31, 

1955 by: The Secretary 

Nanaimo Recreation Commission 
City Hall, Nanaimo, B.C. 

INFORMATION. Report of a recent recreation 
survey and Constitution of Recreation Com- 
mission are available on application. 

Dr. Henry 0. Dresser, professor of 
health, physical education, and recrea- 
tion at Louisiana State University, an- 
nounced recently that the university will 
soon establish an undergraduate minor 
in recreation. Louisiana State's gradu- 
ate school already offers an M.S. in rec- 
reation. Now, however, undergraduates 
majoring in physical education will be 
able to minor in recreation. Students 
majoring in dramatics, elementary edu- 
cation, or certain arts and sciences will 
also be offered the opportunity to minor 
in recreation. Included will be a field 
course in which students will get practi- 
cal experience working with the intra- 
mural department of the university, the 
Baton Rouge Recreation and Park Com- 
mission, and will also do some hospital 
recreation work. 

Oregon State College in Corvallis 
now has thirty recreation majors. Two 
of the field work students have been ap- 
prenticed to the local hospital and are 
working directly with the patients. The 
extension service of Oregon State under 
the direction of Jessalee Mallalieu is 
carrying on a training program for 
leaders in crafts in the rural areas. Met- 
al tooling proved to be the most popular 
course. Leadership training will also be 
given in home recreation, game leader- 
ship and square dancing. 

The University of Minnesota offers a 
number of correspondence courses in 
recreation already programmed as far 
ahead as 1956. Included in these are 
the "Social Aspects of Leisure" and the 
"Operation of Recreation Centers" un- 
der Dr. Gerald B. Fitzgerald. The 
"Nature and Function of Play" is a 
fundamental background course for 
either recreation or physical education 
and is directed by Herschel R. Giles. 
The "Orientation to Recreation in Hos- 
pitals" course, under Fred Chapman, 
examines the introductory principles of 
hospital recreation ; the philosophy and 
purposes of hospital recreation as well 
as the program content is highlighted. 

Michigan State College in East Lans- 
ing is now giving evening courses in 
conservation under the department of 
land and water conservation. Included 
in the program are courses in conserva- 
tion of natural resources, special con- 
servation problems, conservation edu- 
cation, and water pollution conservation 


law, the last given by Dr. F. C. Booth, 
assistant attorney general of the State 
of Michigan, who has represented the 
state Water Resources Commission in 
many court cases. 

MacMurray College in Jacksonville, 
Illinois, now offers two new programs 
for teachers of exceptional children and 
recreation leaders for the handicapped. 
These programs, developed under a 
$34,000 grant from the Field Founda- 
tion of Chicago, will be carried on with 
the cooperation of the Illinois School 
for the Deaf, the Illinois School for the 
Blind, and the Illinois State Hospital, 
all located in Jacksonville. The new 
program embraces an extensive course 
of training for teachers of deaf children. 
Another phase of the program will train 
recreation leaders for children handi- 
capped in sight, hearing, or learning 
ability. It will be possible for students 
to specialize either in recreational mu- 
sic, recreational dramatics, or recrea- 
tional games, dance, and social activi- 
ties. Graduates in this field will be 
qualified as recreation workers in hos- 
pitals, institutions, and public and priv- 
ate schools for exceptional children. 

The McGill Winter Carnival will pre- 
sent its seventh edition February 17-19 
at McGill University, Montreal. The 
carnival, at one time confined to the 
university itself, has branched out to 
the extent that the city of Montreal con- 
siders it a highlight of its winter sea- 
son and contributes financially to its 
support. Among this year's activities 
will be an international ski meet, an ice 
show, ice hockey matches, and an ath- 
letic afternoon including a swimming 
contest, synchronized swimming dem- 
onstration, basketball, floor hockey, and 
an inter-collegiate squash match. 

Grove City College, Grove City, Penn- 
sylvania is proud of its new recreation 
building used for sports, recreation, 
physical education and social purposes. 
A multi-purpose intramural room 
houses basketball, volleyball, badmin- 
ton and shuffleboard courts and also 
provides an excellent place for large 
dances, exhibits requiring use of heavy 
equipment, and elaborate pageantry. 
The building also boasts a swimming 
pool, eight-lane bowling alley, a foun- 
tain room and alumni lounge. 


4 Chess and checkers for two, three or 
four players is possible with Tri-King's 
recent Fourth Dimension set. Invented 
by Yun Gee. internationally famous 

American artist, the attractive game 
board has an ingenious "diamond 
bridge" which permits players to cross 
from one board to another. The rules 
and plays remain the same, but the pace 
is faster and the game more exciting. 
It is interesting to players of all ages 
from eight to eighty. Tri-King En- 
terprises, Inc., 51 East Tenth Street. 
New York 3, New York. 

4 Chemco features "everything for the 
swimming pool." This company, which 
is celebrating its thirtieth anniversary 
this year, has complete recirculation 
systems for all types and sizes of pools 
from small private pools to large mu- 
nicipal ones as well as various other 
equipment such as underwater lights, 
pumps and motors, and so on. Spring- 
boards, ladders, and other special items 
and pool accessories are also available 
from them. For information on their 
technical water preparation equipment 
see page 9. Complete data on their 
products may be obtained from Chem- 
co, Dept. RLA, P.O. Box 3098, Los An- 
geles 54, or Chemco, Dept. RCH, 205 
W. Wacker Drive, Chicago 6, Illinois. 

4 A new "unbreakable" table tennis 
paddle has been developed by the Na- 
tional Park and Recreation Supply Co., 
South Haven, Michigan. The paddle is 
made of light-weight magnesium and 
has a non-skid surface of material that 
will not peal or chip. Write to the com- 
pany for further detail. 

4 Ashaway Products, Inc., manufac- 
turer of braided strings for tennis rac- 
quets, has a very interesting little pam- 
phlet, Hour Guide to Good Courtsman- 
ship, which gives many tips on tennis 
playing and court etiquette. For a free 

copy, write to the company, Ashaway, 
Rhode Island. 

4 A new table-tennis table, the Sico 
Model 2100, incorporates such features 
as portability, sturdy construction, and 
storage in small space. The unit is regu- 
lation size and height but, when not in 
use, it may be quickly and easily folded 
up and rolled away to be stored in a 
space only five feet by one foot. For 

additional information write Sico Man- 
ufacturing Inc., 6045 Pillsbury Avenue 
South, Minneapolis 19, Minnesota. 

4 The Magna-Board, an educational 
toy for children, has many possibilities 
for use in spelling games and relays for 
parties and social nights for groups of 
all ages. The flock-coated board is ten 
by twelve inches, and the ninety letters 

will. Each game is packaged in a handy 
plastic bag for storing. Ohio Flock-Cote 
Co., 3713 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, 

4 New adjustable bankboard sections, 
known as the "Butterfly" and "T 
Square," recently developed by Jay 
Archer, originator of Biddy Basketball, 
now make it possible to convert regula- 
tion basketball courts into courts for 
smaller players in a matter of minutes. 
The "Butterfly" unit attaches to the fan- 
shaped bankboard, and the "T Square" 

and numbers supplied with the game ad- 
here to the surface of the board and can 
be quickly pressed on and removed at 

attaches to the rectangular one. The 
units are easy to convert, light in weight, 
and economically priced. Raja Units 
Co., 1417 Diamond Avenue, Scranton, 

4 Something different and unique in 
the way of the "month clubs" was re- 
cently formed "The Bait of the Month 
Club," a sportsman's group plan. The 
club's testing board is composed of ex- 
pert fishermen from various parts of the 
country. They receive the artificial 
lures, and try them under all conditions 
and rate them according to their per- 
formance. When a bait gets the club 
seal of approval it will be sent to the 
membership some time during the year. 
Members sign up for three, six, or twelve 
months and receive a different lure each 
month with bonus baits at different 
times during the subscription year. 
Membership is open to everyone. Bait 
of the Month Club, Box 4158, Austin, 


When writing to these manufacturers please mention RECREATION. 


Books & Pamphlets 

S. Daniels. Harper & Brothers, Col- 
lege Department, 49 East 33rd Street, 
New York 16. Pp. 538. $6.00.* 

Gibbs-Smith. John de Graff, Inc., 64 
West 23rd Street, New York 10. Pp. 
239. $2.50. 

Beard and Hannah Robins. Hart 
Publishing Company, Inc., 670 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 19. Pp. 159. 

ANIMAL FUNBOOK, Timothy Crane and 
Mary C. Pone. Hart Publishing Com- 
pany, Inc., 670 Fifth Avenue, New 
York 19. Pp. 160. $1.25. 

John Lipovetz. Burgess Publishing 
Company, 426 S. Sixth Street, Minne- 
apolis 15. Pp. 170. $5.00. 

United States Committee of the Inter- 
national Conference of Social Work, 
Inc., 345 East 46th Street, New York 
17. Pp. 4 (mimeographed). Single 
copies free to recreation leaders ; ad- 
ditional copies $.07 each; $5.00 per 

SERVICES, (October 1954). Compiled 
by the State of California Recreation 
Commission, Documents Section, 
State Printing Office, Sacramento 14, 
California. Pp. 17. $.50 (plus two 
cents tax on California addresses) . 

Association Press, 291 Broadway, 
New York 7. Pp.258. $4.00.* 

PHOTOGRAPHS. E. P. Dutton & Com- 
pany, Inc., 300 Fourth Avenue, New 
York 10. Pp. 144. $7.50.* 

B. Olds. Adult Education Associa- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, NW, 
Washington 6, D. C. Summary Re- 
port Pp. 20. $.25. Complete Re- 
port Pp. 124. $1.25. 

and Hannah Robins. Hart Publish- 
ing Company, Inc., 670 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 19. Pp. 159. $1.25. 

Ben Hunt. Pp. 112. $1.50. HORSE 
STORIES, Elizabeth Coatsworth and 
Kate Barnes. Pp. 30. $1.00. Simon 


& Schuster, Inc., 630 Fifth Avenue, 
Rockefeller Center, New York 20.* 

rence K. Frank. Association Press, 
291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 62. 

FURNITURE, Norman Cherner. Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 330 
West 42nd Street, New York 36. Pp. 
144. $3.95.* 

and Larry Eisenberg. Association 
Press, 291 Broadway, New York 7. 
Pp. 64. $1.00.* 

and Theon Wright. Prentice-Hall, 
Inc., 70 Fifth Avenue, New York 11. 
Pp.376. $4.00.* 

Division of Youth Services, The 
American Jewish Committee, 386 
Fourth Avenue, New York 16. Pp. 
40. $.20. 

V. Miller. Public Administration 
Service, Publications Division, 1313 
East 60th Street, Chicago 37. Pp. 81. 

NATURE FUNBOOK, Gerald M. Straight. 
Hart Publishing Company, Inc., 670 
Fifth Avenue, New York 19. Pp.159. 

180 GAMES FOR 1 PLAYER, J. B. Pick. 
Philosophical Library, Inc., 15 East 
40th Street, New York 16. Pp. 137. 


BASKETBALL GUIDE. Pp. 219 (plus 36 
pages of rules) . $1.00. OFFICIAL ICE 
HOCKEY GUIDE. Pp. 78. $1.00. OFFI- 
GUIDE, 1954. Pp. 158. $1.00. . The 
National Collegiate Athletic Bureau, 
Box 757, Grand Central Station, New 
York 17. 

Robert B. Thomas. John Hancock 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, 200 
Berkeley, Boston 16. Pp. 112. $.25. 

Proctor. John de Graff, Inc., 64 West 
23rd Street, New York 10. Pp. 157. 

Phillips-Birt. John de Graff, Inc., 64 
West 23rd Street, New York 10. Pp. 
207. $8.00. 

COUNSELORS, Russel J. Fornwalt. Big 
Brother Movement, 33 Union Square 

West, New York 3. Pp. 4. (mimeo- 
graphed) $.25. 

SCIENCE FUNBOOK, Gerald M. Straight. 
Hart Publishing Company, 670 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 19. Pp. 160. 

How TO Do IT SAFELY. The Home 
Insurance Company, 59 Maiden 
Lane, New York 8. Pp. 46. Free. 

chusetts Community Organization 
Service, 3 Joy Street, Boston 8, Mas- 
sachusetts. Pp.88. $1.00. 

Magazine Articles 

BEACH AND POOL, October 1954 

Pool Chlorinating Equipment, Alvin 
R. Murphy, Jr. 

November, 1954 

Synchronized Swimming Exhibi- 
tions, Beulah Gundling. 

Common Errors in Pool Design and 
Construction, Charles M. Graves. 

Methods of Disinfecting Swimming 
Pool Water, E. R. Hendrickson. 

Effects of Pool Water on Bathers 

Baylor University's Summer Day 

Camp, James G. Mason. 
Recreation and the Tax Dollar, 

Henry O. Dresser. 
How We Do It 

An Employee Looks at Training, 

James W. Hawell. 
Recreation Activities Stressed for 

U.S. Troops in Korea, Corporal 

John Blumenthal. 

November 1954 

Detroiters Believe in Recreation, 

John. J. Considine. 
Design With Maintenance in Mind, 

M. H. Howitt. 

Soil-Cement Paving ; a method to pre- 
vent water seepage and protect 
pools against undergrowth. 
Unobstructed Shelter House Interior. 
Personnel Policy The Elements 
which Make it Succeed, H. C. 

* These publications are available from the 
National Recreation Association at list price 
plus fifteen cents for each book ordered to 
cover postage and handling. Active Associate 
and Affiliate Members of the Association re- 
ceive a ten per cent discount on list price. 
Remittances should accompany orders from in- 
dividuals; organizations and recreation de- 
partments will be billed on their official orders. 
Address orders to Combined Book Service, 
National Recreation Association, 8 West 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 

Effective Leadership in Human 

Henry Clay Lindgren, Hermitage 
House, Inc., 8 West 13th Street, New 
York 13. Pp.287. $3.50. 

This is a very readable book and one 
which might be classified as "popular 
psychology." Although considerable 
discussion is centered around hostility, 
the author is entirely constructive and 
positive in his approach. He deals with 
the sources and types of hostility and 
explains how it is expressed. The pat- 
terns of behavior are described and 
many illustrations are provided. 

Four types of leadership are defined 
and he brings out quite clearly the fact 
that we are going through a transition 
period and are changing over from the 
old paternalistic type of leadership to 
the newer democratic approach. He 
calls attention to the differences between 
the dynamic and the administrative 
types of leadership and identifies ele- 
ments which make the leader different 
from other people. He stresses the im- 
portance of communication and the 
sharing of power, authority, and re- 
sponsibility with others as a means of 
developing and strengthening leaders. 
The book should be a helpful guide to 
those working with groups and organi- 
zations as well as to those who are train- 
ing for, or who find themselves in, posi- 
tions of leadership. W . C. Sutherland, 
Director, Recreation Personnel Service, 
National Recreation Association. 

Teaching Adults 

Malcolm S. Knowles. Association 
Press, 291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 
71. $1.00.* 

This is a two-chapter excerpt in pam- 
phlet form, of Mr. Knowles' full-length 
book, Informal Adult Education, which 
was published in 1950. It provides, in 
inexpensive form, a presentation of 
guiding principles and techniques for 
members of planning committees, lay 
leaders, and teachers of informal 
courses. For recreation leaders who de- 
sire to help groups in setting up such 
courses, it should prove helpful indeed. 
The second half, in particular, which in- 
cludes an explanation of informal 
courses and their role in an organiza- 
tion, the organization of a program, de- 

termining what subjects to offer, sched- 
uling, selecting and supervising instruc- 
tors, administrative procedures, finan- 
cial policies and practices, could prove 

Don't, by the way, miss Mr. Knowles' 
editorial on page fifty-two of the next 
issue of RECREATION. 

Exploring Our National Parks and 
Monuments (Fourth Edition) 

Devereux Butcher. Houghton-Mifflin 
Company, 2 Park Street, Boston 7. Pp. 
288. $4.50.* 

Another beautiful, revised edition of 
this always interesting book has been 
off-the-press since September. Since 
publication of the last edition in 1951 
the author, Devereux Butcher, has trav- 
eled the country, literally from border 
to border visiting national parks, na- 
ture monuments, and so on taking 
pictures for this book. 

Sixteen pages are in color, and 280 
striking halftone illustrations are in- 
cluded. Maps show the location of all 
areas described, and the narrative tells 
about road and trail trips to world- 
famous beauty spots and scenic won- 
ders. This is an invaluable book for all 
persons who are planning to visit or 
have visited these places and for the 
wilderness enthusiast, nature-lover 
and all who enjoy the out-of-doors. 

Working With the Handicapped 

Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., 155 East 
44th Street, New York 17. Pp. 127. 


This paperbound booklet is a leader's 
guide. It is designed to give a summary 
of special information needed by any 
adult working with special problem 
children. While geared, of course, to 
the Girl Scout program, it is a valuable 
contribution in a field sadly lacking in 
practical material, and should be very 
helpful to other organizations and rec- 
reation departments who are becoming 
more and more aware of their responsi- 
bilities to those youngsters who, be- 
cause of various handicaps, do not fit 
into the normal program. 

A novel presentation of various types 
of handicapped children the blind, 

* See footnote on page 47. 

deaf, orthopedically handicapped, epi- 
leptic, tubercular, retarded, delinquent 
is made by giving the point of view 
of a specialist or doctor in each field. 

A listing of non-government agen- 
cies, and a classified bibliography 
testify to the thoroughness evident 
throughout this guide. 

New Books on Underwater Sport 

To HIDDEN DEPTHS, Captain Philippe 
Tailliez. E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 300 
Fourth Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 188. 

KEYS TO FORTUNE, Frances McGuire. 
E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 300 Fourth 
Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 124. $2.50.* 

Simon Codrington. John de Graff, Inc., 
64 West 23rd Street, New York 10. Pp. 

80. $1.75. 

The new interest in exploring the 
wonders beneath the sea which has been 
sparked by the activities of the frog- 
men in World War II and by the perfec- 
tion of underwater equipment, and pho- 
tography as well, is resulting in the 
publication of a rash of books on this 
fascinating subject. These three are 
among the latest. The first, by a com- 
mander of the Undersea Research 
Group of the French Navy, is an under- 
sea adventure, telling of the experiences 
and explorations of some of the under- 
water pioneers. It is illustrated with 
beautiful photographs in color as well 
as in black and white. The second is a 
book for boys, telling the story of a 
youngster who is taught underwater 
swimming tricks by a navy frogman. 
An expert in underwater hunting has 
written the last as a guide to newcom- 
ers to this field. He discusses equipment 
and its use, hunting technique, some of 
the fish such as sharks which might 
be termed the "terrors of the deep." 


Association Films 
American Camping Association ... 
Byron, W. D., & Sons 
Chemical Equipment Company 



Elgin Retinite 31 

Gropper Company, The Jerome ... 1 

Jayfro Athletic Supply Company 1 

Johnny Jones, Jr. 11 

Medart, Fred, Products, Incorporated 7 

Nanaimo Recreation Commission 45 

Voit Rubber Company 1 

X-acto, Inc. 1 



Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 


Creative Recreation 


Arts and Crafts 

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 
January 24-27 

Canton, Ohio 
January 31-February 3 

Greenville, Mississippi 
February 7-10 

Tempe, Arizona 
February 28-March 3 

Pasadena, California 
March 21-31 

Fort Pierce, Florida 
January 10-13 

Reidsville, North Carolina 
January 24-27 

Mooresville, North Carolina 
January 31-February 3 

Lumberton, North Carolina 
February 7-10 

Griffin, Georgia 
February 14-17 

Milstead, Georgia 
February 28-March 3 

Manchester, Georgia 
March 7-10 

Cicero, Illinois 
March 14-17 

Emporia, Kansas 
March 21-24 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 
January 31-February 3 

State of Florida 
February 21-March 25 
(Pensacola-February 21-25; 
Tampa-March 7-11) 

St. Louis, Missouri 
January 10-13 and 
February 7-10 

Ames, Iowa 
January 24-27 

Pasadena, California 
February 28-March 3 

Long Beach, California 
March 7-10 

Phoenix, Arizona 
March 14-17 

Toledo, Ohio 
January 10-20 

Alexandria, Virginia 
January 31-February 3 

Sumter, South Carolina 
February 7-10 

Greensboro, North Carolina 
February 14-17 

Miss Ruth E. Swezey, The Playground and Recreation Association 
of Wyoming Valley, 306 Bennett Building 

C. W. Schnake, Recreation Director, Canton City School District, 
Safety Building 

E. M. Ward, Recreation Director 

Miss Anne Pittman, Women's Physical Education Department, Ari- 
zona State College 

Edward E. Bignell, Director of Recreation, 1501 East Villa Street 
Woodrow W. Dukes, Director, St. Lucie County Recreation Board 

Miss Virginia Gregory, Recreation Specialist, North Carolina Rec- 
reation Commission, Room 134, Education Building Annex, Raleigh 

George S. Gentry, Jr., Recreation Director 
James F. Snider, Callaway Mills Company 
C. V. Blankenship, Callaway Mills Company 

Alan B. Domer, Executive Director, Cicero Youth Commission, 5341 
W. Cermak Road 

James A. Peterson, Superintendent of Recreation, 120 West Fifth 

Loyd B. Hathaway, Superintendent of Recreation 

Dr. Robert L. Fairing, Head, Department of Citizenship Training, 
General Extension Division of Florida, University of Florida, Gaines- 

John A. Turner, Recreation Superintendent, Municipal Courts 

George Wilkinson, Extension Associate in Recreation, Iowa State 
College of Agriculture 

Edward E. Bignell, Director of Recreation, 1501 East Villa Street 

Duane George, Long Beach Recreation Commission, Municipal Aud- 

Henry T. Swan, Superintendent of Recreation, 2700 North 15th 

Eugene Shenefield, Executive Secretary, Toledo Council of Social 
Agencies, 441 Huron Street 

Eugene L. Barn well, Director of Recreation, 1605 Cameron Street 

Harry R. Bryan, City Recreation Director 

Oka T. Hester, Director, Parks and Recreation Department 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsor 
of the course as listed above. 


Wes< Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter 

She shot the ashes 
off the Kaiser's cigaret 

HER name was Phoebe Mozee and she 
was born in Darke County, Ohio, in 
1860, and she could shoot the head off a 
running quail when she was twelve years old. 

Once, at the invitation of Kaiser Wil- 
helm II of Germany, she knocked the ashes 
off a cigaret he was holding in his mouth. 

When she out-shot the great exhibition 
marksman, Frank Butler, he fell in love 
with her and married her and they were 
ideally happy together for the rest of their 
long lives. 

She could handle a rifle or a six-gun 
with an artistry unsurpassed by that of any 
human being before her time or, probably, 
since. And when she appeared with Sitting 
Bull and other notables in Colonel Cody's 
Wild West Show, she thrilled your father 
and mother not as Phoebe Anne Oakley 
Mozee but as "Little Sure Shot," the im- 
mortal Annie Oakley. 

Annie Oakley, the poor back-country 
orphan girl who made her way to world- 
wide fame, was the very spirit of personal 
independence. That spirit is just as much 
alive in our generation as it was in hers. 
It is among the great assets of our people 
and our nation. And it is one very great 
reason why our country's Savings Bonds 
are perhaps the finest investment in the 
world today. 

Make that investment work for you! 
Increase your personal independence and 
your family's security, by buying United 
States Savings Bonds starting now! 

It's actually easy to save money when you 

buy United States Series E Savings Bonds 
through the automatic Payroll Savings Plan 
where you work! You just sign an applica- 
tion at your pay office; after that your sav- 
ing is done for you. And the Bonds you 
receive will pay you interest at the rate of 
3% per year, compounded semiannually, for 
as long as 19 years and 8 months if you 
wish! Sign up today! Or join the Bond-A- 
Month Plan at your bank. 

For your own security and your country's, too 
incest in U. S. Savings Bonds! 

The V. S. Government does not pay jot this ttdstTtittmtnt, li M ilimntril l>\ this inililii-nliini in cooperation with the 
Advertising Council and the Magazine Publishers oj America. 


Looking ahead to summer programs? Need materials . . . for play- 
ground leadership training courses . . . for volunteer leaders . . . for 
new personnel . . . for experienced personnel in search of new 
ideas? These publications are geared to your needs. Order now! 

Arts and Crafts Book List (P 42) 

Extensive listing of references classified by types of 

Craft Projects for Camp and Playground (P 173)... 

Finger Puppets (P 112) 

Flying High Kites and Kite Tournaments (P 65). 

Make Your Own Games (P 124) 

Make Your Own Puzzles (P 126) 

Masks Fun to Make and Wear (P 107) 

Nature Crafts for Camp and Playground (P 177)..., 

Nature Prints (P 180) 

Simple Frames For Weaving (P 178) 

Simple Puppetry (P 96) 

Directions for making and leadership techniques. 

Nature Games for Various Situations (P 187) 

Informal Dramatics; Playground Series: No. 2 (P 100). 

Inexpensive Costumes for Plays. Festivals and Pageants 
(P 203) 

A detailed discussion of inexpensive costumes how to 
make them, materials to use, how to costume a play, etc. 





Joseph Lee Memorial Pageant (P 58) 25 

Pageants and Programs for School, Church and 
Playground (P 206) 

Active Games for the Live Wires (P 98). 

88 Successful Play Activities 

Rules for many special events, including kite contests, 
doll shows, pushmobile contests, marble tournaments 
and many others. 


For the Storyteller 50 

How to select stories and tell them effectively; bibli- 

Games for Boys and Men 50 

He-man activities! Active and quiet games, stunts, con- 
tests and other fun-filled ideas. 

A Playground Fair (P 138) 25 

A playground show featuring music, dancing and nov- 
elty acts. 

Singing Games (P 21) 50 

Well-known and not-so-well-known singing games for 
the five-to-seven age group. 

Suggestions for an Amateur Circus (P 130) 35 

Treasure Hunts (MP 212) 35 

Excitement, adventure and loads of fun in these hints 
for hunts. 

Action Songs (P 89) 35 

Songs which provide fun and exercise for large groups 
where space is limited. 

Annotated Bibliography for Music Leaders in Camp, Play- 
ground, Recreation Center (MP 303) 15 

Community and Assembly Singing 75 

A 64-page guide for those conducting community sing- 

The Playground Leader His Place in the Program (P 103) 50 

A discussion of the importance of leadership and ways 
of developing the qualities of good leadership. 

Some Leadership "Do's" (MP 389) 25 

Personnel qualifications, preparation for recreation lead- 
ership and leadership techniques. 

Youth Out of Doors (P 216) 15 

Suggestions for various kinds of outings, sports and out- 
door social activities and service projects. 

PLAYGROUND SUMMER NOTEBOOK ............................................................ 2.50 

Twelve bulletins on playground activities and programs, available 
as a set in April. (Price to NRA members $2.00.) 

Special Playground Issues 

April 1952 ................................................................................................... 35 

April 1953 ................................................................................................... 35 

April 1955 (Available March 25. Copies may be ordered now.) .50 

8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 


NO. 38 


It's a space saver! It's a money-saver, too! 

Yes, here's a Playground Combination Set that has been care- 
fully planned to solve the problem of limited space. Small 
playgrounds can install the Porter No. 38, and still provide 
a wide variety of healthful exercise and fun for the children. 
Look at all the apparatus this one unit affords! Two Stand- 
ard See-Saws, one Horizontal Bar, two Swings, a Pair of 
Flying Rings, one Trapeze, and one 16-ft. Porter Safety Slide 
plus the sturdy 10-ft. steel frame that's galvanized inside 
and out and held rigidly together for years and years with 
Tested Malleable Iron fittings of exclusive Porter design. 
The No. 38 Combination Set has price appeal, too. Write for 
the attractively low figure, and complete specifications. Im- 
mediate delivery! 





THE J. E. 







Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 



When writing to our advertisers please mentien RECREATION. 


A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 


The National Advisory Committee on Recreation Administration, composed of administrators of public recreation 
and park services in communities both large and small throughout the country, has been appointed to study a variety 
of important and currently difficult administrative problems, and to make available to the Association and to the national 
recreation movement the best information and experience obtainable for meeting these challenging questions. 


General Manager, Department of Recreation and Parks 

Los Angeles, California 

CHARLES E. REED Secretary 

Manager, Field Department, National Recreation Association 

New York, New York 

Superintendent of Parks and 

Klamath Falls, Oregon 


Director of Recreation, Playground 

and Recreation Board 
Waukegan, Illinois 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Whittier, California 

Director of Recreation 
Bangor, Maine 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Washington, D. C. 

Director of Recreation 
Anaconda, Montana 


General Superintendent, Department 

of Parks and Recreation 
Detroit, Michigan 

Director, Recreation and 

Community Center 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

Superintendent of Parks and 

Elkhart, Indiana 

Director of Recreation 
Brunswick, Maine 


Superintendent of Public Recreation 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Superintendent, Board of Park 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Spartenburg, South Carolina 


Director of Recreation 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 


Superintendent of Recreation 
Caldwell, New Jersey 

Director of Recreation 
Boise, Idaho 

Director of Recreation 
Tucson, Arizona 


Director of Parks and Recreation 

Inglewood, California 


Recreation Director, Recreation 

Faribault, Minnesota 


Superintendent of Recreation 
Wichita, Kansas 

Director of Recreation 
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Lubbock, Texas 

Superintendent of Recreation 
San Antonio, Texas 

Director of Recreation 
Bend, Oregon 

Dow House 
Hopkins, Minnesota 

Superintendent of Parks and 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Monroe, Louisiana 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Director of Recreation 
Fresno, California 

Director of Recreation, 

Alachua County 
Gainesville, Florida 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Dallas. Texas 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Sioux City, Iowa 


Superintendent of Recreation 
Iowa City, Iowa 

Director of Recreation 
Evansville, Indiana 

$"n<>rintendent of Recreation 
Statesboro, Georgia 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Mobile, Alabama 

Superintendent of Parks and 

Poplar Bluff, Missouri 


Director of Recreation and Parks 

Bremerton, Washington 


Superintendent of Recreation 
Brattleboro, Vermont 

Director of Recreation, 

Leominster Recreation Center 
Leominster, Massachusetts 


Superintendent, Metropolitan 

Park District 
Ya'rima, Washington 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Sacramento, California 

Director of Recreation 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin 

Superintendent, Arlington County 

Department of Recreation 
Arlington, Virginia 


Director, Carver Community Center 

Evansville, Indiana 

Executive Director, Recreation 
Promotion and Service, Inc. 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Superintendent of Parks and 

Bismarck, North Dakota 

Director nf Recreation 
Denver, Colorado 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Dearborn, Michigan 


Director of Municipal and 

School Recreation 
Long Beach, California 

Superintendent, Monongalia County 

Consolidated Recreation 

Com m zssion 
Morgantown, West Virginia 

Director of Recreation 
Concord, New Hampshire 


Superintendent of Recreation 

Nashville, Tennessee 


Superintendent of Recreation 

Oakland. California 


Director, Jefferson County Recreation 

and Playgrounds 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Director-Secretary, Akron 

Metropolitan Parks 
Akron, Ohio 

Director of Recreation 
Clairton, Pennsylvania 


Rational Catholic Community Service 

Washington, D. C. 

Director, Smith Street 

Community Center 
Norfolk, Virginia 


Director of Parks and Recreation 

Corpus Christ!, Texas 


Director, Department of Public 

Durham, North Carolina 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Grrrunburg, Pennsylvania 







Editorial Assistant, AMELIA HENLY 

Business Manager, ALFRED H. WILSON 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 


Price 50 Cents 

No. 2 

n the Cover 

WINTER FUN. Snowy days of dazzling white, 
inchy snow and crisp clear air, bring 'an exhuber- 

ice of spirits and of energy. The out-of-doors rings 
dth the sound of steel on ice, the swish of skiis, the 

ownhill run of the tobaggan to the accompani- 
ient of shouts and laughter. These are the sounds 
exhilaration and health twin rewards of outdoor 

inter recreation. Photo courtesy of Sun Valley 
Jews Bureau, Steve Hannaghan Associates, New 

text Month 

Suggestions and ideas to help you in your plan- 
ling for April, which is National Hobby Month. 
Vmong them, "Hobbies Develop the Executive" and 
Include Hobbies and Hobby Shows in Your Pro- 
ram." All those who are planning to go to the 37th 
National Recreation Congress in Denver will be 
specially interested in Earl Schlupp's "Public Rec- 
eation in Denver." "Baseball for Boys" gives de- 
ails of the testing program in Cortland, New York. 

hoto Credits 

Page 52, Fabian Bachrach, Chicago; 65, WPA 
Federal Theatre Photos; 66, R. E. Tenney, Daily 
"regress, Charlottesville; 69, Polly Parrot Studio, 
Fayetteville ; 70, American Music Conference, Chi- 
cago; 72, (top left) John LeCaire, Arlington, (top 
nght) Post Journal, Jamestown, (bottom left) Ver- 
lon Langdon, Greenville, (bottom right) Council 
of Social Agencies, Columbus; 73, (top right) Ike 
Vern, New York; 76, A. C. Keily Studio, Birming- 
ham; 82, The Kalamazoo Gazette, Kalamazoo; 84, 
85, Charles Perry, Manchester; 88, Berkeley Gazette, 

RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a 
service organization supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, at 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
York; is on file in public libraries and is indexed in 
the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. 
Canadian and foreign subscription rate $4.50. Re- 
entered as second-class matter April 25, 1950, at the 
Post Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879- Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1 103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. Microfilms of cur- 
rent issues available University Microfilms, 3 1 3 N. First 
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Space Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 East 
44th Street, New York 17, New York; Mark Minahan, 
168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; Keith 
H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, and 
593 Market Street, Suite 304, San Francisco 5, 

Copyright, 1955, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. .-4U,-. 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 




Recreation and Adult Education (Editorial) Malcolm S. Knowles 90 

Why Recreation Programs for the Aging? Wilma Clizbe 59 

Recreation in the Day of King Charles I Otto T. Mallery 60 

Personalities I Have Met Richard Schirrmann 

William G. Vinal 61 

Recreation Goes Underwater Al Tillman 62 

Police-Sponsored Recreation : Advantages and 

Disadvantages Joseph E. Curtis 64 

Abe (Poem) Robert Kresge 67 

Senior Citizens in Recreation Things Being 

Done By Them 70 

Fellowships for Professional Workers Concerned with 

Handicapped People 85 


Outdoor Swimming Pools Part II George D. Butler 74 

The Recreation Board Member's Creed 79 

Research Reviews and Abstracts 80 


From Courtroom to Classroom Helen Coover 82 

A Cigarette or Jewelry Box (How to Do It!) . . .Frank A. Staples 83 

Swimming for Handicapped Children James F. Herdic, Jr. 84 

How to Flavor Your Holiday Parties 86 

Helping Senior Citizens to Direct Their 

Own Activities, Jacqueline Watkins 88 

Service Projects for Older People (Idea of the Month) 90 


Letters 54 

Things You Should Know 56 

Editorially Speaking 58 

Reporter's Notebook 68 

Listening and Viewing 91 

Personnel W. C. Sutherland 92 

Market News 94 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Periodicals, 

Magazine Articles 95 

New Publications 96 

Advertisers Index 96 

How to Do It ! Idea of the Month See Program 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses Inside Back Cover 



Adult Education 

Malcolm S. Knowles 

Malcolm Knowles 

I am frequently- 
asked, what is the 
difference be- 
tween adult edu- 
cation and recrea- 
tion? The ques- 
tion is raised, I 
suppose, because 
some activities 

that are labeled "adult education" seem 
to have some characteristics similar to 
those labeled "recreation." A group of 
young women are making ceramics in 
a YWCA. Is this adult education or rec- 
reation? A group of men are tying 
trout flies in an evening high school 
program. Is this adult education or rec- 
reation? A group of young men and 
women are folk dancing in a park dis- 
trict fieldhouse. Is this adult education 
or recreation? Or how about a painting 
class, a music appreciation group, a 
camera club, or even a discussion group, 
that might be meeting in a church, a 
school, a social agency, or a community 

Is the test whether the activity is 
being sponsored by a recreation agency 
or an education institution? Is it 
whether the group is having fun? Is 
it whether anybody is learning any- 

Before trying to answer the basic 
question as to the difference between 
adult education and recreation, there 
are a couple of prior questions we prob- 
ably ought to tackle. The first is, why 
is this an issue? Several reasons are 

MALCOLM S. KNOWLES is the adminis- 
trative coordinator for the Adult Edu- 
cation Association in Chicago, Illinois. 


given. One is professional training and 
standards. If there is a difference be- 
tween adult education and recreation, 
then presumably different types of pro- 
fessional training and standards are re- 
quired for workers in each field. 
Another is delineation of functions 
among agencies. 

As recently as 1951 a committee of 
the California Senate criticized the pub- 
lic schools of that state for including 
activities in their adult education pro- 
grams that the committee considered 
recreation, on the score that recreation 
activities are not appropriate in the 
schools. It went so far as to state that 
"There is considerable doubt as to the 
need for lecture and forum programs to 
be paid for by the State . . . and the 
line between education and entertain- 
ment is often difficult to distinguish." 

I have even witnessed similar diffi- 
culties in delineation of function be- 
tween departments of a single agency 
a YMCA, to be specific. Perhaps a third 
reason why this is an issue has to do 
with the psychology of participation. 
Some people seem to believe that a rec- 
reation activity gets a different quality 
of participation from its members than 
an education activity the former being 
more carefree, the latter being more 

A second problem we must tackle be- 
fore we can get to the basic question 
is that of definition. What do we mean 
by "adult education" and "recreation." 
I like Howard Braucher's definition of 
recreation as "any form of leisure-time 
experience or activity in which an in- 
dividual engages from choice because of 
the enjoyment and satisfaction that it 

brings directly to him." I especially like 
his extension of this definition: "Rec- 
reation represents activity freely chosen, 
which offers the individual opportunity 
for genuine satisfaction, creative ex- 
pression, and development of his 
powers." I suppose this definition ap- 
peals to me because it sounds so much 
like my own definition of adult educa- 
tion as "any activity engaged in volun- 
tarily by mature men and women that 
produces changes in their knowledge, 
understanding, skills, attitudes, inter- 
ests, or appreciations." 

These definitions lead me to what I 
used to think was the difference between 
adult education and recreation ; namely, 
purpose. I find that in 1950 I wrote, "A 
recreational activity is distinguished 
frpm an adult educational activity by 
the purpose of the participant. If an 
individual participates in an activity for 
the purpose of learning, for him it is an 
educational activity; if he participates 
in it for the purpose of enjoyment, it 
is recreational." 

I no longer believe this is the differ- 

What is Your Attitude on 
This Subject? 

You, our readers, are invited to 
write your ideas on this subject to 
RECREATION Magazine, 8 West 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
V^ork, so that they may be exchanged 
with other readers via our Letters 
page. If you wish to remain anony- 
mous, please so state and we will use 
only your initials. Your signature, 
however, may bring you personal 
answers. Ed. 


ence. I have come to have too much 
respect for the power of secondary learn- 
ings that occur almost without relation- 
ship to the primary purpose of an 
activity. For example, the best job I 
have ever seen done in changing preju- 
diced attitudes toward racial minorities 
occured as a secondary learning in a 
social dance group. I have also come to 
see that frequently the most enjoyable 
activities are those that give the satis- 
faction of personal growth and that the 
best learning experiences are pleasur- 

This kind of analysis suggests that 
the test of what is recreation and what 
is adult education is outcome. If the 
outcome of an activity is enjoyment and 
satisfaction, then the activity is recrea- 
tion. If the outcome is learning the 
development of knowledge, understand- 
ings, skills, attitudes, interests, or values 
then the activity is adult education. 
This is where I would take my stand 

I would like to go further, and say 
that ideally there should be no differ- 
ence between adult education and adult 
recreation. My reasoning is that adult 
education ought always to be recrea- 
tional, in the sense that it should result 
in "genuine satisfaction, creative ex- 
pression, and the development of 
powers." And recreation ought always 
to be adult education, in the sense that 
it should yield the highest enjoyment of 
all, the enjoyment of self-improvement. 

As I see it, the happy marriage of 
these two approaches to human welfare 
will occur not so much as the result of 
abstract philosophizing as through the 
artistry of our workers. The artistic 
adult educator will introduce a recrea- 
tion spirit into the serious study of great 
books, or language, or public affairs, or 
the arts, so that each individual will 
derive from it not only a sense of per- 
sonal growth but a sense of creative 
satisfaction and an enjoyment of the 
activity for its own sake. The artistic 
recreation leader will introduce into 
activities that are pleasurable in and of 
themselves the added bonus of experi- 
ence that produces personal growth and 
broadened personalities. 

On this latter point let me give a 
few concrete examples. Years ago I had 
the opportunity to do some recreation 
work with an unusually able recreation 

leader. The thing I remember mos 
vividly about her leadership is that to 
her no activity was a final, fixed equa 
tion. It was always in the process o: 
evolution. She constantly challenged her 
groups to evaluate their experience anc 
improve upon it invent new rules, new 
variations. She practiced what I now 
see is an adult education attitude towarc 
recreation, in which each experience is 
seen as a stepping stone to a new ex- 

Some time later I had the good for- 
tune to observe another adult educator 
in recreation worker's clothing. She was 
the leader of a painting club people 
who had graduated from a painting 
class and were now meeting weekly as a 
club to pursue the pure pleasure of 
creative painting. With the guidance of 
this creative leader, the club would take 
the art of a different country every 
month or two as a special project; and, 
in the course of its quest for beauty, the 
group would learn more about the gen- 
eral culture and human institutions of a 
country than I have seen brought out in 
courses designed specifically for this 

I have seen other leaders of handcraft 
groups, cooking groups, sewing groups, 
and musical groups subtly stretch the 
minds, broaden the interests and deepen 
the appreciations of recreation groups 
by the artistic use of "secondary learn- 
ings." I have, of course, also seen rec- 
reation leaders who left their groups 
exactly where they found them in their 
ability to enjoy life; and I have seen 
adult educators who set the intellectual 
curiosity of their groups back ten years 
by their dull teaching. Happily, both 
types are rapidly disappearing as rec- 
reation workers and adult educators are 
increasingly coming to recognize how 
much each has to give the other. 

While adult education and recreation 
may always have some distinguishing 
difference in flavor, the evidence seems 
clear that they are closer and closer to- 
gether in aims and methods. I hope that 
increasing numbers of adult educators 
will avail themselves of the recreation 
spirit in your splendid magazine, REC- 
REATION. In turn, I'd like to invite rec- 
reation workers to become familiar with 
the adult education techniques de- 
scribed in our magazine, Adult Leader- 


f low cost and upkeep 

It's easy to start a roller skating program! 
It's a healthful exercise and the popular 
way to build strong bodies. A favorite 
with boys and girls and budget planners, 
too . . . roller skating makes a grand co- 
recreational activity. Handles the largest 
groups quickly and easily. Halls, gyms, 
or any large floor area make fine roller 
rinks. Invest in health and fun this season. 

Rubber Tire Skates 


Gyms, Ballrooms or Halls 


Rink clamp skates developed by 
CHICAGO specially for skating on 
waxed floors. The rubber wheels 
are ideal for use on tile, ballroom 
floors or any highly waxed surface. 
Will not harm or mark. 

Write Now to the Leader in Rink 
Skates on How to Start 



The Choice of Champions ... for over 45 Years 
4490 West Lake Street Chicago 24, Illinois 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



For Outdoor and 
Indoor Use 

Here for the First Time is the Heavy- 
Duty Aluminum Tennis Table 
Featuring Durability and Economy. 
Sturdily Constructed to Withstand 
Extreme Abuse From Play and 
Weather. Built to Last a Life-Time. 

Regulation Bounce and 

Attractively Finished with 
Permanent Green Anodized 
Non-Glare Surface. 

Secured Solid Steel Center 

No Sharp Corners or Edges. 

No Maintenance or Replace- 
ment Problems. 

Many Times More Economi- 
cal Than Wooden Tables. 


Outdoor and Indoor Recreation 

Centers, Playgrounds, Resorts, Clubs, 

Camps, Ocean-going Vessels, etc. 


760 George Street 
Teaneck, N. J. 

Land for Recreation 


With reference to your report on the 
guide to acquiring areas for recreation 
purposes as reported in the October 
RECREATION magazine, page 475, I was 
not the chairman of the committee. Phil 
LeBoutillier, superintendent of recrea- 
tion in Irvington, New Jersey, was the 
guiding light and did a tremendous 
amount of work to organize our full 
report and deserves the credit. The com- 
mittee was composed of Phil LeBoutil- 
lier, Monte Weed, Frank Wood and 
Robert D. Sisco. Monte, Phil and I pre- 
sented the committee findings at the 
district conference. The people in at- 
tendance agreed the matter needed 
further study in certain areas, particu- 
larly question number one. Undoubtedly 
the new committee, appointed by Mike 
Wargo, district advisory committee 
chairman, will do more research on re- 

couple dances and mixers 

instructional records (with music) 

Another important "HONOR YOUR PARTNER" teaching aid brought 
to you by Square Dance Associates. In this album Ed Durlacher 
presents his amazingly simple method of teaching American Couple 
Dances and Mixers. He gives oral "walk-through" instructions 
in easy progressive steps. 

You'll find instructions and music for the Patty Cake Polka Mixer, 

Rochester Schottische, Tandem Rochester Schottische, 

Five Foot Two Mixer, Narcissus, and the Paul Jones. 

The Top Hands play the music in their own inimitable style under the 

direction of Frank Novak. Music that sets the tempo for good 

dancing and virtually lifts the dancers' feet off the floor. 





*"Mixers" are social activators. "Wallflowers" and 
timid souls of all ages are converted to active 
participants in social activities. 

All records are pressed on pure vinylitc and are 
guaranteed against breakage. 


Square Dance Associates Dept. R-4, Freeport, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: I want to learn more about the HONOR YOUR PARTNER albums. Please send me 
a free descriptive folder. 






Canadian Distributors: Thomas Allen, Ltd., 266 King Street West, Toronto 28, Ontario 

vising the guide. Possibly something 
could be done on a national level in 
reference to this type of guide. 

ROBERT D. Sisco, Superintendent, 
Recreation and Parks Department, 
Livingston, New Jersey. 
On the mimeographed report re- 
ceived by us, Robert Sisco was indicat- 
ed as chairman. Sorry. Ed. 

Recreation and the Schools 


In regard to Mr. Orcutt's comments 
on the school-recreation combination, 
on your December Letters page, I per- 
sonally could not agree more on the im- 
portance of an administrative separa- 
tion between the two. 

In one position I maintained a while 
back, recreation was administered by 
the school board. In this particular in- 
stance, it was a most unsatisfactory 
alliance. During the summer months, 
time was created by the school authori- 
ties to spend on problems relating to 
recreation. The other nine months of 
the year school matters consumed the 
total attention and interest of the school 
board. Recreation was "advised" to sit 
back and wait for another summer. 

This was the obvious weakness of this 
type of arrangement, but the feeling of 
frustration that was constantly and per- 
sonally involved made the situation un- 
tenable for any but the uninitiated or 

Having seen how school and recrea- 
tion authorities can cooperate to the 
best advantage of all the people, it is 
still my feeling that the problems and 
policies facing schools today are more 
than a full-time job in themselves. Tak- 
ing on an additional responsibility as 
important as recreation is not only 
treating recreation unfairly, but it is 
conveying the false impression that the 
schools, and the challenges they present, 
are not so great but that time can be 
taken out to tend to other matters. This 
is a fallacy that leads to unfortunate re- 
sults. Educators, in their enthusiasm, 
too often get carried away in trying to 
develop the "total" individual. It is 
time they recognized that it takes special- 
ists in the field of recreation, as well as 
specialists in the field of education, to 
aid in the well-rounded development of 
Homo sapiens. A little more thought 
and study in methods of cooperation, 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


rather than control, toward recreation 

will benefit all involved. 

PENNELL S. EUSTIS, Superintendent 
of Recreation and Parks, Ipswich, 


Regarding Selwyn Orcutt's school 
recreation program at Fayetteville, 
North Carolina, in the December issue 
of RECREATION, I do not believe that we 
will ever see the day when all authorities 
agree on one single type of recreation 
management. School boards in too many 
communities are preoccupied with 
purely educational problems. Too many 
park boards are primarily concerned 
with construction and maintenance of 
their physical plants and know little 
about the promotion of a broad recrea- 
tion program. It would appear that the 
recreation commission form of manage- 
ment is by far the most desirable. But 
how, for instance, are we going to tell 
Milwaukee and Madison, two Wisconsin 
cities which have outstanding programs, 
that the management in these cities 
should be taken away from their boards 
of education? It would be folly even to 
think of it. 

There is every reason why school 
boards and park boards should have a 
strong voice in the public recreation pro- 
gram, for the reason that the properties 
upon which the recreation program is 
conducted are generally under the juris- 
diction of these boards. They cannot be 
expected to give the use of their proper- 
ties to another city board "lock, stock 
and barrel" without a voice in how these 
properties are used. A representative of 
the common council, that group which 
supplies our financial needs, certainly 
should have a voice in how recreation 
funds are spent. In our case, the rec- 
reation commission is made up of repre- 
sentatives of the school board, park 



We have specialized in Leathercraft as a rec- 
reational and vocational activities medium 
for the past 25 years. Our projects are de- 
signed for all age groups, and our Factory- 
To-You service gives you top grade merchan- 
dise at substantial savings. If you work with 
youngsters of school age, teen-agers, or adults 
we have the very projects that will fit into 
your crafts program. 


Send for your free copy of our new 19S5 
Catalogue of Leathers and Leathercraft Sup- 
plies. Ask for Catalogue No. 1OO. Do it today ! 

Colchester 2, Conn. 

board, and common council, along with 
four citizens at large. In our own com- 
munity, at any rate, the set-up is ideal. 
There is, however, an element or 
problem that can be resolved only on 
the local level, a problem that varies in 
each community, the problem of local 
attitude. Unless both the school board 
and park board are willing to make 
their properties available to the recrea- 
tion department, little success can be 
attained. Cooperation is required not 
only in the use of physical facilities, but 
particularly in the use of schools. The 
superintendent must be recreation 
minded if a successful program is to be 
attained. A superintendent of schools 
who is cool toward a recreation pro- 
gram, however managed, will be a 
stumbling block. On the other hand, a 
superintendent of schools who believes 
that the school plant should be used by 
the community, and, of equal impor- 
tance, believes that school children 
should be provided with a program of 
wholesome recreation activities, can be 
of tremendous value to the community's 
youth program. 

We are fortunate in Racine in having 
city and school authorities who are pro- 
gressively cooperative. The recreation 
department conducts both the school 
and the municipal recreation programs, 
one as important as the other. 

B. A. SOLBRAA, Director of Recrea- 
tion, Racine, Wisconsin. 

Letter to Mr. Prendergast 


I wish to take this opportunity to com- 
mend you and your staff for one of the 
most successful recreation congresses 
that I have attended in the last six years. 
The whole congress was exceptionally 
well planned. 

The panelists were informative and 
enthusiastic. It is impossible to say 
which was the most valuable to us in 
recreation in Florida, although the talk 
by Dr. Campbell of the mass migration 
of senior citizens to the south was the 
most exhilarating and challenging to me. 
We, here in Hollywood, where twenty- 
five per cent of our total population are 
senior citizens, are very conscious of 
this influx and are now taking action to 
meet the immediate needs. 

This brings me to the most important 
point the recognition; that RECREATION 
magazine has made of our community 
participation project the Chanukah- 
Christmas pageant. We are deeply 
grateful for this honor. 

Another project which has just been 
completed and has created intense in- 
terest in Florida is our teen center 
which you will hear about later through 
the local and state level. 

Director, Hollywood, Florida. 






P. 0. Box 3098 Terminal Annex 
Los Angeles 54, Calif. 

205 W. Wocker Drive Chicago 6, 1!!. 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


tyotc S^otttd, 

ISSUES AND LEVIES for recrea- 
tion, reported to the National Recrea- 
tion Association for 1954, showed a 
grand total of successful bond issues of 
almost thirty million dollars. 

\ NEW BOND ISSUE for forty million dol- 
lars is being proposed by Los Angeles 
for additional municipal recreation and 
park facilities. 

through Los Angeles' Griffith Park, 
made by the California State Highway 
Department, have met with vigorous op- 
position from that city's park and rec- 
reation commission. 

The facilities which would have to be 
moved include a model airplane flying 
field, seven fairways on one of the golf 
courses, an archery range, picnic facili- 
ties, the pony ride and miniature train. 
In addition, the department's construc- 
tion and maintenance yards would have 
to be changed. 

Recreation and park officials all over 
the country are increasingly concerned 
about the attempts to use public park 
properties for other public purposes, 
and even in some instances for private 
or semi-private functions. (See Ameri- 
can City magazine for October, 1954, 
page 106: "A Critical Comment ..."). 


the provision of better recreation oppor- 
tunities is the best means of combating 
juvenile delinquency, according to a 
poll of New York State residents taken 
in 1954. 

happening to the younger generation" 
receives full treatment in articles in the 
Saturday Evening, Post for January 8 
and Collier's for January 21. The Post 
story, the first of a five-part report call- 
ed "The Shame of America," was writ- 
ten by the executive director and the 
chief council of the U. S. Senate Sub- 
committee to Investigate Juvenile Delin- 
quency. Bill Mauldin is the author and 
illustrator of a long special report "What 
Gives?" in Collier's. Mauldin's account 
is l>;i.-i>l mi personal interviews with 
teen-agers throughout the country. 

^ OPEN TO ALL STUDENTS, grades nine 
to twelve, in daily attendance at any 
public, private or parochial school, the 
10th Annual National High School 
Photographic Awards Contest will run 
from January 1 to March 31, 1955. The 
awards include a total of 256 prizes. In 
connection with the contest Eastman 
Kodak Company announces the avail- 
ability of three photo fact sheets : How 
to Make and Submit Prize-Winning 
Pictures; Selecting and Preparing Pic- 
tures for Publication; and Glossary of 
Important Photographic and Photo- 
Editing Words. 

In all, twenty-nine photo fact sheets 
are available to class advisers. These 
include such subjects as photoflash, 
close-up photography, developing, print- 
ing, enlarging, candid and nature pho- 
tography, filters, lighting, how to earn 
a Boy Scout Merit Badge in photogra- 
phy, and many others. 

Additional information may be ob- 
tained by writing to National High 
School Photographic Awards, 343 State 
Street, Rochester 4, New York. 

^ NEW ADDRESS : The Asphalt Institute, 
which for many years has had its head- 
quarters at 801 Second Avenue, New 
York 17, New York, has established new 
headquarters on the campus of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland at College Park, 
Maryland (on January 1st). The Insti- 
tute's executive offices and laboratories 
will be located in a new building con- 
structed especially for it and leased to 
the Institute by the University. 

concerned with planning of programs 
you would do well to read the article 
"This Army Training They Go For" in 
the January, 1955 issue of Woman's 
Day. Send for copy from 19 West 44th 
Street, New York 36, New York. Price 
for back copies: twenty cents. 


SERVICE in the field of welfare for chil- 
dren is a subject discussed in the No- 
vember Newsletter on Community 
Health and Welfare Services of the In- 
stitute of Life Insurance. In discussing 
recreation, the newsletter says ". . . 

adult volunteers, including life insur- 
ance men and women, can find many 
ways to help make their communities a 
better place for children to enjoy rich 
and satisfying play experiences. They 
can serve as volunteer leaders, coaches 
and instructors, They can serve in an 
advisory capacity on recreation and 
park boards." Newsletter is distributed 
to some 17,000 life insurance agents. 


STUDY is being made by the National 
Recreation Association in order to bet- 
ter answer requests for current salary 
information. Questionnaires have been 
mailed to executives with the Associa- 
tion newsletters. Their prompt return 
will assure success in gathering infor- 
mation for all. (If you have received 
one, please note ! ) 

^ WATCH FOR the special Playground 
Issue of RECREATION, April 1955. If 
you are expecting to use it in your play- 
ground planning sessions or with play- 
ground leaders training groups, order 
your extra copies by the end of Febru- 
ary to insure receiving the full num- 
ber ordered. 

TARY PERSONNEL, in the United States 
or overseas, are invited to send stories 
of unique parties and other social recre- 
ation projects to RECREATION. Be sure 
to include how-to-do information so 
that other clubs will be able to use some 
of your good ideas. 

ICES of the National Recreation Associa- 
tion shows that from November 1, 1953 
to November 30, 1954 a thirteen 
month period 287 different cities and 
areas were served by the Association. 
In 134 cities the field service was con- 
cerned mostly with the community rec- 
reation problems of armed forces per- 
sonnel and their dependents. In 102 
cities emphasis was on the recreation 
problems of defense industrial person- 
nel. In 48 cities community recreation 
needs of both civilian and military de- 
fense personnel were served. Special 
attention was given to on-base problems 
of servicemen and their dependents. 

At the request of the Army and the 
Air Force, the Association further gave 
special attention to the "forgotten men" 
of the services, in the aircraft and radar 
units located in isolated places where 
there are few opportunities for recrea- 
tion outside of those which can be pro- 
vided on base and in the scattered small 
communities in the area. Both overseas 
and in this country the number of Air 
Force dependents living on base or in 
nearby housing development is sub- 





Playground Balls 

Game directions for using balls in schools and playgrounds 
are printed on the box. Easy to cut out and start a file. 
Different games on each size box. Games include 
dodge ball, circle stride, call ball. Dozens of others. 

Other features include: (1) four class or team colors to 
choose from red, orange, blue, green. (2) rugged 5-ply 
rubber construction. (3) patented Kantleek Valve. 

Sizes 6", 8%" and 10" in red, orange, blue and green. Each 
class or team keeps its own color. In red only, sizes 5", 7", 13" 
and 16". Seamless "Grade-Kolored" Balls are available for 
immediate delivery. Write that order today! 








When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Editorially Speaking 

Emphasis in this Issue 

Many recreation departments 
throughout the country are proving that 
no longer need oldsters be lonely and 
isolated individuals with all of life's 
more pleasant and useful experiences 
behind them. Leaders in public recrea- 
tion departments, and other civic agen- 
cies and organizations, are providing 
senior citizens with opportunities for 
social life, friendship and understand- 
ing, development of skills, continuing 
educational process, service to and en- 
gagement in the affairs of the com- 
munity, and an attractive center to 
which they may repair for personal en- 
joyment and an enrichment of life. 

Through the years, since publication 
of our special issue on recreation for 
older adults in May 1949, we have car- 
ried a number of articles on this subject. 
Because of increasing interest and de- 
velopment, however, we are including 
several more such articles in this issue. 

Reference for Leaders 

A good reference for leaders of old- 
ster groups: "The Workshop on Work- 
ing with Older People," Adult Leader- 
ship, May 1954 issue. Available at fifty 
cents per copy from Adult Education 
Association, 743 North Wabash Avenue, 
Chicago 11, Illinois. 

Senior Citizens of America 

This is a new nonprofit organization, 
to "serve persons over forty years of 
age in all walks of life in their personal 
growth and community service," which 
was incorporated under the laws of the 
District of Columbia on October 12, 
1954, and began operations on Decem- 
ber 1, 1954. 

Joy Elmer Morgan, president of the 
organization, was editor of the journal 
of the National Education Association, 
a position he held for thirty-four years, 
until his retirement last December.* 

Willard E. Givens, chairman of the 
board of trustees, was formerly superin- 
tendent of schools in Hawaii and in San 

* See December 1954 issue, NEA Journal. 

Diego and Oakland, California. 

A monthly magazine, Senior Citizen, 
will be published by Senior Citizens of 
America and edited by Mr. Morgan. 
For further information write the or- 
ganization at 1701 Sixteenth Street, 
Northwest, Washington 9, D. C. 

Adult Education and Recreation 
for the Retired 

In an article in Adult Education for 
Everybody, a report published by the 
New York Education Council, Inc., Dr. 
John A. P. Millet writes : 

"There are few people who appreciate 
the fact that they can still find a place 
for themselves in our society, of which 
they will feel proud, once they have been 
separated from whatever activity has 
formed, for many years, the main focus 
of their interest and the source of their 
financial security. Those who have had 
the foresight to develop auxiliary in- 
terests are the fortunate minority. Those 
whose families have foreseen the event 
and have the financial and emotional 
resources to assure a continuing and a 
genuine role in the group belong to an 
even smaller minority. . . . 

"Mental health cannot be expected 
unless the individual is active and has 
some objective in his activity. He has 
to feel that what he does is significant 
and that its significance is recog- 
nized. . . . 

"It need hardly be added that the 
profitable use of leisure-time activities 
during the years of maturity, with due 
consideration of which ones can become 
enduring satisfactions, or even a neces- 
sary means to gainful occupation, is a 
field in which adult education can play 
an increasingly important role." 
* * * * 

At the recent annual conference of the 
Adult Education Association in Chi- 
cago, according te the New York Times, 
a report on the adult education pro- 
grams conducted by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, told of 
courses for adults ranging "from baby 
care to jewelry making, marketing to 

airplane mechanics, citizenship to busi- 
ness training, French to philosophy, 
public relations to social relations." The 
most common motive for enrolling in 
night or day adult classes was to im- 
prove professional skills. The next was 
the desire for cultural advancement. 
Many of the 1,555 students sampled 
mentioned the desire to make a wider 
circle of friends and improve their so- 
cial graces. A number of adults said 
they wanted to learn how to get along 
better with people or to be a better 
leader of a group. Recreational or 
leisure-time skills were of interest to 
others. Most of these wanted to learn a 
sport or hobby while some wanted 
merely to relax or be entertained. 


In legislative session, Congress in 
August appropriated $75,000 for the 
Children's Bureau to increase its help 
to states and communities on the prob- 
lem of juvenile delinquency. The bureau 
will use the new money to start expand- 
ing its consultative services on such as- 
pects of the delinquency problem as 
community action to prevent delin- 
quency; police, court, and institutional 
services; training of personnel; re- 
search, and so on. This work will be 
carried on in close coordination with 
the several national voluntary organiza- 
tions which offer related consultation on 
these matters. 

Report and Portfolio Available 

The Report on the National Confer- 
ence on Juvenile Delinquency, a con- 
ference called by the Secretary of 
Health, Education, and Welfare, and 
held in Washington last June, is now 
on sale by the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Washington 25, D. C., for 
twenty-five cents per copy, with a dis- 
count of twenty-five per cent on orders 
of one hundred or more copies. 

Also ready is a portfolio of materials 
which may possibly be helpful to groups 
planning a delinquency conference or 
meeting. In addition to sample copies 
of many of the publications and reports 
used at the conference, the kit includes 
work group agendas and a discussion of 
conference planning. Requests for the 
kit should be addressed to the Special 
Juvenile Delinquency Project, c/o Chil- 
dren's Bureau, Washington 25, D. C. 



Wilma Clizbe 

Present trends, indicating the addition of thousands of 
hours of free time to the lives of our older citizens, poign- 
antly point up the need for serious consideration of leisure- 
time activities on the part of individuals approaching re- 
tirement and old age. Surveys have indicated that, among 
people from sixty-five and up, the majority suffer acutely 
from the abrupt change from busy employment to idleness 
when retirement has not been carefully planned. Those 
whose hobbies and interests were of arduous types, or were 
extremely expensive, suffer a double shock. 

In considering the selection of leisure-time activities, 
their basic needs for emotional satisfaction require self- 
expression, creative interests, productivity, health (both 
physical and mental), appreciation, love, sense of belong- 
ing, recognition and an opportunity to become an active 
member of society. 

It is possible to find ways of filling some of these needs 
by oneself, but it requires the company of others to com- 
plete the picture. Too frequently we are apt to push the 
older person into a confined society of only those of his own 
generation. While it is true that his happiest moments will 
be in the company of chronologically compatible friends, 
the older person also needs the stimulation of young adults 
and, also, of children. However, here again the question of 
individual differences arises and, while some of the oldsters 
prefer companions of their own age exclusively and find the 
children a disturbing element except for short periods of 
time, others enjoy and need the company of all age groups. 

Communities should assume a portion of the responsibility 
of planning for and meeting the social needs of these older 
folks.* With some assistance in the way of organization 
and provision of facilities, the oldsters will take over. A 
little outside direction, planning, and help in conducting 
programs, and an encouragement of their own initiative will 
open new worlds in their otherwise cloistered lives. Their 
greatest need, unless unusually fortunate in their retirement 
situation, is companionship. One of the paramount values 
of companionship is the fact that you can usually count on 
a good pair of listening ears from your companions. The 
art of listening has never been eulogized adequately. 

The trained professional leader will make certain that the 

*See Recreation for the Aging by Arthur Williams. Association 
Press, $3.00. 

MRS. CLIZBE is the director of girls' and women's activities 
for the recreation department in Dearborn, Michigan. 


A bowling league has been organized by Dearborn members. 
Eligibility requirements: roll a strike; form unimportant. 

program is varied enough to include the likes and avoid the 
dislikes of all the members. Quiet games, bingo, movies and 
outside entertainment will usually serve the greatest number 
of people at one time. However, the special-interest groups 
must be given consideration and an opportunity to satisfy 
their choices of programs. 

While many of our senior citizens take part in the regu- 
larly conducted recreation and community programs, they 
cannot all be absorbed in the usual way inasmuch as their 
ability to do things is so often limited by the physical in- 
firmities and other handicapping factors of old age. It is 
essential, then, for every community to further consider 
these people in their planning, if local oldsters are to have 
a satisfactory life after retirement. 

Some pitfalls which can retard the successful development 
of their social and avocational participation in group activi- 
ties occur through : 

1. Allowing trained leadership to dominate. (The leader 
should remain in the background, leaving as much of the 
planning as possible to members.) 

2. Failure to recognize the fact that these people are apt 

The monthly news organ of Mrs. Clizbe's group 
Pleasant News and Views, is extremely popular. It is 
compiled by members who serve in all capacities, re- 
porting, editing, mailing, and goes to all parts of the 
United States. Members who have left the city request 
this service as a means of keeping in touch with the 
doings of all friends. Ed. 


to reflect experiences which are not consistent with the think- 
ing of the present generation. 

3. Lack of consideration of the limitations of old age. 
Activities should not strain their physical or mental capa- 

4. Overlooking the sensitivity and the personal likes and 
dislikes of each individual. 

5. Permitting leadership by the more aggressive mem- 
bers of the group to dominate. 

6. Condoning the volunteer help of "do-gooders" who 
leave the older folks with the feeling of having been "helped" 
by a charitable dowager. 

7. Using undesirable physical facilities for meetings 
flights of stairs to be climbed, poor lighting, poor heating, 
unfriendly atmosphere, and bad location which creates 
transportation problems. 

8. The placing of financial restrictions on membership 
through dues and assessments. 

Financial independence does not always mean happy re- 
tirement at the close of a lucrative career. Too frequently 
these people return to the small towns of their childhood 
only to find that they are not the same. They are out of 
touch with the friends of their youth; another generation 
has taken over, and they are made to feel like has-beens. 
Many familiar land marks have been replaced, and reviving 
childhood memories proves to be impossible. An extended 
visit back to the "old home town" should precede a perma- 
nent move, in order to ascertain what it can offer for a full 
life in retirement. 

The problems of retirement for the financially independ- 
ent should be easily solved with careful planning. Whole 
new vistas may be opened to them through extensive travel 
with intervals between trips to recuperate and to plan the 
next jaunt. Months may fruitfully be spent in the study of 
travel folders, trips to libraries, and in making other prep- 
arations for a new adventure. 

Without financial worry, any avocation with appeal may 
be followed. Perhaps this is the individual who has always 
wanted to do a bit of farming in the ultra-modern style pre- 
scribed by the agriculture boys. Now is his chance to put 
into practice some of his own ideas. However, he should be 
sure that this is his interest and should not jump into this 
type of retirement without adequate investigation. 

Those individuals who are fortunate enough to be in a 
financial position to take an active part in philanthropic 
work can find real contentment by attaching themselves to 
some good cause and putting time and thought into it. A 
time-schedule for work, play, study, rest, and service to 
others is essential. 

A note of warning is sounded by Raymond P. Kaighn, in 
How to Retire and Like It * : "Reminiscing, worrying about 
your health, and criticizing youth are three sure indications 
of approaching senility. Keep out of that pitfall by building 
up some friendships among younger people. You will never 
be without friends, even if you live to be a hundred and all 
the old ones have long since passed on to glory." 

* Published by Association Press, $1.75. 


in the Day of 


Some precious humor is contained in a publication from 
the reign of Charles I, in which recreation after church is 
ordered because its "prohibition barreth the common and 
meaner sort of people from using such exercises as may 
make their bodies more able for war." Therefore, archery 
and May Pole and Morris Dances are to be permitted but 
"not bowling for the meaner sort of people." Evidently 
bowling was for the upper classes and not good military 
training for the masses. It is noted "no sort of offensive 
weapons be carried in the times of recreation after church." 
Did the Bishop insert this clause so as to make it safer for 
a dull rector to preach a long and irritating sermon? This 
precaution was also taken to "prohibit said recreation to 
those not present in the church before their going to said 
recreation." History tells us that Charles I who issued this 
Declaration Concerning Lawful Sports lost his throne and 
his head at the same moment. Was this because he pro- 
hibited Sunday recreation to those absent from church? 

Or did the Bowlers League gang up against him because 
he forbade bowling to "the meaner sorts"? Anyhow we can 
see that recreation supervisors sometimes lost their heads 
in 1633 as well as in 1954. Otto T. Mattery, Chairman, 
National Recreation Association Board. 



"Each of these humble men knew truth and honest courage . 

Personalities I Have Met 

William G. Vinal 


Richard was born amidst medieval- 
ism his father was a tall, stocky Prus- 
sian; his mother, austere and religious, 
believed that "God always takes care of 
Richard." On Saturday nights the fam- 
ily played music, sang, and danced. The 
tow-headed boy was reared under the 
strange blend of naturalness and awe. 
There were also two worlds in the vil- 
lage one, that of the countryside 
owned by a rich baron; the other, that 
of his father who was a teacher of com- 
moners and a free man, a thinker, very 
much aroused by the feudal system. 

Richard had to get up at three in the 
morning to feed the pigs, milk the cows, 
and work in the fields. He rode a high 
bicycle with solid tires a hundred and 
fifty kilometers to school. He used 
staves from an old rainbarrel to make 
skis. Whatever he learned he shared 
with his village playmates. 

In 1901 Richard was a member of the 
Wandervogel (Birds of Passage), and 
he became a teacher. As an outgrowth 
of the "wandering" movement, he con- 
ceived the idea of a "folk school hostel." 
In his schoolhouse in Altena, Westpha- 
lia, Germany, he placed straw on the 
floor of the eight classrooms so the 
"wandering" children of the common 
people might have a place to sleep dur- 
ing vacation time. 

By 1910 there were three hostels. 
During the period of 1914-1918 a num- 
of cities collected five pfennigs per 
capita for the use of youth hostels. Wil- 

BILL VINAL, Professor Emeritus 
of the University of Massachusetts, is 
the well-known author of books and ar- 
ticles on nature topics and the out-of- 
doors. His personality sketches of Fa- 
ther Link and Stanton H. King, ap- 
peared in the May 1953 and October 
1953 issues of RECREATION, respectively. 

helm Munker, a manufacturer, made it 
possible to start a hostel in a castle. He 
and Richard were kindred souls who ap- 
preciated nature; both are now eighty 
years old. Munker and the philosopher 
Schirrmann faced the mailed fist of the 
Nazis (1933-1945) ; only Hitler Youth 
in uniforms were then allowed to use the 
hostels. Richard was nearly blinded by 
gas thrown in his face by young Nazis ; 
his home was surrounded by barbed 
wire. He was a marked man. 

By 1939, for security reasons, Rich- 
ard ceased to have anything to do with 
hosteling. He took a position in the 
small, remote village of Gravenweis- 
bach, where he taught geography, na- 
ture, and sports for six years. It was 
not long before he had a swimming pool 
outside of town. He took the young- 
sters on walks, taught them swimming, 
skiing, singing, and folk dancing. By 
winning the children he soon won the 
parents. Today a public forest is being 
set aside in his honor. 

I first met Richard in 1935 at the 
National Recreation Congress in Chi- 
cago; and certainly then I hadn't any 
notion of the future war, nor did I sur- 
mise that the next time I spent with 
Richard would be in his home in Gra- 
venweisbach. In 1947 I was sent to Eu- 
rope by the American Youth Hostels 
Association to study hostels in seven 
war-torn countries. Richard and I were 
traveling third class in a railway coach 
from Frankfort to Berlin. It was then 
that I learned his biography. 

About half of the 1,700 prewar hos- 
tels are in the Russian zone as Freier 
Deutscher Jugend, a Russian successor 
of Hitler Youth. Individuals who join 
are given extra rations of food, stock- 
ings and shoes. In Western Germany 
the hostel organization is a small work- 
ing unit which simulates the UNO. I 

have shared, with Belgians, English, 
Dutch, French, Scots and Swiss, potluck 
suppers where they lustily sang each 
other's songs. They crave to travel to- 
gether and, above all, seek leadership 
with democratic principles. 

I saw American leaders returning to 
help German hostelers rebuild the very 
buildings they once destroyed. In Wash- 
ington there is a monument "Erected 
by the Congress of the United States to 
Frederick William Baron Von Steuben 
in Grateful Recognition of his Services 
to the American People in their Strug- 
gle for Liberty." Today the German 
people, in fact the people of the whole 
western world, are looking to America 
in their struggle for liberty. 

Space is running out. There are other 
great personalities I wanted to write 
about. They can wait. I cannot help 
thinking how Joseph Lee would have 
enjoyed each one that I have presented. 
Howard Braucher's philosophy would 
approve. In fact the thinking of the 
whole staff of the National Recreation 
Association as I knew it would gravitate 
toward these "free" but talented men. 
Each demonstrated that ideals can be 
promoted by any nationality. Each was 
a genius on obscurity. Each was a true 
recreationist, dedicated to the ideals of 
respect for people and human rights, 
whose leadership was original and did 
not come from a book. Each one first 
had faith in life, with the center of his 
religious life resting in nature and the 
common man. 

They were humble men who had 
rubbed elbows with life each after his 
own manner. Each had truth and cour- 
age in good measure. I am grateful for 
having known them. I am grateful that 
I can share my memories of them. Dick- 
ens said, "Life is given us on the under- 
standing that we defend it to the last." 
This is a time in history when great 
personalities are needed to go forth with 
honest courage. 



Al Tillmaii 

A new recreation frontier has been 
exposed recently. A fast-growing water 
sport called "skin diving" has been 
nursed along for some twenty-five years 
by a few rugged beach athletes, and the 
thrill and excitement has been little rec- 
ognized by the general public. 

Within the last year or so, and with- 
out one single responsible factor, a 
magical and startling growth of interest 
has taken place. Newspapers, maga- 
zines, motion pictures, and television 
have directed public attention to the 
world's fastest growing sport. A re- 
ported one million skin divers in the 
United States are eagerly accepting this 

Why the sudden boom? Some people 
single out World War II, with the advent 
of the underwater army of frogmen, as 
stimulating the rise of interest. These 
underwater demolition teams put into 
use brand new equipment which has 
made skin diving a comfortable activity 
for participants other than the super 
athlete. The depression years put a lot 
of divers into the sport in search of sea- 
food, and even today a taste for abalone 
and lobster creates much of the interest. 

Shell collectors have found a new 
paradise by entering the water in pur- 
suit of their hobby. No longer must 
they scour the near-barren shorelines 
for scuffed, bleached shells, but are able 
to take living, unblemished specimens 
from the ocean bottom. 

Historians and archaeologists have 
predicted a fantastic new gateway to 

MR. AL TILLMAN took a ten weeks' 
course in skin diving at the Scripps 
Institute of Oceanography at La Jolla, 
California. He is, at present, recreation 
director, Department of Parks and 
Recreation, County of Los Angeles. 

knowledge of ancient history by seeking 
relics of past civilizations beneath the 
sea. A Greek merchant ship discovered 
recently ( by French divers using breath- 
ing devices) contained large vases of 
wine which had been sealed in approxi- 
mately the year 200 B.C. 

Diving specialists of the Los Angeles 
County Department of Parks and Rec- 
reation uncovered a sixty-five pound In- 
dian grinding bowl in the sea near one 
of the newly discovered Indian burial 
grounds. Skin divers are also aides to 
small craft in recovering fouled lines, 
anchors, and outboard motors; and 
many amateur sailors have become 
underwater devotees because of such 

Spearfishing and catching lobsters in 
their own element offer a sport as com- 
petitive as any ever conceived above the 
surface, since the diver's opponent has 
the advantage of natural abilities and 
environment. All of these things have 
contributed in part to the seething 
growth of underwater recreation. 

However, the really vital factor can- 
not be described. When a man sinks 
beneath the waves and into what ap- 
pears a dark, forbidding mass of water, 
a strange, breathtaking thrill surges 
through him. Sunlight sharply high- 
lights a multitude of strange objects and 
colors, and an unbelievable world hid- 
den from ordinary man arouses the 
thirst for adventure and discovery. 

The ocean is everchanging and like 
the "jungle where no human has ever 
set foot," it presents the ultimate for the 
man seeking excitement. Science fiction 
can well recognize a worthy competitor. 

The Los Angeles County Department 
of Parks and Recreation, in recognizing 
the recreational needs of all the people 
of Los Angeles County, moved quickly 

Diving instructor for the Los Angeles 
County Lifeguards gives final brief to 
graduating students entering the surf. 

into the skin-diving picture in 1950. 
Playground directors and lifeguards 
helped in the formation of many skin- 
diving clubs in which the sport was pro- 
moted and safety was continuously 
stressed. Activity was limited to a few 
club meetings until department superin- 
tendent B. P. Gruendyke and executive 
assistant Norman Johnson assigned 
aquatics director "Rusty" Williams. 
sports director Charles Bolinger. and 
myself to the task of setting up a skin- 
diving program. 

The Council of Diving Clubs and the 
International Underwater Spearfishing 
Association are two fine organizations 
promoting this sport. We have joined 
the efforts of these groups and have put 
into effect a public agency-sponsored 
program which will give skin diving a 
permanent niche in the recreation activi- 
ties of the county. 

County lifeguard Bev Morgan as- 
sumed the actual management of the 
proposed program in January, 1954; 
and one of the first free skin-diving 
classes ever sponsored by a public 
agency was initiated in three county 
swimming pools in June 1954. 

The classes are based upon the hard 
work of many people and the best avail- 
able information. Months of research 
and personal contacts have yielded an 
underwater safety manual that is the 
most thorough and comprehensive pub- 



lication issued to date for the general 
public. The classes use the material pre- 
sented in this manual. The department 
of parks and recreation is now co- 
operating with other offices of the Los 
Angeles County government, looking 
toward a more stringent law covering 
the sale of skin-diving equipment in the 
interests of public safety. 

Each of the three pools has a similar 
program of classes : beginners' skin div- 
ing; advanced skin diving; and self- 
contained underwater breathing appa- 
ratus training. The classes are followed 
by an inspiration hour during which 
movies, guest experts, and commercial 
equipment demonstrations are pre- 

The beginners learn how to swim 
underwater, submerge, use swim fins, 
and face pieces, equalize pressure, water 
safety, water first aid, and to recognize 
marine life. The advanced students re- 
view the beginners' program, learn how 
to use an exposure or rubber suit and 
a surface breathing device called the 
snorkle, study ocean conditions, special 
diving problems, and techniques. 

The self-contained underwater breath- 
ing apparatus class concerns the operat- 
ing technique, maintenance and hazards 
in using a breathing unit. These classes, 
each an hour in length, are conducted 
over a six-week period. Entrance re- 
quirements are: fundamental swim 
tests; good physical condition; and for 
minors, parents' consent. 

The final class consists of a test which 
qualifies the individual to participate in 
an ocean graduation ceremony. The first 
such graduation has been held and more 
than one hundred and fifty participants 
received their certificates of completion. 
The location was a choice county diving 
beach at Torrance, and extremely clear 
water provided an additional stimulus. 
Lobsters, fish of all species, and a va- 

riety of shells gleamed enticingly from 
the mysterious ocean floor. The big 
problem was that of keeping each group 
of graduates corralled in a single area, 
as the desire to exercise newly developed 
skills and explore was pulling them in 
many directions. 

Future graduations will be embel- 
lished with club diving contests (the 
clubs are formed from the graduates of 
the program), treasure hunts, water- 
proof certificates issued underwater, 
and an opportunity for guests of the 
graduates to view the activities through 
look boxes from small boats. 

Some very vital fields of recreation 
have received a boost from our skin- 
diving program. Several family groups 
completed the course together and will 
enjoy joint recreation activity for years 
to come in which each member of the 
family can participate. This is family 
recreation in the finest sense, providing 
outdoor exercise, new friends, and new 
conversation for the family dinner table. 

Are the teen-agers in your neighbor- 
hood looking for excitement? This 
group makes up a large proportion of 
our skin-diving classes and they have 
found thrills unlimited in diving into 
the depths of an unexplored world. 
Many of these boys and girls are finding 
interests through diving which will lead 
them into professions and occupations 
later. The world is looking with greater 
frequency to the sea to supply new raw 
materials and water if we are to meet 
the demands of rapidly increasing popu- 

Skin-diving has become the most ap- 
pealing new sports activity that this 
county has seen in a great many years. 
We are proud that our parks and recrea- 
tion department, by providing a pro- 
gram of public safety and interest, has 
the opportunity to lead the way as rec- 
reation goes underwater. 

You might be interested to know that underwater activities was the topic for the main 
work group at the recent Conference for National Cooperation in Aquatics held in New 
Haven. The experts present differentiated between skin diving, which includes activities in 
which the participant has contact with the surface or remains under water for brief period; 
only, and activities involving the use of self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, 
known as "Scuba." The latter type of activity involves the use of tanks with air under pres- 
sure permitting the participants to stay under water for long periods and at great depths, 
and therefore requires more adequate supervision than skin diving. George D. Butler, 
Director, NRA Research Department. 



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Write for Literature 







When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Police Sponsored Recreation 


Joseph E. Curtis 

An interesting analysis by an author 
who has a background of experi- 
ence on both sides of this question. 

THE FACT that wholesome recreation, properly planned 
and administered, can aid in deterring juvenile crime 
and waywardness has become fairly well established, al- 
though recreation is no cure-all for this complex problem in- 
volving so many factors in our modern society. Nevertheless, 
experience has shown that, generally, young people are less 
inclined toward delinquent behavior when they are partici- 
pating in recreation activities than when they are left to 
pass their leisure time aimlessly. Since the function of the 
police department in American society is as much to pre- 
vent crime as to apprehend criminals, it appears that police 
are completely justified in utilizing the recreation method in 
crime prevention, particularly among young people. 

The question, then, is not whether or not police should 
use this method, but rather how it should be done. Should 
police departments establish and operate their own separate 
recreation programs and facilities, or should they depend 
entirely upon the programs and facilities of existing private 
and public recreation agencies? The following analysis of 
police-sponsored recreation should aid in resolving this 

The use of the recreation method by individual police of- 
ficers in their work with youth is not new. Examples of it 
have occurred since the formation of the first organized 
law-enforcement agencies. The night watchman or con- 
stable of colonial times who attempted to straighten out a 
wayward boy by introducing him to the town athlete was 
using it. Likewise, the modern policewoman who induces a 
confused teen-age girl to join a local girls' club rather than 
loiter on street corners is utilizing, to an extent, the recrea- 
tion method in crime and delinquency prevention. 

In recent years, however, the value of the recreation 
method has become widely recognized by police and social 
work agencies, and its utilization is rarely left to chance or 
the individual police officer's imagination. This is particu- 

JOSEPH E. CURTIS is now director of recreation, Oceanside, 
New York, and is a member of the National Recreation 
Association's National Advisory Committee on the Recruit- 
ment, Training and Placement of Recreation Personnel. 

The author, in patrolman's uniform, sinks basketball shot 
at official opening of New York City's play streets in 1950. 
PAL operates seventy-five of these nine weeks each year. 

larly true in large cities. Hundreds of police departments 
in this country and abroad use recreation on a carefully 
planned and organized basis. Their devices range over a 
wide field, from the forming of a single athletic team or 
club by an individual policeman in a small community to 
such large-scale operations as the Boys Clubs of Baltimore, 
the Junior Police of Los Angeles and the Police Athletic 
League of New York City. 

In most instances, the size of the community or municipal- 
ity has governed the size or extent of the police-sponsored 
recreation program. In some small communities the police 
have simply entered a team or two in a local private sports 
program, while in certain large cities the police-sponsored 
recreation unit operates a full-scale athletic program of 
leagues, schedules, and championship tournaments for large 
numbers of teams organized by itself. Likewise, in most 
small communities the police have utilized local public or 
private recreation facilities, while some larger cities have 
established separate recreation centers, fields, playgrounds 
and other facilities. 

Sports is the most frequent program activity utilized, but 
some of the larger police-recreation programs include dra- 
matics, dancing, arts and crafts, music and even outdoor 
camping at some distant campsite. Boys' activities tend to 
be emphasized far beyond those for girls, in most cases. 
A notable exception to this is the track and field program 
operated by the New York City Police Athletic League. This 
city-wide program has reached many thousands of young- 
sters, and the participation of girls in terms of numbers and 
achievement has rivaled that of boys. 



The success to date of these varied devices and techniques 
of police-sponsored recreation would be difficult to appraise. 
The reason is that police recreation, as a field, is still too 
heterogeneous in aims, techniques, and scope for an objec- 
tive appraisal of it in its entirety. In some cities operating 
such programs, a" high participation figure might be inter- 

These men come in contact with a large number of groups, 
especially in crowded, underprivileged sections of big cities. 
Hero-worship of the uniformed policeman still exists. 

preted as success. However, if closer inspection indicated 
that the majority of participants were not those in whom the 
police should be interested, or if large numbers of those 
youngsters situated in subnormal environments were being 
missed or ignored, then the success would be dubious. Simi- 
larly, the acquisition of additional sports and recreation fa- 
cilities, increased staffs and budgets, better publicity and 
public relations should not in themselves be construed as evi- 
dences of successful operation. Police-sponsored recreation 
is based on the premise that it will help to prevent crime by 
working with youth. Only accurate long-range studies of 
large numbers of cases and situations in which recreation is 
used by police as a crime-prevention device will establish 
with some certitude the success or failure of the police-spon- 
sored recreation program. 

Frequently, at professional recreation conferences and 
meetings, a public or private recreation executive or worker 
may be heard speaking in much this way : "Why don't those 
cops stick to their police work and leave recreation work to 
recreation people?" or "Things were fine in our town until 
the police chief decided to start a P.A.L. Then he moved in, 
took over the best facilities, and started competing with 
everyone else." 

At the same meetings, however, there are just as many 
reports of wise use of the recreation method by a police of- 
ficer or department, or of excellent cooperation between po- 
lice and local recreation authorities on a joint recreation 
project. In a small New Jersey town, for example, the one- 
man Police Athletic League staff of the local police depart- 
ment is doing an outstanding job. Instead of competing 

with local recreation authorities, this police officer works 
with them. He uses their facilities and programs, feeding 
his troublesome gangs or individuals into the public recrea- 
tion activities. In reciprocation, he provides police coopera- 
tion to the public and private agencies by expediting the pro- 
curement of parade permits, permits for use of fire hydrants 
and for other recreation projects. He helps with the coach- 
ing of teams, officiating at games, and assists the recreation 
workers in a number of other ways. Cooperation is the key 
to the smooth-working system in this town. 

A consideration of some advantages and disadvantages 
involved when the community police sponsor and operate 
recreation programs should be helpful : 


1. The traditional hero-worship in boys and girls for 
the uniformed policeman still exists. The "cop" who can 
box, hit a homer in softball, sink a long shot in basketball, 
or run a fast mile is twice the hero he would be in civilian 
clothes. This may serve as a bridge between youth and the 

2. Police are extremely close to the grass roots of com- 
munities everywhere. They come into daily contact with 
the infinite number of groups, organizations, nationalities, 
and individuals which make up communities. This is par- 
ticularly true in crowded, underprivileged sections of large 
cities. These contacts can be invaluable in organizing an. 
indigenous recreation program for youth in such areas. 

3. Much of the policeman's daily work is with youth. 
Whether he is checking on cases of truancy, youthful drink- 
ing, ball games in streets, teen-age "hot-rodding," or simply 
returning a lost or runaway child, the policeman is develop- 
ing an awareness and firsthand understanding of the psy- 
chological problems and recreation needs of children and 

4. Frequently, the authority connected with the police- 
man's position may be needed to open up a tight situation. 
For example, he may pressure a street-corner gang into 
visiting a local agency so that members may at least be in- 
troduced to the many recreation activities and facilities avail- 
able to them. Some persons may question the value of this 
authoritarian approach to the promotion of recreation in- 
terests. These critics must realize, however, that the finest 
program and facilities are of no avail if youths in delin- 
quency-infected areas do not choose to enter the building or 
program for so much as a look. Percentage-wise, if this 
method encourages no more than one in ten to enter the pro- 
gram and return regularly, then its use has been more than 
justified. Note that this point refers chiefly to police and rec- 
reation in highly delinquent areas. 

You, the reader, are invited to write your ideas on 
this subject to RECREATION Magazine, 8 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, New York, so that such ideas may 
be exchanged with other readers via our Letters page. 
If you wish to remain anonymous, please so state and 
we will use only your initials. Ed. 



5. The age and background of today's policemen repre- 
sent factors not to be overlooked. Today's policemen are, 
generally, a younger body of men than the police forces of 
twenty-five years ago. Among them are a high percentage 
of war veterans, athletes, and men who have attended some 
college. Their personalities, former occupations, war ex- 
periences, and widely varied backgrounds represent a bridge 
useful in reaching and working with wayward youngsters 
who might scorn the conventional community recreation 


1. Prevention of crime and maintenance of the public 
peace constitute the prime raison d'etre of police depart- 
ments. This does not include providing recreation programs 
and facilities for youth. Consequently, all the difficulties 
involved in attempting to carry out a strange additional duty 
are inherent in this situation. 

2. Most police department budgets are trimmed to the 
minimum on even the most orthodox police equipment and 
activities. Rarely, if ever, is any sizable fund provided for 
police-sponsored recreation programs. Therefore, finances 
must be augmented by soliciting donations, through ticket 
sales, fund drives, and so on. Frequently, this places the uni- 
formed policeman in the role of ticket or "ad" salesman or 
gift solicitor. Public reaction is generally good financially 
but poor psychologically. Policemen dislike this task even 
more than those solicited. In addition, it puts an exorbitant 
value on publicity for the program since it must be kept con- 
stantly before the public eye to assure continued contribu- 
tions. It is a short step to the highly touted tournaments and 
champions, the endless pictures of politicians and celebrities 
donating cash or presenting trophies, and the consequent 
neglect of the raggle-taggle youths who are lost somewhere 
along the way. 

3. Owing to their small operating budgets and the in- 
formal manner in which many police-sponsored recreation 
programs are established and operated, little regard has been 
shown for the professional training and background of the 
operating personnel. This is true particularly in the police- 
sponsored recreation activities of towns and small cities. 
In the larger cities greater concern has been evidenced re- 
garding professional preparation. By and large, however, 
the general pattern in selecting staff is to choose young police- 
men, frequently former athletes, who have some college 
background, physical training in the armed forces, or youth 
work in camps or in boys' activities. Rarely are any profes- 
sional requirements beyond these established or adhered to. 
There has been an increase of in-service training, but a great 
deal more of this is needed. 

4. Police departments and their methods of operation 
have evolved slowly over the years and many of the old-time 
philosophies and techniques still linger on. Steeped in 
tradition as it is, the modern police department may still, 
on occasion, be guilty of an anachronistic philosophy or 
technique, and this can thwart the efforts of the police rec- 
reation program or unit. For example, a policeman doing 
an excellent job in youth work may be returned to pounding 
a beat in uniform upon relatively short notice for any num- 

In a recreation center in Charlottesville, Virginia, boys 
intently watch masse shot. The "law" is not needed here. 

her of reasons. This could discourage an ambitious youth- 
work officer from laying too extensive plans or programs in 
his temporary recreation assignment. He may further be 
discouraged by the attitude of his fellow policemen who 
frequently regard the officer doing youth or recreation work 
as having "pull" or being in a "soft" detail. 

5. The policeman is one of the starkest realists alive. His 
work makes him so. Consequently, he is often prone to 
question the values of social work techniques used in de- 
linquency prevention and treatment. True, the esoteric aims 
and motives of some social case workers in handling juvenile 
delinquents have frequently justified this skepticism on the 
part of the uniformed officer who must cope daily with the 
problems on the street. Nevertheless, this has created a sit- 
uation wherein little rapport exists between the working 
policeman and the social and recreation workers in his locale. 
Many police departments operate a juvenile or youth bureau, 
one of the functions of which is to maintain this liaison be- 
tween police and public and private youth and recreation 
agencies. However, this arrangement has the drawback of 
placing a third party between the private social or recreation 
worker and the policeman on the street who is in closest con- 
tact with the actual situation. 

There are additional advantages and disadvantages of 
police-sponsored recreation, but these preceding should give 
a good indication of the breadth of the problem. 

General Recommendations 

For those who may be planning to institute programs of 
police-sponsored recreation : 

1. Determine the need for recreation Study the specific 
problem, condition, or community closely from several an- 
gles. There should be ample reason to believe that a recrea- 
tion program will help the situation or else the program is 
not worth considering. Sound professional recreation and 
social work advice should be solicited to aid in determining 
this need. 

2. Search for an existing agency to meet the need What- 
ever the condition or problem, it is quite possible that an or- 
ganization or agency already exists locally which can meet 
this need for recreation. Is there a municipal recreation de- 
partment? Comb the area for a club, settlement house, youth 



agency, group work agency, church or school group, or any 
other existing unit which may be equipped to meet the need, or 
which may, in fact, already be attempting to meet the need. 
Upon finding such an agency, enlist its help in doing the job. 

3. Help the agency After enlisting the aid of the local 
agency to meet the need for recreation, throw all the help 
and support you can muster into assisting the agency to do 
the job. Work as closely as possible with agency personnel 
who are attempting to meet the particular need. For ex- 
ample, if a group of wayward boys has been entered in a 
local youth club's program by a policeman interested in their 
case, this policeman can assist the club staff by being present 
when possible at meetings involving the boys, by partici- 
pating occasionally in sports events with them, by encourag- 
ing them to participate more and more in the recreation 
program, and by keeping the agency personnel posted on 
any new outside developments which might affect the boys' 
behavior. Occasionally, he may provide the authority needed 
to keep the boys in the program long enough for it to have 
some perceptible effect. His continued interest in these 
cases can have a very definite effect upon the results of the 
agency's work with them. 

4. Establish police-sponsored programs When the search 
fails to disclose a local agency capable of meeting the deter- 
mined recreation need, a police-sponsored recreation pro- 
gram should be established to do the job. This may mean 
anything from the formation of an individual athletic team, 
league or boxing club, to building and staffing police-spon- 
sored playgrounds and youth centers. 

If, however, at a later date, a private agency is located or 
a new agency is instituted which can adequately meet the 
need for which the police-sponsored recreation unit was es- 
tablished, then the police should withdraw from the operat- 
ing field and lend all support to the agency assuming the 
task. This is consistent with the policy that police-sponsored 
recreation is established and operated only where there is no 
other public or private agency capable of meeting the spe- 
cific recreation need concerned. 

For Units in Operation 

Additional suggestions for police-sponsored recreation 
units already in operation: 
1. Confine your activities to definite trouble spots or areas. 

Concentrate on these. To provide broad, city-wide programs 
of community recreation for all children is, after all, not 
within the scope of the average police department. This is 
the job of the public and private recreation agencies estab- 
lished specifically for this purpose. 

2. Keep overhead and operating procedures to a minimum. 
Avoid duplicating the work of other recreation agencies or 
competing with them. 

3. Obtain professionally qualified personnel, whether they 
be policemen or civilian employees. Beware of entrusting 
this recreation program to "just anyone." 

4. Cooperate closely with other recreation and youth-work 
agencies. Wherever possible, transfer participants and pro- 
jects into these outside agencies, thus leaving the maximum 
of your personnel and facilities for work in the critical prob- 
lem areas. 

5. Avoid over-stressing publicity on your program or twist- 
ing your activities into mere publicity material. This tend- 
ency can become chronic with agencies totally dependent 
upon fund-raising for finance and it can seriously hamper 
the effectiveness of your program. Over-emphasis on the 
membership theme and boasting of tremendous participation 
figures should also be avoided. 

6. Be professional. Subscribe to all accredited publications 
and information sources in the field. Maintain regular con- 
tact with the National Recreation Association and be repre- 
sented at all professional recreation conferences within geo- 
graphic reach of your location. Make use of the wealth of 
useful information available and provide other recreation 
agencies with up-to-date accounts of what you are doing in 
the field. 

As a means toward crime prevention among youth, the 
recreation method can be a useful device in the hands of a 
soundly organized and operated police-recreation unit. Com- 
petition with, or overlapping of, public and private recrea- 
tion agencies by the police-sponsored unit is wasteful and 
unjustifiable. Cooperation with other agencies by the police- 
sponsored unit is the key to its ultimate success in meeting 
recreation needs and thus helping to prevent crime. 


Robert Kresge 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Charleston, West Virginia 

"Honest Abe" the story goes, 
Spent his youth in homespun clothes, 
Steeled his muscles splitting rails, 
Wrestled some, grew hard as nails ; 
Kentuck' first, then Illinois 
Knew this gangly, homely boy. 

Read a lot by firelight, 

Just of course when it was night. 

As a lawyer of a sort, 

Went before the Springfield court, 

Not too bad at law, it seems, 

With his stories and his dreams. 

Liked his politics, by gum, 
Ran for Congress, yes, and won, 
Did all right but didn't shine, 
Abe just seemed to bide his time, 
Just awaitin' for the day 
When he'd really have his say. 

Came that day, then Abe spoke out, 
What he said was most about 
Slaves not being property 
But humans just like you and me; 
Thanks to Douglas and debates 
Abe's name spread throughout the 

Soon thereafter most folk meant 
Abe to be their president, 

So in eighteen sixty-one 
Back he went to Washington 
Where it 'peared that he was due 
To see this country split in two. 

"Honest Abe" this time succeeded. 
Guess he had what we most needed, 
The gumption and the strength to fight, 
A firm belief that he was right : 
Took a while, this operation, 
Takes a while to save a nation. 

It's kind of hard to understand. 
Abe was such a tender man, 
And some around him used to sneer 
The White House needed more veneer; 
By gosh, I'm glad, for all our sakes, 
That Abe was there, with what it takes! 




International News 

The Charles and Fannie Weissman 
Playground and Youth Center is the 
first recreation facility of this type in 
Beer Sheba, Israel. The center, donated 
by Mr. and Mrs. Weissman of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pennsylvania, will serve the 
youth of Beer Sheba as an athletic, cul- 
tural, and social center. The very mod- 
ern and attractive facilities include a 
children's playground with swings, see- 
saws, climbing towers, wading pool, 
merry-go-round, and so on; outdoor 
basketball, volleyball and handball 
courts; youth center with a library and 
a handcraft building, and an assembly 
hall with vocational guidance rooms, 
work rooms, and completely equipped 
"Cinema Room" with projector and 
films. Two thousand children from 
fourteen different lands many of them 
orphans celebrated the laying of the 
cornerstone for their center with a new 
feeling of hope for the future. 

Iran has just organized a National 
Recreation Association under the Min- 
ister of Court, His Excellency Hussein 

Dolls from countries all over the 
world are being shown in Delhi at an 
international exhibition organized by 
the Children's Art Exhibition Commit- 
tee of the Indian periodical Shankar's 
Weekly. The committee, headed by Dr. 
S. Radhakrishman, is holding the exhi- 
bition "as a simple and effective way of 
making children aware of the culture 
and traditions of different countries." 

Dressed in the national costumes of 
their countries of origin, the dolls will 
be exhibited in many parts of India 
before being finally housed in the capi- 
tal as a permanent exhibit. (UNESCO) 

Conservation Notes 

With the observation that "people are 
prone to criticize their legislators, but 
too seldom give them honor for the 
good they do," the National Parks As- 

sociation recently presented an award 
for distinguished service to Representa- 
tive John P. Saylor of Pennsylvania, an 
ardent fighter for conservation of the 
country's resources. Representative 
Saylor has been particularly active in 
the fight to prevent invasion of Dino- 
saur National Monument by the pro- 
posed Echo Park Dam, a part of the 
Upper Colorado River Storage Project. 

Two other representatives, Leon H. 
Gavin of Pennsylvania and Lee Metcalf 
of Montana, were also honored for simi- 
lar efforts when they received bronze 
plaques in the name of five national 
conservation organizations: The Izaak 
Walton League, National Parks Associ- 
ation, National Wildlife Federation, 
Wilderness Society, and Wildlife Man- 
agement Institute. 


With malice toward 
none; with charity 

Brotherhood Week 

Nationwide observance of Brother- 
hood Week, sponsored by the National 
Conference of Christians and Jews, will 
be held February 20-27. The 1955 theme 
is "One Nation Under God." 

Special events in more than ten thou- 
sand communities throughout the 
United States will mark the occasion. 
Educational institutions, religious and 
civic organizations will participate. 
Brotherhood week goals are: (1) Re- 

dedication to the ideals of respect for 
people and human rights. (2) Demon- 
stration of practical ways in which 
Americans can promote these ideals. 
(3) Enlistment of more people in year- 
round activities to promote brother- 

New Siren Warning 

Reckless drivers who speed through 
recreation areas, school zones, and con- 
gested sections can be curbed through 
a new electronic siren warning, accord- 
ing to the American Public Works As- 
sociation. Installations can be made at 
the start of low-speed zones so speed- 
ing cars and trucks will set off a brief 
siren warning letting pedestrians know 
a vehicle is approaching at excessive 
speed. It also alerts drivers and traffic 
officers to the fact that the speed limit 
has been exceeded. 

Leadership for Many 

When Mildred Scanlon of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association leader- 
ship training sta'ff visited Oklahoma 
City, 466 recreation leaders from sixty- 
one youth agencies, churches, hospitals 
and schools attended her training 
courses. Included in the group were 
sixty-nine junior leaders and twenty- 
five kindergarten teachers. Seven 
churches and three hospitals were repre- 
sented at the training course as well as 
youth centers, YWCA, Boy and Girl 
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, Salvation 
Army and the Junior League. In addi- 
tion to representatives from four col- 
leges and universities and the State De- 
partment of Education, twenty-two ele- 
mentary and high schools were repre- 
sented. Sponsor of the training course 
was Alvin R. Eggeling. director of rec- 
reation in Oklahoma City. 

Ice and Snow Activities 

Jersey City, New Jersey, anticipated 
cold weather by opening a new munici- 
pal ice skating rink in Roosevelt Sta- 
dium. The rink, eighty-five by one hun- 
dred ninety feet, will have one-and-a- 
half inches of ice at all times and was 
built by the Department of Parks and 
Public Property, of which Harold Lo- 
gin is recreation superintendent. 

New York State also prepared for 
snowfall, with fifty ski centers in oper- 
ation. Nineteen of the state's centers 



will be in daily operation with others 
open only weekends and holidays. The 
state has also opened a ski information 
center to provide daily bulletins on 
snow conditions. 

In Los Angeles, the first annual adult 
ski school was offered by the recreation 
and park department. The five-week 
school was conducted at a total of seven- 
teen city play centers, with certified 
members of the Far West Ski Instruc- 
tors Association as "professors." 

Cooperative Publicity 

The recreation and parks department 
in Fayetteville, North Carolina, fre- 
quently acts as a coordinating agency 
for the community's civic clubs. Re- 
cently it interested the council of civic 
clubs in buying four large signs on the 
main highways, north and south of the 
city, to publicize the community and 
the clubs. The department also works 
with the chamber of commerce in ar- 
ranging tours through Fayetteville and 
nearby Fort Bragg for visitors and tour- 

Medieval Sport Lives On 

West Virginia reports a persisting in- 
terest in medieval jousting. Many jousts 
are held throughout the state yearly, 
topped by the Mountain State Forest 
Festival. In Greenbrier County the 
sport is by no means restricted to men. 
Recently the ladies have taken to the 
saddle and the young ones are trying 
to spear the rings from their bicycles. 
In fact the sport is so much an estab- 
lished part of county life that proceeds 
from the county jousting tournament 
are used to help support the county 
youth camp. Sir Walter Scott's works 
found wide acceptance among the south- 
ern states and it is from the pages of 
such novels as Ivanhoe and others that 
modern riders of the rings molded their 
tournament rules and evolved names 
such as Sir Knight of Seneca Trail. 

In Memoriam 

James Young Cameron, Jr., director 
of the Erie County Youth Program, 
Buffalo, New York, died on December 
14 at the age of fifty-three. Mr. Young 
had been in recreation work all his life. 
Following in the footsteps of his father, 
who was a YMCA physical education 
director, he started his career at the age 
of seventeen with the Buffalo Central 
YMCA as an assistant physical director. 
During World War II he was sports co- 
ordinator for the Buffalo division of the 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, operating 
a sports program for three work shifts. 
He joined the Erie County Youth Bur- 
eau in 1946 and continued with that 
agency until his death. 

News of Affiliated Societies 

Two more state societies have joined 
the many who are now "affiliated for 
service" with the National Recreation 
Association. The recent additions are 
the California Recreation Society and 
the Georgia Recreation Society. Other 
affiliated societies were listed in the 
January issue of RECREATION. 

Last fall the Alabama Recreation So- 
ciety, the Alabama League of Munici- 
palities and the NRA jointly sponsored 
three highly successful regional confer- 
ences for municipal officials, recreation 
board members, school and civic lead- 
ers. The meetings pointed out the im- 
portance of establishing sound commu- 
nity recreation programs to include 
legislation, financing, personnel, pro- 
gram, and public relations. 

On January 1, the program of the 
Board of Recreation Personnel of the 
California Recreation Society for the 
voluntary registration of recreation 
leaders went into effect. The basic pur- 
poses of the plan are to establish mini- 
mum standards for leaders in the field, 
to clearly identify leaders engaged in 
organized recreation as' a career, and to 
afford certification as to the qualifica- 
tions by training and experience of 
those employed in recreation leadership 
in the state. Any full-time professional 
leader in public or private recreation 
in the state is eligible for registration 
provided he meets the standards estab- 
lished by the Board of Recreation Per- 

A state-wide recreation speakers' bu- 

reau has been organized by the New 
York State Public Recreation Society to 
assist the many state organizations that 
wish to learn more about the possibili- 
ties of assisting their respective commu- 
nities in the organization of recreation 
programs. The bureau consists of rec- 
reation executives from all parts of the 
state who are well qualified to speak on 
topics relating to recreation. If you 
wish further information on this new 
organization, write to Yale J. Newman, 
Superintendent of Recreation, City 
Hall, Long Beach, New York. 

The Oregon Recreation and Park As- 
sociation was formed at a meeting in 
Portland, in November, with thirty-five 
charter members. A constitution was 
adopted and the following officers were 
elected: president, Bob Bonney, Kla- 
math Falls ; vice-president, Harry Buck- 
ley, Portland; secretary, George Cham- 
bers, Albany; treasurer, Wayne Hamil- 
ton, Bend. It was decided by those pres- 
ent that all engaged in the recreation 
field in Oregon would be eligible for 
membership. The annual meeting will 
be held each year at the League of Ore- 
gon Cities Convention, with one other 
meeting to be scheduled during the An- 
nual Northwest Recreation Association 

Some of the 1955 goals of the Ten- 
nessee Recreation Society, according 
to the president, Francis Bishop of 
Chattanooga, will be to double the mem- 
bership; to study and work toward at- 
tracting industrial, hospital and volun- 
teer or youth serving agencies as special 
affiliated sections of the Tennessee Rec- 
reation Society; and to promote, in co- 
operation with the Tennessee Division 
of State Parks and other interested 
agencies, special regional work-shops 
on recreation. 

In a message to the Wisconsin Recre- 
ation Association, Thomas B. Greenwill 
of Wauwatosa, president, listed as three 
of the projects that should be consid- 
ered by the association during 1955: 
more effort to get proper certification; 
a survey made of types of recreation 
positions in the state, and plans to set 
up requirements for such positions; 
and readiness on the part of members to 
help out on bills before the legislature 
in 1955 that affect recreation. 




Being Done 

By Them 

Recreation for senior citizens under 
many names continues to develop in 
communities across the nation. Minne- 
sota has created a twenty-five member 
legislative interim commission to study 
the problems of the aging on a wide 
front, including recreation. The Henne- 
pin County Welfare Board, in Minne- 
sota, in 1950 appointed a group worker 
to help organize a community program 
for senior citizens. Under the impetus 
of this worker Jerome Kaplan inter- 
est, activities and numbers of partici- 
pants have sprouted amazingly. Sum- 
mer camping, programs in nursing 
homes and boarding homes, and visits 
to individuals confined to their homes 
have brought joyous activity to thous- 
ands. The Merry Makers, the Best 
Agers, and the Live Embers live up 
to their names. Eventually Mr. Kaplan 
hopes to have enough volunteers to 
bring recreation to everyone of the five 
hundred recipients of old-age assistance. 
One club at a library has a film or 
lecture each month, with reading lists 
on the subject supplied by the library 
and used. Many of the senior citizens 
belong to Minneapolis Public Library 
clubs open to all ages, such as the as- 
tronomy club, bird club, mineral and 
gem club, botanical society. 

Seattle, Washington, is probably typi- 
cal of many cities as a recent survey 
shows, in that the organization and ad- 
ministration of the clubs vary widely. 
Some required dues and hired a direc- 
tor ; many were supported by a church ; 
some depended entirely upon contribu- 
tions from outsiders or patronesses even 

Domenick Santa Barbara, oldest player in Over-60 Symphony of Sirovitch Day 
Center, New York, is over 80, used to arrange music for Metropolitan Opera. 

for the inevitable and beloved cake and 

Under the co-sponsorship of the 
Council of Social Agencies and the Co- 
lumbus Citizen, Columbus, Ohio, staged 
a thrilling hobby show, with an eighty- 
eight-year-old king and a ninety-year- 
old queen. Features were demonstra- 
tions of talking books, a drill by the 
Grandmothers' Club, a presentation of 
The Room Upstairs (an American 
Theatre Wing play illustrating how 
two generations can live together) and 
a group discussion of "This I Believe." 
Said a seventy-five-year-old resident of 
a home, "When I think I do not amount 
to much, I say to myself, 'God made 
only one of me, so He must have some 
special work that only I can do for Him. 
So I'll do my best every day'." 

Miss Margaret E. Mulac, out of wide 
experience in gerontology, regards rec- 
reation as of the utmost value in meet- 
ing the problems of the aged. She has 
had excellent success in promoting ac- 
tivities in nine areas: social, physical, 
linguistic, constructive, civic, dramatic, 
music, rhythmic, and nature. Miss Mu- 
lac warns against overuse of television 
and radio as likely to crowd out more 
rewarding activities such as handwork, 
reading, studying, parties with friends, 
making music, and dancing. 

In the very thoughtful and compre- 
hensive discussion of recreation for the 
aging, held at the University of North 
Carolina,* the following suggestions 
for activities were given: letter writing 
group to write to shut-ins and people in 
foreign lands; office work such as 
stamping, stapling, packaging; making 
and mending costumes and doll clothes; 
toy renovation. Other projects included 
the sending of greeting cards and a 
brand-new dollar to each member on his 
birthday; a half-hour of music, singing, 
records, individual performance: read- 
ing aloud; a book cart, with supplies 
also for simple craft projects; exhibit 
of handwork; costume party: tin-can 
party (each one brings a tin can and 
opens it for refreshments) : short trips; 
a ride to the market, or a visit to a 
museum; and growing things. 

A very active club in Roanoke. Vir- 
ginia, The Oldsters, has given teas for 
handicapped people, even some on 
stretchers, who were brought to the 
party by volunteer car drivers. Wheel- 
chair members of the club helped by 
doing telephoning. At a Thanksgiving 
banquet in 1954. awards were made to 
the oldster who had attended most meet- 
ings, to the octogenarians, and to the 

* Proceedings published as Bulletin No. 8 by 
the North Carolina Recreation Commission. 



outstanding oldster of the year. This 
last award went to Mrs. 0. A. Palmer, 
chairman of the Friendship Committee. 
Mrs. Palmer organized a group to make 
new Christmas cards out of old ones. 
These were sent to shut-ins and hospital 
patients. She also collected enough 
roses from her friends so that one rose 
could be pinned on each oldster attend- 
ing a shut-in party. 

In Toronto, the Second-Mile Club 
maintains a non-residential twelve-room 
clubhouse, open for twelve hours a day, 
six days a week, with an average daily 
attendance of seventy-five. The club- 
house was purchased by the city and 
leased to the club at a nominal rental 
for twenty-one years. All the traditional 
clubhouse facilities are provided, plus a 
laundry, electric iron and sewing ma- 
chine and a stock of used clothing. 
Food for making snacks is sold at cost. 
A similar club, the L Club (for fifty), 
is operated in a church in New York 
two days a week, this one for women 

Writing in a pamphlet entitled You 
Will Like Working with the Golden Age, 
James H. Woods, director of the Cleve- 
land Welfare Federation Recreation 
Project for Older People, urges leaders 
to refrain from certain types of leader- 
ship: the mother hen type, the auto- 
crat, the bleeding heart, the hit-and-run 

In connection with the New Cedar 
Apartments Neighborhood in Cleveland 
a new center for older people is planned, 
eventually to accommodate eight hun- 
dred to one thousand people. There are 
now two centers in the county with 
fifteen hundred members. Clubs, classes, 
counseling, hot lunches all the pro- 
visions for the care which experienced 
workers regard as important will be 

In Chicago and other cities, writes 
Philip Seman, chairman emeritus of the 
Chicago Recreation Commission, an or- 
ganization known as the Old Guard 
offers retired business and professional 
men a chance to retain old friendships 
and build new ones, to preserve mental 
alertness and to maintain a lively inter- 
est in community, national, and world 
affairs. A similar organization in Eng- 
land is known as St. George's Park Old 
Boys, because the group grew out of in- 
formal contacts in the park. 

The Pleasant Hours Club of Dear- 
born, Michigan, has been especially for- 
tunate in having a number of old 
settlers who delight the younger mem- 
bers with tales of Indians and pioneers. 
Much help has been given this club by 
the Women's Club of Dearborn and the 
Soroptomists. Miss Wilma Clizbe, of the 
recreation division writes, "We have 
never started a new activity which has 
had a greater appeal to the general pub- 
lic than this program." 

Cooperative effort of the Council of 
Social Agencies, the department of rec- 
reation, and the University of Michigan 
Extension Service has resulted in out- 
standing developments in Grand Rap- 
ids. Museums and libraries offer pro- 
grams suitable to the interests of older 
people, such as special exhibits, hobby 
classes, and great books courses. A 
committee of students has recently 
greatly broadened and vitalized the 

Rochester, New York, has a seven- 
teen-room clubhouse given to the city 
by Mrs. Henry G. Danforth. This is the 
only club under municipal support. 
Nine others are conducted by churches 

and societies. Writes Harry Goodno, di- 
rector of the Danforth Center : "Twelve 
of our men and women are serving our 
city and county as airplane spotters at 
night, to give the daytime spotters a 
chance for more rest." The club has 
entertained over six hundred Golden 
Agers from Buffalo, Cortland, Syracuse, 
Ithaca, Lockport, Jamestown, and Ni- 
agara Falls at Rochester's famous Lilac 

In Paterson, New Jersey, a local pa- 
per prints a weekly column, addressed 
to senior citizens, containing accounts 
of successful activities or suggestions 
for programs. 

Many industrial organizations, nota- 
bly the Ford Motor Company, Standard 
Oil, and the John B. Stetson Company 
of Philadelphia are assuming responsi- 
bility for training employees for retire- 
ment. After an interview, workers who 
will be retired in the next three years 
are advised about hobbies and other 
plans for retirement. The recreation di- 
vision has organized to help in the selec- 
tion of hobbies and to give training. 
(For photographs of older peoples' ac- 
tivities see pages 72-73. Ed.) 


4 During the year 1955 all orders amounting to $10 or more will be 

shipped transportation prepaid via least expensive way. If any 
j other way is specified, customer shall pay the difference. 

Write For Your FREE CATALOG 

Our new 1955 catalog is just off the press. In it are many, 
many, items suitable for recreational programs. Among 
them are: Art Supplies; Crafts such as: Metal Etching; 
Indian Craft; Rick-Rack Craft; Wooden Plates and Trays 
for decorating; Numbered Paint Sets and Frames. 


4705 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland 3, Ohio 


c4tnletic Equipment 


W. J. Voit Rubber Corp. 
2945 East 12th Street 
Los Angeles 11, Calif. 

New York 1 1 , Chicago 1 0, Los Angeles 1 1 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


In recreation groups they are helped to make new 
friends, learn new skills, undertake service projects, 
become contributing members of their communities; 
and, in many instances, they do their own planning. 

Nice try! At friendly ball game between men ai 
women of Golden Age Society, Jamestown, New Yor 
Alice Waters swings, Claude Sundberg catches. S< 
"Can Older People Enjoy Sports?" February 195 

Club members, ages 86 and 87 respectively, 
of Arlington, Massachusetts, in a nostalgic 
moment at the piano. Music is popular in all 
clubs, uncovers and develops hidden talents. 

Below: First prize winning portrait exhibited by A. 
Edwin Stevenson (right of portrait) at Columbus, 
Ohio, golden-ager hobby show. Exhibitors are given 
recognition and an opportunity for financial return. 

Above left: At club meeting in Greenville, 
Pennsylvania, members enjoy square danc- 
ing. Caller is Mildred Scanlon of NRA staff. 



Pageants depicting scenes from history are staged as 
part of recreation program of "family community" 
at Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews of New York. 

:hester Danforth Center members practice for bil- 
d competition. Among other activities are danc- 
, singing, card games. Some have formed enter- 
iinont group to visit the hospitals and shut-ins. 

Some recreation clubs for oldsters have their own 
dance orchestras. At Danforth Center (below), jolly 
hats add to the general fun. These dance parties do- 
nate proceeds to the polio, heart, and cancer funds. 

Los Angeles municipal recreation centers provide many 
activities for senior citizens. Above, members of the 
"Thimble Club" compare work for playground show. 

Right: Croquet tourney is in progress on lovely 
4-acre lot of Rochester clubhouse. Old mansion 
has dance hall, game rooms, an equipped kitchen. 




Basic Design Features 

George D. Butler 

When a local group has determined the types of activities 
the pool should serve, its over-all size, location, and possible 
cost, it must decide as to its shape, dimensions, type of con- 
struction, decks, overflow troughs, lights, chlorination and 
filtration equipment, bathhouse, seating facilities, and many 
other features. Major considerations in reaching these de- 
cisions are mentioned here, but leaders are urged to study 
the many publications dealing with this subject which will 
be listed in the bibliography at the end of this series. 


A large majority of the public pools built before World 
War II were rectangular, although pools with curved perime- 
ter circular, oval, ovoid or irregular in shape were fairly 
common. Recently several modifications of the rectangular 
pool have been developed, chief of which are the T, L, and 
fan-shaped pools, which have a variety of forms. Two- or 
three-unit pools, with each unit designed to serve specific 
uses, have been built in a number of cities, especially where 
the pool was designed to serve a large population. Opinions 
differ as to the merits of the various shaped pools, but an at- 
tempt will be made to point out here some of the advantages 
and disadvantages of several types. It should be kept in mind 
that the relative importance of the various activities to be 
conducted in the pool and the estimated participation in 
them are factors influencing the selection of the pool shape. 
Dimensions of the pool are also a major consideration. 

Rectangular. This shape is used for pools varying in size 
from the small shallow children's pool to the large so-called 
Olympic type. The individual sections of a multiple-unit 
pool are also often rectangular in shape. 

Advantages of the rectangular pool are: 

1. Ease and comparatively low cost of construction. 

2. Ease of supervision. 

3. Adaptability to competitive swimming. 

4. Readily defined stations for group activity. 

5. Susceptibility to good water circulation. 

Possible disadvantages are: 

1. Relatively small percentage of wadeable area except 
in large pools. 

2. Possibility of conducting only one competitive activity 
at a time. 

MR. BUTLER is director of the NRA Research Department. 

A Rectangular spoon- shaped-bottom pool. 
B Rectangular pool with deep center section. 
C L -shaped pool. 

T-shaped pool. 
E Fan-shaped pool. 
F Two-unit pool. 

The relative advantages of the rectangular pool explain 
its widespread use. This shape is not well adapted to a 
community pool shorter than 75 feet, however, if diving 
facilities are provided. Deep water in such pools must ex- 
tend for 35 to 40 feet from the deep end, which means that 
in a pool 75 feet long approximately one-half of the water 
area is too deep for wading. Since at least 75 to 80 per cent 
of the persons using most pools stay in water under 5 feet 
in depth, only a small number of people can be accommo- 
dated in a pool of this length. 

Most rectangular pools are built with a spoon-shape bot- 
tom, providing shallow water at one end and deep water for 
diving at the other. This type is adapted to the needs of 
a community that requires a moderate-size pool, and is 
widely used for pools designed for highly competitive activi- 
ties. In some small neighborhood pools, diving facilities are 



not provided, and the bottom has a gradual slope from one 
end to the other. 

A third type is the large rectangular pool with a deep 
section for diving which extends across the center of the 
pool with shallow water at each end. This design is effective 
only for pools 120 feet or more in length; otherwise, the 
three sections across the pool are too narrow for satisfactory 
use. Advantages claimed for this type of pool are that it 
affords three separate areas, thus making it possible to carry 
on three activities simultaneously without interference. It 
affords a larger percentage of shallow water than a pool of 
the same size with a spoon-shape bottom. It also enables the 
lifeguards to be stationed where they can easily watch and 
enter the water at the points of greatest danger where the 
pool bottom drops off into the diving area. On the other 
hand, shallow water borders the deep section on both sides ; 
whereas, in pools with a spoon-shape bottom, there is only 
one such danger line. 

Another type of rectangular pool has a diving area mid- 
way along one side of the pool and extending part way across 
it. This arrangement, in which the diving area is bordered 
on three sides by shallow water, makes the problem of super- 
vision especially difficult and it is found in relatively few 

L and T Pools. These modifications in the rectangular pool 
have come into rather widespread use in recent years. Their 
chief characteristic is the addition of a section which is usu- 
ally designed for diving and therefore comprises the deep 
part of the pool. This section is usually located either at one 
end of the rectangular pool and at right angles to it or it 
takes the form of a bay projecting from one side of the pool, 
usually along the middle. 

The diving bay is much smaller in area than the main 
portion of the pool. 

Advantages of the L or T pool are: 

1. It separates divers from swimmers, thereby reducing 
danger of collisions, and restricts them to a small portion of 
the pool. 

2. It enables the main portion of the pool to be of wade- 
able depth, thus serving more people than is usually possible 
in a rectangular pool. 

3. It provides more flexibility for competitive swimming, 
i.e., official distances in meters in one direction and feet in 
the other. 

4. The layout provides considerable deck space. 

5. It can be used effectively for a wide variety of pool 

Disadvantages are : 

1. The limited deep water area may restrict use of the 
pool for such activities as water polo. 

2. The diving bay makes the pool more difficult to super- 
vise, especially in the T-type pool, say some operators. 

3. Wave action across the opening into the diving bay is 
reported to create a handicap to swimmers in competitive 

4. The shape does not facilitate circulation of water in 
the pool quite as well as in a rectangular pool. 

The dimensions, including depth, affect the degree to 
which the advantages of an L or T pool apply, in the case of 
a particular pool. In general, the L- and T-type pools have 
proved highly satisfactory. 

The Fan-Shape Pool. This modification of the rectangular 
pool has come into considerable favor in the last few years, 
especially for a pool designed to meet the needs of a neigh- 
borhood or small community. The distinctive features of 
the fan-shape pool is that the shallow end is widened in 
some cases to double the width at the deep end. The cor- 
ners of the shallow end are commonly rounded, but the end 
wall is parallel to that at the deep end, as in a rectangular 
pool. As a rule the side walls are straight although in some 
pools they are parallel along the section used for diving and 
flare out only along the portion of the pool with water five 
feet or less in depth. 

This type of pool has the advantages of the rectangular 
pool plus the added factor of a greatly enlarged wadeable 
area. A much larger proportion of the pool is suitable for 
use by non-swimmers than is possible in a rectangular pool 
of equal size ; so it accommodates a greater number of bath- 
ers. Yet it affords opportunity for diving, competitive swim- 
ming, and most other activities. Reports indicate an excep- 
tionally high degree of satisfaction with this type pool. 

Multiple-Unit Pools. Several cities have built pools with 
two or three distinct units separated by decks, each designed 
to serve one or more pool functions. Many two-unit installa- 
tions consist of a diving pool and a swimming pool with a 
maximum water depth of five feet or less. The chief reason 
for building this type of pool is to separate the divers com- 
pletely from the persons engaged in other pool activities. 
The diving unit is much smaller than the swimming pool. 

Another arrangement is for the main pool to have deep 
water for diving at one end and relatively shallow water at 
the other, like most rectangular pools. The secondary pool 
is shallow and is designed primarily for children's use. The 
chief value of this arrangement is that water at the shallow 
end of the main pool can be deep enough for competitive 
swimming, while the young children and others wishing to 
use water less than four feet in depth are accommodated in 
the other pool. *- 

Sunbathing is popular at this big two-unit industrial pool. 
Separation of turf area from the pool deck is recommended. 



The three-unit pool usually consists of a diving unit, a 
pool for competitive swimming four to six feet deep, and a 
unit for general swimming three to five feet deep. This type 
separates people with different aquatic interests and abilities. 
It is rarely found except in large cities because the cost of 
construction and operation is greater than most cities can 
afford or justify. If properly designed, it affords facilities 
for a wide variety of pool activities. 

The main sections of most multiple-use pools are rectangu- 
lar in shape; the diving units are usually rectangular, but 
some are semicircular a shape favored by several pool 

Rounded Pools. Many pools are circular, oval, ovoid, kid- 
ney shaped, or of a variety of free forms. Some have shallow 
water at the perimeter and deep water near the center ; oth- 
ers resemble a rectangular pool with curved sides and have 
deep water at one end and shallow water at the other. There 
is a wide variation in the size, shape, and water depth in this 
group of pools. 

The chief disadvantages of this group are that, on the 
whole, the pools are not suitable for many activities; the 
construction cost tends to be high; and supervision is rela- 
tively difficult. Some of these pools, especially the circular 
or oval type, have large water areas that are too shallow to 
serve a useful purpose. Relatively few such pools are being 
built today as compared with a generation ago. 

The swimming pool study recently conducted by the Con- 
ference for National Cooperation in Aquatics revealed that 
very few of the persons reporting on pools with rounded 
edges would choose this type if they were to rebuild. 

Pool Dimensions 

Besides over-all size and shape, the specific dimensions 
of a pool its length, width, and depth are primary con- 
siderations in planning. These are influenced by the pool's 
shape and water area but are determined, in part, by the 
activities the pool is designed to make possible. Length and 
width of many pools are interrelated ; depth is largely deter- 
mined by the type of activity, regardless of the pool's size 
or shape. 

Length. Most pools, except those with curved edges, are 
approximately twice as long as they are wide, so the length 
is roughly determined by the estimated required water area. 
A pool 50 or 60 feet long is usually adequate for children's 
use, but one less than 75 feet long is rarely satisfactory for 
community use, especially if it has diving facilities. Other- 
wise it will accommodate few bathers. The additional space 
gained by increasing the length of a rectangular pool can all 
be in water of wadeable depth; hence the longer the pool 
the greater the potential number of bathers per square foot 
of water area. This relative advantage is not gained by wid- 
ening the pool. 

Pool activities, such as general swimming, diving, swim- 
ming and life saving classes, and informal games, can be 
carried on in pools of any reasonable length, but competi- 
tive swimming events require specific distances. Even though 
swimming meets are to be a minor feature of a pool program, 

it is desirable to build pools of official length. Pool lengths 
suitable for the standard high school and college events in 
yards are 75, 100, and 150 feet; for all AAU events 82.5 or 
165 feet. The designer therefore has considerable leeway in 
determining the length for his pool. If a city is building 
several pools, it is recommended that one be designed for 
official competitive meets and major aquatic events and that 
its length be 165 feet or 50 meters. Pools intended for such 
use should be an inch longer than the official distance and the 
inside length be certified by a licensed engineer, so records 
made in the pool may be recognized. 

Fan-shaped pool, Trussville, Alabama, 75 feet long, 30 to 
50 feet wide, water depth from 3 to 11 feet. This type 
probably best serves the needs of a small community. 

Width. Pools, as previously stated, are frequently about 
one-half as wide as they are long. Except for children's 
pools, which may be as narrow as 25 feet, a public outdoor 
pool should not be less than 30 feet wide and seldom less 
than 42 feet. This width provides ample space for group 
instruction in swimming or life saving at the shallow and 
deep ends respectively and provides six lanes of seven feet 
each. To meet the requirements for official competition a 
pool that is to be equipped with two diving boards also needs 
to be about 42 feet wide. 

In larger rectangular pools the width is frequently 50, 60 
or 75 feet. Races can be run across a 75-foot pool; and a 
pool 60 feet or more in width at the deep end can be used 
for water polo. A greater width than 75 feet is seldom re- 
quired and it adds to the problem of supervision. In rec- 
tangular pools with the deep section across the center a 60- 
foot width permits group instruction along each side of the 
pool in the shallow water at the same time and it also en- 
ables persons to dive from both sides of the pool without 

Some L and T pools are 25 yards in one dimension and 25 
or 50 meters in the other, thus allowing for various types of 
official competition. In such cases a minimum width of both 
the main section and the bay should be 42 feet. Where the 
bay serves as a diving unit, the distance from the end to the 
junction with the main section should not be less than 40 feet 
if a three-meter board is used. The width of the fan-shaped 
pool at the shallow end is between one-and-one-half and 
twice the width at the deep end, which is usually 30 to 45 




Depth. The water depth in various portions of the pool 
and the contour of the pool bottom are determined largely by 
the functions to be served the activities for which the pool 
is primarily designed. A satisfactory solution can be worked 
out most readily in a three-unit pool, but in most cases a 
compromise must be reached between the conflicting re- 
quirements for various pool activities. 

Pools built for children's use usually vary in depth from 
2 to 3 l /2 or 4 feet. A few cities are building neighborhood 
pools that vary from 2 1 /2 or 3 feet at the shallow end to 5 
feet at the deep end. This type is suited primarily for densely 

. i 

Small neighborhood pool in Cleveland, 42 by 75 feet, has 
5 feet maximum water depth. Such pools provide bathing op- 
portunities for maximum number of people at minimum cost. 

populated neighborhoods in cities where facilities for diving 
and other activities requiring deep water are provided 
at other pools. The shallow pools can be constructed more 
cheaply than the standard type of rectangular pool, and the 
elimination of diving reduces the possibility of collisions and 

Most public pools, however, even those built in increasing 
numbers for neighborhood use, provide deep water for div- 
ing, the depth of which is determined by the height of the 
diving facilities. There is a growing tendency for cities to 
install three-meter as well as one-meter boards at their pools, 
thus requiring deeper water. Opinions differ, but it is 
recommended that at least 9^ feet be provided where one- 
meter boards are installed and that 11 feet be provided under 
three-meter boards in public pools. Three feet is the depth 
most frequently used and widely recommended for the shal- 
low end of such pools. Children seven years of age and older 
are tall enough to use a pool with water three feet deep, 
either for general swimming or for swimming instruction, 
but deeper water presents a safety problem for this age 
group. A three-foot depth is also satisfactory for neighbor- 
hood or local swimming meets, but is the minimum depth 
suitable for such competition. Some pools have sections with 
water less than three feet deep in some cases one foot or 
less which are used for wading by very young children. 
Majority opinion, however, favors the provision of separate 
wading pools to serve the needs of children under seven 
rather than reducing the minimum depth in the swimming 

A pool designed to accommodate official meets either in 


a large city or in a community where interest in competitive 
aquatics is unusually high needs deeper water than the 
pool designed for general use. The NCAA rules call for a 
minimum depth of 3 l /2 feet; the new AAU rules, for a 4-foot 
depth. Since these municipal pools will also be used for 
general swimming by the public, a depth of 3 l / 2 feet at the 
shallow end is recommended. In the rare cases where a 
separate competitive pool is justified, the minimum depth 
should be at least 4 feet. The pool designed for official 
meets should also have the maximum depth required for div- 
ing competition. For example, the AAU rules for spring- 
board diving one and three meters call for water at least 
11 feet deep in an area 3 feet back of, 24 feet in front of, and 
10 feet to each side of a vertical dropped from the front end 
of the board. In case a high diving platform is used, the pool 
depth should be increased to 15 feet and the deep area in- 
creased proportionately. 

Slopes. The bottom of the pool should have a continuous 
slope, since flat areas prevent sediment from being washed 
to the drain and should be avoided. Wherever the water is 
less than 5% feet deep, the slope should not exceed 1 foot in 
15; there should be no sudden changes in slope within this 
area. The slope of the deep area under the diving board can 
be much greater. In a pool with a one-meter board only, 
water at the deep-end wall may be only 8 feet, increasing in 
depth to 9~*/2 or 10 feet not more than 6 feet away from the 
wall. About 15 feet beyond it can slope upwards, preferably 
in a curve, to a depth of about 5 feet. Under a three-meter 
board the water may be 9 feet deep at the end wall and the 
bottom slope to 11 or 12 feet not more than 6 feet from the 
wall. This depth should be maintained for about 20 feet 
before the pool bottom slopes upwards. The distance from 
the deep-end wall to the 5-foot depth should be at least 35 
feet where a one-meter board is used and at least 40 feet 
where there is a three-meter board. 

In the L-shape pool the slope in the main section is 
usually toward the end opposite the bay, with a sharp drop 
off into the diving bay. In the T-shape pool with the diving 
bay opposite the center of one side, the bottom usually has 
a gradual slope from both ends toward the section opposite 
the bay. 

It has been the custom in most pools to make the cross- 
section practically level, but a recent tendency has been to 
slope the floor at the deep end from the sides as well as the 
ends. The hopper bottom saves excavation, lessens the water 
volume, reduces the height of the side wall at the deep end, 
and aids in keeping the pool floor clean. 

Decks and Sunning Areas 

Provision of inadequate deck space around the pool has 
been a common mistake in the design of pools. Experience 
has shown that wide decks contribute to the safety, comfort, 
and enjoyment of the bather. A narrow deck results in an- 
noyance to sunbathers and persons walking along the edge 
of the pool. Since a large percentage of the patrons are out 
of the water much of the time, especially if there is plenty 
of space around the pool, widening of the deck tends to in- 
crease the capacity of the pool. If wide enough, the deck can 


be used for life saving and swimming drills and instruction. 
A wide deck enables pageants and other special events re- 
quiring large groups and scenery to be produced at the pool. 

The width of the pool deck should vary with the size and 
type of the pool and in every case it should exceed in area 
the water area of the pool. A minimum width of 20 feet 
at the ends and of 15 feet at the sides is suggested for the 
neighborhood pool; the width should be increased propor- 
tionately for the larger pools, in many of which the area of 
the deck is more than double that of the pool. There is little 
danger that the width of the deck will be too great. 

Decks require a slope of not less than one-quarter-inch to 
the foot, preferably away from the pool, with drains at suit- 
able intervals. They should be smooth, easily cleaned and of 
a non-slip construction. Satisfactory results, according to 
the Portland Cement Association, can be obtained by using 
a brush finish, lift finish, or special abrasive aggregates. 
Coloring the deck reduces the glare. Water connections at 
intervals around the pool are needed so the decks may be 
hosed. A raised edge around the pool, preferably six inches 
high and one foot wide, tends to prevent dirt from blowing 
from the deck into the pool and makes it possible to use 
more hose pressure in flushing the deck. The outer edge of 
the deck should be bordered completely by fences, walls, 
curbs, or other barriers to prevent dirt from being tracked, 
thrown, or blown into the pool area. 

The wide concrete decks serve as sunning areas at most 
pools, but two or three rows of wide concrete steps are often 
built along one or more sides of the pool for sunning and for 
participants in pool activities. Wide wooden benches for 
sunbathers line the decks at some pools. Many large pools 
provide extensive turf areas, which have proved exceedingly 
popular for sunbathing, especially where a good stand of 
suitable grass has been developed and is properly main- 
tained. Large sand areas for sunning are found at other 
pools, although reports indicate them to be less popular than 
concrete. Where such unpaved spaces for sunning are pro- 
vided, they should be separated from the pool deck by a 
fence, and bathers should be required to pass through a 
shower and footbath before returning to the pool. 

Other Activity Areas 

Another means of serving the pool patrons more adequately 
while they are not in the water and of attracting more people 
to the pool is to provide facilities for games such as shuffle- 
board, table tennis, horseshoes, and volley ball. If space 
permits they may be located along the outer edge of the pool 
deck, but a fenced area adjoining the deck is preferable. 

A concession stand has proved a popular feature at many 
pools and also provides revenue to help meet operating costs. 
Swimming stimulates the appetite, and the availability of 
refreshments at the pool adds to the enjoyment and con- 
venience of the bathers. The area adjoining the concession 
stand or lunch counter should be fenced off and no food 
or containers be permitted in the pool area itself. Benches, 
tables, and colorful umbrellas may be provided in the re- 
freshment areas. 

The value of these supplementary facilities and areas is 
repeatedly attested by pool operators. A typical experience 

Los Angeles 60 by 120-foot rectangular pool has deep water 
section across center. Photograph illustrates comparatively 
heavy use of shallow end sections and the need for wide decks. 

is reported by the superintendent of recreation in a southern 
city, as follows: "Originally, our pools were designed for 
swimming only and neglected comfort and sociability. Now 
the turf area with tables, chairs, beach umbrellas, flowers 
and sunshine, after an initial swim, is more popular than the 
pool area. . . . Concession sales shot up appreciably when 
we installed coin drink machines and added tables and 
chairs, attractive beach umbrellas, and a sun area outside 
of the pool proper. Pool admissions also rose through pro- 
vision of this special, comfortable area where bridge could 
be played, portable radios enjoyed, and suntans acquired 
away from the splashing."* He stresses the importance of 
locating these facilities so that a shower and footbath are 
unavoidable before re-entering the pool area. 

Parking Area 

The parking of automobiles may present only a minor 
problem at the small neighborhood pool in cities where such 
pools are well distributed in the built-up areas. A large per- 
centage of the people using most pools, however, drive to the 
pool, especially if it is located in a large park or at some 
distance from their homes. Provision of space for parking 
is therefore essential, the amount depending primarily upon 
the capacity of the pool. Obviously the closer it is to the 
pool the better; but, unless the parking area is to be paved 
or otherwise treated, it should not be so close that dust and 
dirt are blown from it into the pool area. Prevailing winds, 
therefore, may be a factor in determining its location. 

The third article in this series, to appear in our March 
issue, will deal extensively with pool equipment, materials, 
and facilities. Among the features which will be discussed 
will be: seating for spectators; wading pools; the bathhouse, 
including dressing rooms, checkrooms, and lobby; site re- 
quirements; consideration of construction factors such as 
use of concrete or steel, design of walls and floors, and so on. 

* "Swimming Pools Athens Style" by Wayne Shields, RECREATION 
May 1950. 



. The Board Member's Creed . 

Adapted for recreation board members with permission, from "The School 
Board Member's Creed" of Epsilon Field Chapter, Phi Delta Kappa, Los An- 
geles County, California compiled by school district board members and 
university representatives in 1938. (Individual copies are sent to new board 
members to help them become acquainted with their new responsibilities.) 

|X \s an Individual Member of the Board 

I will listen. 

I will recognize the integrity of my predecessors and as- 
sociates and the merit of their work. 

I will be motivated only by a desire to serve the people of 
my community. 

I will recognize that it is my responsibility together with 
that of my fellow board members to see that the recrea- 
tion services are properly run not to run them myself. 

I will work through the administrative employees of the 
board not over or around them. 

I will recognize that recreation business may be legally 
transacted only in open meeting legally called. 

I will not "play politics." 

I will attempt to inform myself on the proper duties and 
functions of a recreation board member. 

;> In Performing the Proper Functions of a Board 

I will deal in terms of general recreation policies. 

I will function, in meeting the legal responsibility that is 

mine, as a part of a legislative, policy-forming body, not 

as an administrative officer. 
I will consider myself a trustee of public recreation and 

will attempt to protect and conserve it. 

]^ In Maintaining Desirable Relations with Other 
Members of the Board 

I will respect the opinions of others. 

I will recognize that authority rests with the board in 
legal session not in individual members of the board. 

I will make no disparaging remarks in or out of meeting 
about other members of the board or their opinions. 

I will recognize that to promise in advance of a meeting 
how I will vote on any proposition under consideration 
is to close my mind and agree not to think through other 
facts and points of view which may be presented in the 

I will make decisions in board meeting only after all sides 
of the question have been presented. 

I will insist that special committees be appointed to serve 
only in an investigating and advisory capacity. 

I will consider unethical and will thus void "star chamber" 
or "secret" sessions of board members held without pres- 
ence of the recreation administration. 

j> In Meeting My Responsibility to My Community 

I will attempt to appraise fairly both the present and the 

future recreation needs of the community. 
I will attempt to procure adequate financial support for 

I will interpret to the department, as best I can, the needs 

and attitudes of the community. 
I will consider it an important responsibility of the board 

to interpret to the community the aims and methods of 

the department. 
I will insist that business transactions of the department 

be on an ethical, open, and above-board basis. 
I will not buy supplies for personal use at "recreation 

I will not consider a position on the board as a "stepping 

stone" to political power. 

^ In Working with the Superintendent of Recrea- 
tion and His Staff 

I will hold the superintendent of recreation responsible for 
the administration of the department. 

I will give the superintendent of recreation authority com- 
mensurate with his responsibility. 

I will expect the department to be administered by the best 
trained technical and professional people it is possible 
to procure. 

I will appoint employees only on the recommendation of the 

I will participate in board legislation only after consider- 
ing the recommendation of the superintendent and only 
after he has furnished complete information supporting 
his recommendation. 

I will expect the superintendent of the department to keep 
the board of recreation adequately informed at all times 
through both oral and written reports. 

I will expect to spend more time in board meetings on rec- 
reation programs and procedures than on business detail. 

I will give the superintendent of recreation friendly counsel 
and advice. 

I will refer all complaints to the proper administrative of- 
ficer or insist that they be presented in writing to the 
board as a whole. 

I will present any personal criticisms of employees to the 

I will provide adequate safeguards around the superintend- 
ent and other personnel so they may perform the proper 
functions of recreation on a professional basis. 






George D. Butler 

Recreation in Industry Is Growing 

The rapid strides that recreation in industry has made in 
the past five years are clearly illustrated in the findings of a 
study of 230 representative companies conducted by Indus- 
trial Sports and Recreation and reported in its September 
1954 issue. A few of the highlights as recorded : 

A significant increase in company ownership of such 
items as athletic fields, club rooms, golf courses and swim- 
ming facilities, although many industries continue to make 
extensive use of public facilities. 

Appreciable rise in employee participation in the past 
five years, indicating that the recreation program enjoys 
increasing acceptance from employees; increased participa- 
tion by families and the community. 

More activities than before in the typical company pro- 
gram, although popularity of various activities follows about 
the same order as five years ago with bowling, softball and 
golf heading the list. Other activities, ranged according to 
the percentage of companies including them, are basketball, 
picnics, dances and socials, Christmas parties, horseshoes, 
skeet, trap and rifle, and table tennis, all of which are re- 
ported by at least fifty per cent of the companies. 

A considerable increase per employee in the recreation 
budget, to an average of more than nine dollars. About two- 
thirds of this amount is spent for equipment and services, 
the balance for administration, overhead and facility main- 

A full-time recreation director in forty-eight per cent of 
the companies, as compared with only twenty-eight per cent 
in 1949. An average of more than twenty-six persons serve 
as part-time volunteers in various phases of the recreation 
program, or a total of 8,700 reported in the study. 

Survey of Track and Field Facilities 

A report, under the above title, has recently been issued 
by the Athletic Institute, 209 South State Street, Chicago 
4, Illinois, based upon 177 replies to a questionnaire mailed 
to college track coaches in the United States and Canada. 
The questionnaire related to track construction, field events 
and maintenance. The replies emphasized the fact that dif- 
ferent climatic conditions in different sections affect track 
construction and maintenance. 

In summarizing, the report states that the average track 
should have: 

MR. BUTLER is director of the NRA Research Department. 

1. A radius of approximately 106 feet. 

2. Curbs should be made of concrete, 3.3 inches high and 
4.3 inches wide. 

3. The track should not slope away from the pole. 

4. The ideal depth of excavation is twenty-one inches, 
and into the excavation, in addition to drainage systems, 
should go nine inches of rough fill, with the size of the rocks 
slightly larger than three inches in diameter. 

5. This lower stratum should be rolled with a heavy rol- 

6. Slightly better than five^ inches of sifted cinders should 
then be used, and the top dressing of clay or loam and cin- 
ders to the depth of three inches should be applied. 

7. The almost unanimous choice for a binder for the top 
dressing is clay. 

8. The track itself should be six lanes wide on the curve 
and backstretch, and eight lanes wide on the straightaway. 

The number of coaches reporting materials which they 
believe ideal for high jump and pole vault pits are: 

Shavings 35 

Sawdust 28 

Sawdust and shavings . 27 

Sawdust and sand 20 

Shavings and sand 15 

Sawdust or shavings ... 10 

A copy of the report may be obtained without charge by 
sending a self-addressed stamped envelope to the Athletic 

Grants for Research 

The Rosenberg Foundation has granted the sum of 
$24,925 to the California Committee on Planning for Rec- 
reation and Park Areas and Facilities for a comprehensive 
survey and study of the needs, experience and best practice 
in California communities, as related to planning for the 
acquisition and development of recreation and park areas 
and facilities under public ownership in urban and popu- 
lated centers. The project further involves the formulation 
of a guide containing principles, criteria and graded stand- 
ards for the planning of public recreation areas and facili- 
ties. The committee sponsoring the survey is composed of 
representatives of nine statewide organizations, three state 
agencies and the National Recreation Association. 

A three-year grant of $60,000 has been made by the Na- 
tional Institute of Mental Health to Dr. David Riesman and 
Dr. Nelson N. Foote of the University of Chicago for a study 
of "the functions of play in developing adulthood." 




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128 North Grove Avenue, Elgin, Illinois 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Craft Activity Develops in a Unique Setting 


Helen Coover 

Another floor taken over! City government will have to move if this continues. 

The whole set-up is very flexible and 
spontaneous. Prerequisites of any kind 
are few. It is understood, however, that 
this program is for adults, because chil- 
dren have much the same type of ac- 
tivity offered in their schools. Men are 
not excluded from the group, but they 
are conspicuous by their absence. Skill, 
ability, or previous training are not re- 
quired. There is no registration nor is 
it stipulated that a certain number of 
classes must be attended. The pleasure 
and pride of accomplishment is the end 
sought. Each evening the individual 
signs up for that particular evening's 
work and pays the nominal sum of 
twenty-five cents for the instruction and 
later pays for the material used. 

The limitations and problems in- 
volved are practically all physical. Ma- 
terials must be ordered and cannot al- 
ways be procured on time or in the right 
amounts. Rooms at our disposal must 
be accepted as they are in regard to 
number, size, and arrangement. Water, 
light and similar conveniences which 
are essential to work are not always 
handy. Kilns for firing must be located 
in a spot where the proper heat is avail- 
able ; they can hold only a certain num- 
ber of pieces, and the firing process re- 
quires time. Just so many instructors 
are available and these can demonstrate 

, what a change! By day a 
place busy with the affairs of the 
city and by night one where arts and 
crafts are taught and practiced, with the 
consent of the city fathers. 

This is what happens, and has hap- 
pened on Tuesday nights during the 
winter months for the past five years, at 
the city hall in Kalamazoo, Michigan. 
From the basement to the fourth floor, 
in the auditor's office, the commission 
room, the conference room, the city 
manager's office and desk, and even in 
the garage and storage room, the city 
hall turns into a beehive of craft activity 
on one evening of the week and would 
do so many more evenings were it pos- 

It started originally with a handful 
of persons employed in the building 
who met in the office of the recreation 
department during the lunch hour and 
engaged in a few simple crafts; and 
this program expanded to the point 
where, on opening night last winter, 
more than one hundred and forty-five 
persons were clamoring to receive in- 
struction in the fourteen or more differ- 
ent crafts and skills offered. 

Miss HELEN COOVER is the assistant 
director of the department of recrea- 
tion in Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

just so much under prevailing condi- 

The real reason for the success of the 
project is that the original or basic 
meaning of the word "school" has been 
emphasized and enlarged upon: The 
word in Greek means "leisure" and it 
is of leisure that we are thinking. Striv- 
ing for the beautiful, and the mastery 
of the skills that make the same possi- 
ble, is the spirit that prevails. 

Among the subjects taught and even 
to call them subjects is rather prosaic 
and smacks of routine the most popu- 
lar through the years have been china 
painting, textile painting, basketry, 
Pennsylvania Dutch design on wood, 
plaque and figurine painting, aluminum 
trays, copper tooling, chip carving, 
glass etching, religious figurine paint- 
ing, copper enameling, leather tooling, 
ceramics, Swedish buck designing, oil 
painting, stenciling and French pen 

From time to time crafts or skills are 
added or dropped as the demand waxes 
and wanes or as the seasons come and 
go. Fingerpainting, the making of 
Christmas tree decorations. Ming trees, 
shell work, artificial flowers of chenille 
and nylon and liquid plastic, and other 
projects that do not take too long, are 
some of these. 

With students eager to learn, teacher 
guidance is applied to seeing that proj- 
ects are presented in such a manner that 
future growth is assured and interest is 

The results have been very encourag- 
ing and worthwhile. Interest has been 
aroused in many crafts. Objects of good 
design, beauty and craftsmanship have 
been produced ; and, in some cases, the 
skills learned have been turned into 
profitable pursuits. Many hours have 
been pleasantly and gainfully spent, and 
the art of living and working with other 
people has been encouraged. All in all, 
we have been well repaid for our efforts. 



How To Do IT I 


and Too/5 Needed. 

Hack saw, Medium file, 
Sandpaper, Small brush, 
Plastic cement and the 
follouMnq pieces of 
^ inch -thick Plastic- 
Base~ 6in.x7n. 

Ends~ 2 in. x4spn. 

I. Cut" pieces listed - use 
hack sau; ~ file and sand 
cut edqes to remove satu marks . 

2. Bend U shape base. 

To c/o -fhis remove paper masking 

Y& * 7 *Jp/asf/c in (300 ^J 
b/hen sofT~(7/ke rubber) plctce 
1 - shape anct /ef~coo/. 


tf u/ootfen j/y is 

Board placed on top 

'tb flatfen boltbm of base, 

_____ 3. Cement" enc(s on base 

base held in jicj. 

4-. Cement fbur square pieces 
at each comer__of cover. 

5. Cement knob on cover> , 

. ./_- x ^^ ^^*^/ <-7oce*>enf-~ place 

cemented dn \ .J^^ pieces in pos/fion anctw/M 

underside ^ ^P&~ brush Shu/ cement ahng eotqes 

oT cover Q f co/r f a ^ n q sur faces. 



James F. Herdic, Jr. 





Instructor takes child from parent at swimming pool door. 

A chance conversation with the father of one of the blind 
youngsters in Manchester, Connecticut, gave rise to one of 
the recreation department's most gratifying programs. He 
expressed the hope that the department could find a time in 
its busy swimming-pool schedule so his boy and other blind 
children could enjoy recreational swimming. 

After talking with him, we decided to experiment with 
the promotion of such a program for all types of handi- 
capped children because they were not receiving the bene- 
fits of our regular programs. It would be difficult, we real- 
ized, to arrange a schedule because the youngsters would 
need special attention and our indoor pool is almost always 
in use. For many years the indoor program, including swim- 
ming and life-saving, has been very popular with all age- 
groups in our town of 23,500. 

We immediately got in touch with the Manchester Asso- 
ciation for Help of Retarded Children, and found its mem- 
bers enthusiastic about the plan. Next, we secured, from 

JAMES F. HERDIC, JR., is the superintendent of recreation in 
Manchester, Connecticut. He is a member of the NRA Na- 
tional Advisory Committee on Recruitment Training and 
Placement of Recreation Personnel and the New England 
District Advisory Committee. 

the superintendent of schools, a list of all physically handi- 
capped children, including the child's name, age, school, 
and nature of handicap. 

Letters were sent to parents of these children, inviting 
them to attend an organization meeting. At this meeting 
we gave them an outline of the program which had been 
worked out. The turnout was encouraging; there were par- 
ents of children who were afflicted with polio paralysis, cere- 
bral palsy, and muscular distrophy, as well as parents of 
the blind and mentally retarded children. Each was given 
an application blank which contained a section for filling in 
a brief history of the handicap. The blank also called for a 
statement by the child's physician as to whether it would be 
safe for the youngster to participate, and to explain if there 
might be any contra movements which might be injurious 
to the child. There have been cases where physiotherapists 
have worked hard building up certain body muscles and 
swimming instructors have inadvertently undone the good 
work. A third section of the blank was a release for the 
parent's signature relieving the recreation department of 
any responsibility for injuries the child might incur. 

With the applications in, we set out to find volunteers to 
accompany the children in the pool and to teach swimming 
to those who were able. Everyone we talked to was eager 




Instructor is with a child constantly during swimming period. Hostess aids instructor when the child is taken from pool. 

to help out, and leaders were easy to enroll. We were equally 
fortunate in finding a person well qualified to teach the 
leaders how to handle children with the various types of 
handicaps. He became a paid worker and is in complete 
charge of the program except for the administrative work 
which is handled by the recreation department office. 

Each week a schedule is made out telling the leaders the 
child for which they will be responsible and when he is 
slated to enter the pool. The leader meets the child at the 
dressing-room door and takes over until the period has 
ended and he returns the youngster to his parents, who take 
charge of the dressing and undressing. 

Under the schedule established, children with similar 
handicaps swim together and are segregated from other 
handicapped youngsters. The pool is fairly small and ex- 
perience has proven that five children and leaders are all 
we can accommodate conveniently at one time. We make 
two other special preparations. The water is lowered six 
inches because the children are small and psychologically 
it helps if they know they can touch bottom regardless of 
whether there is a leader with them or not. We keep the 
water at a temperature of about seventy-six degrees because 
these children get cold quickly. 

The swimming program takes place each Saturday after- 
noon, beginning with the blind children from two o'clock 
to two forty-five. Next come two classes -of mentally re- 
tarded youngsters, from two forty-five to three-thirty and 
three-thirty to four-fifteen. There are too many in this group 
for one class. The cerebral palsy, muscular distrophy, and 
polio groups are combined in a class from four-fifteen to 
five o'clock. When more applications are received, we will 
divide this group into separate sections according to the 
specific disability. 

The parents of these children have been very cooperative, 
and they allow nothing to interfere with getting the children 
to the pool, undressed, and in bathing suits on time. 

Some of the parents have volunteered as leaders. We never 
give them their own youngsters to care for, but we assign 
them another child so that their own youngster can become 
accustomed to a stranger and gain confidence in the fact 
that they will be as safe with the leader as they would be 
with their own parent. 

This recreational swimming gives a tremendous amount 
of enjoyment to the handicapped children a group too 
often neglected in a recreation program. It's a real thrill to 
see how much they look forward to their Saturday swim. 

Fellowships for Professional Workers Concerned with Handicapped People 

An outstanding opportunity for pro- 
fessional workers with the handicapped 
for specialized training in counseling 
and placement of crippled persons in 
self rewarding jobs has been announc- 
ed by the National Society for Crippled 
Children and Adults. 

Alpha Gamma Delta, international 
women's organization, in cooperation 
with the Society, will grant from fifteen 
to twenty fellowships with training to be 
given at the Institute of Physical Medi- 
cine and Rehabilitation of New York 

University-Bellevue Medical Center 
from June 20 to July 15, 1955. 

The deadline for receipt of applica- 
tions for these fellowships is March 15. 
Fellowships will cover tuition and a 
moderate amount of other expenses. 
They will be awarded to qualified coun- 
selors, guidance teachers, employment 
interviewers, placement personnel, and 
others working with the handicapped. 

Six points of academic credit at the 
graduate level will be given to those 
who successfully complete the program. 

Selection of persons to receive the fel- 
lowships will be made on the basis of 
an evaluation of candidates with the 
highest qualifications who are working 
for schools, agencies, business or indus- 
try or are able to make a contribution 
toward effective counseling and place- 
ment work for the handicapped. 

Application forms and other informa- 
tion may be secured from Personnel 
and Training Service, National Society 
for Crippled Children and Adults, 11 
South LaSalle Street, Chicago 3, Illinois. 




r r 


The second month of the year brings 
visions of red hearts, cherries and 
hatchets, log cabins for it is the 
month of traditional parties, dances, 
dinners, entertainments. Each of its 
holidays has a distinct flavor, which will 
help you with your planning. If you 
are celebrating any one of these, vis- 
ualize your guests or audience and their 
tastes, your hall, clubroom or living- 
room, and plan accordingly. Advance 
planning, making of favors, invitations, 
decorations, are all a part of the fun 
and in a community center or club, can 
be important in themselves as pre-party 

Decoration Ideas 

Valentine's Day This, of course, is al- 
ways an affair-of-the-heart. Red hearts, 
red candles, red and white crepe paper 
abound and. where possible, red roses. 
Let some sort of decoration greet guests 
as they cross your threshold. Mount red 
hearts, in graduated sizes, on lace paper 
doilies and hang them on red crepe 
paper streamers, on either side of your 
door or entrance and windows. Place 
largest heart at top of chain with a red 
bow above it. A Valentine seal can be 
pasted in the center of each heart.* 

Decorate your refreshment glasses 
with small red hearts pasted on the out- 
side. Make favors or prizes by pasting 
an eight-inch paper doily to back of 
heart-shaped cookies.* 

Washington's Birthday At parties with 
a patriotic theme, it is effective to hang 

* Here's An Idea Service. 

a large flag or to use flags on standards ; 
be sure in placing them, however, to 
show the utmost respect for this emblem 
of our country. Use red, white and blue 

Hatchets made of cardboard and 
painted, and bunches of cherries are 
also attractive. For your cherries, cran- 
berries can be used, or make cherries by 
melting a piece of red candle in a pan 
over a low flame. When cooled slightly, 
mold into %-inch balls with the fingers. 
Stick a short length of spool-wire well 
into each cherry before it hardens. Cut 
leaves from green crepe paper and wind 
cherries together in bunches, wrapping 
with brown crepe paper for stem, add- 
ing leaves as you wind.* 

Make Washington miniatures for in- 
vitations, place cards, tags, scorecards 
or menus. Cut three mat-stock circles; 
a red one 3 inches in diameter, a blue 
one 2^2 inches, a white one 2 inches. 
Paste a Washington silhouette, or seal, 
in the center of the white circle; then 
paste the white on the blue and the blue 
on the red. Top with white ribbon bow, 
leaving ribbon loop at top.* These cir- 
cles can also be strung on crepe paper 
streamers for hanging decorations. 

Lincoln's Birthday You can let a 
brown crepe paper log cabin be your 
symbol here, playing up the woodsman 
rail splitter theme; or you may choose 
the more patriotic decorations with 
flags and a silhouette of Lincoln's head. 

If you choose the former, the atmos- 
phere of Lincoln's frontier world will 
lend itself to asking the guests to come 
dressed in simple cottons or blue jeans; 
games can be simple, and hilarious ; and 
folk and square dancing will go well. 


Use your ingenuity to adapt a variety 
of games to your theme, being careful 
to have each game very different from 
the last, and interspersing quiet games 
with the more active ones. Never let a 
game run until interest wanes, but stop 
while fun is at its height. 


Making Valentines If your party is a 
small one, put out materials on a large 
table and allow ten or fifteen minutes 
for each guest to make a Valentine. 
Materials should include as many pairs 
of scissors as you can gather together, 
paste, needles and thread, colored pa- 
pers predominantly red, paper lace 
doilies, ribbon, flowers from old hats, 
and so on, magazines to cut up, crayons, 
water colors or poster paints, and 
brushes. Each Valentine should be 
signed by its creator. Prizes can be 
given for the funniest, prettiest, most 
original, cleverest, and so on. 

A variation of this procedure is to 
place the name of each guest on a slip 
of paper and drop it into a hat. Mix 
and let each one draw the name of the 
person for whom he is to make a Val- 
entine. Let Valentines be dropped in 




Valentine mailbox, to be distributed 
later in the evening. 

Picture Taking As each guest enters, 
direct him to an attractively decorated 
picture-taking booth placed beside the 
door. Improvise some sort of camera, 
and when each person enters the booth, 
have him pose for his picture, which 
will be placed on a Valentine and given 
to him later in the evening. The pic- 
tures can be cut from magazines or 
comic papers and pasted on red card- 
board hearts with some appropriate 
verse inscribed along with the name of 
the person the picture represents. Pass 
these out and allow some time for com- 
parison of pictures because everyone 
will want to see how other guests were 

Dan Cupid's Heart Circuit In prepara- 
tion for this game, a series of titles 
should be chosen covering the incidents 
in a developing romance : The Meeting, 
The First Quarrel, and so on. The game 
consists of a contest, in which each 
couple is given a title, a magazine, a 
pair of scissors, and a tube of paste, and 
is requested to produce a picture to il- 
lustrate the title given them. At the end 
of the time allowed, the pictures are 
collected and pinned on a large sheet or 
placard. The guests are requested to 
select the best picture, and the couple 
who made it may be given a prize. 

Key to Your Heart There are as many 
hearts cut from cardboard or paper as 
there are couples. From the center of 
each heart, a key is cut. All keys are of 
different sizes and shapes. The keys 
are given to the boys and the hearts to 
the girls. Each boy finds the girl with 
the heart to which he has the key and 
she becomes his partner. 


Crossing the Delaware The players 
divide into two teams with a space be- 

tween them called the Delaware River. 
Each team has a leader, who gives each 
of his players, in alphabetical sequence, 
an adverb describing action or emo- 
tion, such as anxiously, bashfully, cau- 
tiously, and so on. The two teams can 
be called companies of soldiers to tie 
into the party theme. Company A an- 
nounces, "Washington is crossing the 
Delaware!" Company B asks, "How?" 
Company A replies, "A-wise." The 
soldier who has the adverb beginning 
with "A" crosses the space and returns, 
acting his descriptive adverb on the 
way. If the word is guessed by the op- 
posing side before he can get back 
home, he is captured by that company. 
Company B then sends its "A" man 
across; the "B" men of each company 
go next, then the "C" men, and so on 
through the alphabet. The company 
having the most soldiers when all have 
crossed the Delaware wins the game. 

Cherry Necklace Each couple is given 
a needle and thread. A large bowl of 
cranberries is placed on a table within 
easy reach of everyone. The fun lies in 
seeing which couple can form the long- 
est necklace (by stringing the cranber- 
ries) in the time allowed (two minutes) . 

True to Life, by George A large sheet 
of white paper tacked to the wall, and 
a strong light is placed well in front of 
it. Each guest, in turn, is posed between 
the paper and the light so that the 
shadow of his profile will fall on the 
paper. George quickly traces the out- 
line with crayon, then lets the sitter fin- 
ish it by filling in the silhouette. Por- 
traits should be numbered and later in 
the evening a prize given to the player 
who correctly guesses most of them. 


Song Guessing Contest Someone plays 
Civil War songs on the piano and the 
guests at the party endeavor to name 
the songs, which could include: "Tent- 
ing Tonight," "John Brown's Body," 
"Darling Nellie Gray," "Marching 
Through Georgia," "Battle Hymn of 
the Republic," "Dixie," "Battle Cry of 

Lincoln and Douglas Debate Have 
each group select the tallest and the 
shortest person. The tallest is "Lin- 
coln" and the shortest, "Douglas." Each 
must put his hands behind him and keep 

a straight face. On "Go," each starts 
talking on any subject he chooses, or 
appropriate topics may be assigned. 
The first to laugh, move his hands, or 
stop talking even for a moment, loses 
the debate. The winner may accept 

Formal Program If your party is more 
formal, you might like to plan for a 
reading of Lincoln's "Gettysburg Ad- 
dress," or perhaps a series of carefully 
planned costume tableaus, spotlighting 
various events in Lincoln's life. Get 
your local librarian to help you with 
this. Script to be read with the tab- 
leaus should be very brief just one 
descriptive line to "set" the episode and 
perhaps one verse of a poem about 

Progressive Games 

These are adaptable to any one of the 
holidays. All games should be made 
ready in advance. Diagrams and charts, 
or names of games, should be in keeping 
with the theme of the day. Set up equip- 
ment before the party. Mount playing 
instructions for each game conspicu- 
ously; display number of the game. 
Provide score cards for each team in 
two colors which will indicate manner 
of progression. 

It is practical to have four or six in- 
dividuals play together at a time, com- 
peting with each other for the highest 
individual score. Number each activity. 
In progressing, players having cards of 
one color move forward to next game, 
the others move back one game, thus 
giving each a chance to play with new 
people. Individual scores are kept. Al- 
low one minute interval between games 
so that players may tally scores; allow 
only a few minutes for each game. 

Games for this type of party can be 
adapted from old favorites such as shuf- 
fleboard, ring toss, pin the tail on the 
donkey, and so on, for example : 

Heart Shuffleboard Two small hearts 
can be cut from the ends of an orange 
crate and painted red, and an old broom 
handle used to shove the hearts across 
the floor. The scoring field can be drawn 
on the floor with red chalk. 

Bean Toss On the front of a small bean 
toss board paint red hearts and scoring 
points; use bean bags covered in red. 



Helping Senior Citizens 

to Direct Their Own Activities 

Jacqueline Walking 

Senior Leaguers plan their own programs, help each other with hat 
remodeling. Important project: sewing for County Hospital patients. 

A LLOWING senior citizens to direct 
J -*- their own club activities is of 
definite benefit to them. Living as many 
of them do with relatives who manage 
the household, grandpa needs to be in 
a group where he can help manage af- 
fairs and where he is considered capable 
of making decisions. As Mr. Martin 
said, "My daughter thinks of me as one 
of the children. It is a relief to come 
here to the club and be treated as an 

A recreation department should do 
more than provide a clubroom, a direc- 
tor, and a ready-made program of game 
playing. It should also utilize the ex- 
perience and abilities of the older 
people who come to the recreation cen- 
ters. If given the opportunity and 
stimulating guidance, the senior citizens 
do very well indeed with the planning. 
It is Mrs. Hoffman, age eighty-two, who 

Miss WATKINS is director of senior cit- 
izens' activities for the Berkeley Recrea- 
tion Department, Berkeley, California. 


manages all the bus trips for the Senior 
League of Berkeley. She takes care of 
all the reservations, publicity, finances, 
and sees to it that everyone has a good 
time. In addition she manages her own 
home and takes care of Mrs. Ronson, 
another member of the league who just 
celebrated her ninety-second birthday. 

Senior Leaguers have also demon- 
strated that older people can learn new 
skills. There is Mrs. Richards, for ex- 
ample, who is a member of the Berkeley 
group. She was asked to be president of 
the club. "Why, I can't be president," 
she protested, "I have never presided 
over a meeting in my life, I wouldn't 
know even how to begin." But, with the 
encouragement of her friends, she ac- 
cepted the nomination and was elected. 

Her first meeting was a jumbled af- 
fair. Then she attended a series of lec- 
tures on parliamentary procedure. Ev- 
ery week she presided more skillfully, 
every week she acquired more poise and 
assurance. One day she confided to the 
director, "I can't tell you what it has 

meant to me to stand before a group of 
people and conduct a meeting. I have 
wanted to all my life, but I have always 
been too scared; but this time, I made 
up my mind I would do it anyway. 
Everyone here is so friendly and helpful 
I felt it wouldn't matter if I did make 

This creating of a friendly, non-criti- 
cal atmosphere is essential if new club 
members are to feel comfortable and be 
willing to accept new and untried re- 
sponsibilities. The director can help the 
members generate a feeling of friendli- 
ness. She can suggest arrangements of 
tables and chairs to create a group feel- 
ing. She can adroitly plan for new mem- 
bers to serve on committees and con- 
tribute their talents on programs. Fur- 
thermore, the director, through her sym- 
pathetic interest in individual members, 
can stimulate the rest of the group to 
concern themselves about other club 

For instance, at the Friday meeting 
of the Senior League, a cheery hostess, 
herself a member, greets all the arrivals 
with a friendly smile and handshake. If 
they are newcomers she introduces them 
around to the others, and they in turn 
see that they are included in some con- 
versational group. Soon the clubroom 
buzzes with conversation as new and old 
friends share happenings of the week. 

It was during one of these chatty ses- 
sions that a maintenance man poked his 
nose in the door of the clubroom. He 
looked around for a moment and then 
he said to one of the women, "Are all of 
you people really this friendly or is it 
just an act?" "No," replied the Senior 
Leaguer, "we are really glad to see each 
other. We feel everyone here is a friend." 

While the members are talking in lit- 
tle groups, the KP committee is busy 
setting up luncheon tables and brewing 
tea and coffee. Everyone takes a turn 



serving for a month on the KP commit- 
tee; even the men take their turn wash- 
ing the cups and saucers. As one man 
said, "I don't do this at home, but here 
it is fun. It makes me feel more a part 
of the club when I do my share." 

Members bring their own lunches but 
there is a good deal of "Won't you all 
try some of my homemade cookies?" or, 
Mr. Morrison, an eighty-five year old 
who faithfully attends the Friday group 
will come in with enough strawberries 
from his son's farm to give some to all 
of the fifty leaguers assembled. 

After lunch, the club president calls 
upon the hostess to introduce the new 
visitors and report on ill and absent 
ones. Get-well cards and telephone calls 
let the sick ones know they are not for- 
gotten. News of other senior groups is 
given by a member who has fun keep- 
ing a scrap book of what oldsters are 
doing in other cities. Announcements of 
other activities for older people in Berk- 
eley encourage participation in the Slo- 
Polkas, a folk dancing group ; the Wood- 
peckers, who meet to wood carve to- 
gether; the Forty-Niners Social Danc- 
ing Club and the Shuffle-Board Club. 

The civic affairs chairman reports on 
the current crusade for benches at bus 
stops. Mrs. Tompkins gave herself this 
title when, during an impassioned plea 
for benches at a meeting of the city 
council, the mayor of the town suddenly 
asked her who she was and who she 
represented. "Why, I am chairman of 
civic affairs for the Senior League." 
Duly impressed the mayor and council 
went on listening to the need for benches 
for the older people who had to wearily 
wait for buses. 

Many Senior Leaguers attend meet- 
ings of the city council and write letters 
to their councilman when subjects re- 
lating to their welfare are under discus- 
sion, such as the needed benches or a 
new community center. Not only are 
they learning how their town is run, but 
they feel they are taking an active part 
in civic affairs. 

This interest in community affairs 
gives Senior League members a feeling 
that the club is doing worthwhile things, 
and they take pride that their organiza- 
tion is becoming known in Berkeley as a 
group of older people concerned and in- 
terested in their community. 

This feeling of concern also extends 
to national affairs. The other day all of 
the members, hearing about a threat to 
our national park system, chipped in a 
nickel apiece to wire the senator from 
California, urging his help in preserv- 
ing our national parks and monuments. 

Interest in the welfare of others keeps 
people, especially those living alone, 
from becoming too self -centered. There 
is satisfaction in doing something for 
others in need of help. Our Senior 
Leaguers learned that patients in the 
county hospital were without dresses to 
wear when able to be out of bed. They 
rounded up some used clothing and at 
Christmastime made nineteen new cot- 
ton dresses for one hospital ward. At- 
tractively wrapped, the dresses with 
some bed jackets and socks arrived in 
time to make it a happier Christmas for 
many otherwise forgotten patients. 

The club also sets aside an occasional 
day when members help each other with 
hat remodeling and clothing alterations. 
As one woman said, "I live alone and 
I can't tell how long my skirts should 
be. It certainly is a help to have Mrs. 
Swanson turn up my hem. In return I 
helped her with a new spring hat she 
was making." 

Other league members with special 
skills and hobbies give demonstrations 
in flower arranging, corsage making, 
water coloring, and sandwich making. 
Once a year a city-wide hobby show for 
senior citizens enables all hobbyists to 
show off their treasures and talents. 
One woman in her eighties does water 
colors, but she became so interested by 
the textile painting of a fellow hobbyist 
that she joined a textile painting class 
and added another hobby to her inter- 
ests. Said she, "I like to keep learning 
new things, it keeps me from getting 

Age in a senior citizen club need no 
longer be measured by the number of 
birthdays a person has had, but by how 
many interests they have. A recreation 
program for older people provides them 
with a means of sharing these interests 
and acquiring new ones. 

For recreation leaders this is an ex- 
panding area of opportunity, to help 
older men and women to be vital, con- 
tributing members of their families and 
the community. 

It took 45 centuries, 
but here it is 


Time was when checkers was a kibitzer's 
delight. Now the kibitzers have a chance to 
show what they can do, join in the game, 
become a player with two or three others. 
Rules are the same, plays are the same, but 
it's faster paced (game takes 5 to 30 min- 
utes) more exciting for everyone 8 to 80. 

Thanks to Yun Gee, internationally famous 
artist and inventor, YOU can now play 
CHESS and CHECKERS for 2, 3 or 4 



Use of standard rules 
made possible ONLY by 

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Cross in One Move Either Straight 
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For Chess, the unique center 
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kings and queens correctly. 


Chess, Checker Board with _ on 

plastic checkers in 4 colors ...... JpZ.S/O 

Chess, Checker Board with plastic 

checkers and chess men in g- QQ 
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(Add 50c for postage west of Mississippi.) 

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51 East 10 Street New York 3, N. Y. 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




Two basic questions: What is your community 
doing for its senior citizens? What are the sen- 
ior citizens in your community doing for others ? 

A survey of their ninety-one groups for older people has 
been made by the Committee on Recreation for Older Peo- 
ple, Education-Recreation Division of the Health and Wel- 
fare Council, Inc., 311 South Juniper Street, Philadelphia 
7, Pennsylvania, to find the answer to the second question. 
The reports show that senior citizens have been doing much 
more than having fun. They have been showing much con- 
cern for others and have devoted many hours of work to- 
ward the well-being of those in need. 

The following list may help your own golden-age groups 
in adding service projects to their recreation programs: 

They helped their own members 

Sent Sunshine boxes 

Visited them when ill or shut-in 

Sent flowers 

Organized get-well card showers 

Wrote to those mourning a loss in their family 

Assisted families of deceased members 
They cheered other older people 

Three visits to Fair Acres Farm at Lima, Pennsylvania 

Two visits to old men's home in Lansdale 

Wrote letters to lonely oldsters in home for the indigent 

Made place mats for Christmas at Fair Acres Farm 

Made quilts for old folks home 

Decorated Easter eggs for aged sick and shut-ins in Bethel 

Lutheran Church 
They worked for the hospitalized 

Made surgical dressings for Chestnut Hill Hospital and 
Germantown Hospital 

Made swabs for the county tuberculosis clinic at Norris- 

Made cancer dressings for Philadelphia Cancer Associa- 

Mended for Elm Terrace Hospital 

Knitted squares for afghans for Valley Forge Hospital 
and Red Cross 

Made scrap books for Valley Forge Hospital, Lansdale 
Hospital, Children's Heart Hospital and St. Christo- 
pher's Hospital 

Made three afghans for amputees at Valley Forge Hospital 

Packed two large baskets of candy, books, cards, games, 
writing materials, and so on, for Valley Forge Hospital 

Hemmed 200 towels, 48 draw sheets, 40 nurses' caps, 100 
packs for Oncologio Hospital 

They cared for little children 

Made clothing for a family of eleven children 

Made scrap books for children in Philadelphia Hospital 
for Contagious Diseases 

Made toys for Salvation Army Day Nursery on Third 

Made stuffed toys and scrap books for Rivercrest Preven- 
torium and Children's Presbyterian Orphanage 

Made soft toys for children's ward at Chestnut Hill Hospi- 

Gave Easter baskets to Odd Fellows' Orphanage 

Worked for Rosa Fels Doll Project in North Carolina 

Made baby blankets for overseas 

Supervised tot-lot program in summer 

Mended toys and dressed doUs for children in settlement 

Sewed for Red Feather agencies 

They gave money for worthy causes 

Twenty dollars to Salvation Army 

Fifteen dollars to Osmond Post Welfare Fund (VFW) 

Five dollars to Olney Times Cheer Club 

Five dollars to Red Cross 

Twenty-five dollars to Ethical Society 

March of Dimes 

Allied Jewish Appeal 

Community Chest 

They participated in fund-raising events 

Made articles to sell at settlement fair 
Made articles and helped with church bazaars 
Made articles and helped with YWCA bazaar, World Fel- 
lowship, and so on 
Solicited for Community Chest 

They found still other ways to help 

Knitted scarves and sweaters for overseas 
Crocheted afghans for needlework guild 
Made favors for indoor sports Christmas party 
Gave Christmas baskets to two needy families 
Folded church bulletins, stuffed envelopes 
Sewed on buttons for home department of church 
Made three quilts, one for Tabor House, two for convales- 
cent home in Collingdale 



Listening and Viewing 

Educational Television Progress 

Educational television can look back 
on 1954 as a period of growth. During 
the year, ETV expanded from two sta- 
tions with less than fifty hours of pro- 
gramming to eight that telecast nearly 
two hundred hours a week. Two more 
ETV stations opened during January, 
eleven are building, plans are well ad- 
vanced for an additional twenty-three 
and more than one hundred other com- 
munities are working for educational 
stations. By the end of 1955 about 
36,000,000 Americans will live within 
range of educational TV stations, ac- 
cording to the National Citizens Com- 
mittee for Educational TV. 

In Pittsburgh, ETV station WQED 
had a busy year. It received grants for 
two new program series and extended 
its "High School of the Air" courses to 
a wide audience which included prison- 
ers in the Allegheny County Workhouse 
at Blawnox. The Maurice and Laura 
Falk Foundation gave WQED $13,050 
for a political science series and the 
Pittsburgh Rotary Club donated $1,000 
for a teen-ager series. 

Business Film Survey 

The results of a survey on business 
films were released recently by the film 
committee of the Association of Nation- 
al Advertisers. The survey of 157 non- 
theatrical films, representing a total in- 
vestment of $12,000,000, reveals the fol- 

1. The typical company spends only 4.6 
cents to obtain an average of twenty-six min- 
utes of a viewer's time to tell the company's 
story. The cost per viewer can drop to as 
low as three mills over the life of a film if a 
good film is made for a broad, general-pur- 
pose audience. 

2. It's possible to produce successful non- 
theatrical films for $25,800 the median cost 
in the survey. 

3. A film can be expected to reach an audi- 
ence of 276,036 in a year although audiences 
of up to 4,548,000 have been booked depend- 
ing upon the nature of the story and the tar- 
get audiences. 

For further information write to the 
Association of National Advertisers, 285 
Madison Avenue, New York 17. 

Sioux City Radio Shows 

The department of public recreation 
in Sioux City, Iowa, believes in far- 
reaching public service and public rela- 
tions. During 1954 it put on a weekly 
public service program, "Recreation 
Revue," through facilities of KCOM, 
highlighting its various activities. This 
program was broadcast for forty con- 
secutive Sundays with one hundred 
thirty-eight participants. In addition, 
it gave a summer series, "Champtime," 
utilizing youngsters from the play- 

grounds, music groups, swimming and 
tennis classes. 

New Astronomic Instrument 

A new dimension in astronomical 
education arrived recently when New 
York City's Hayden Planetarium in- 
stalled a new electronic "sight-and- 
sound" console, the only instrument of 
its kind in the world. The new control 
unit was acquired in order to expand 
the scope and precision of the planetar- 
ium's sky presentations, to keep pace 
with man's rapidly growing knowledge 
of outer space and with the great de- 
velopments in entertainment techni- 


A bibliography of conservation films, 
obtainable for rental and purchase from 
a large number of private and govern- 
mental concerns, is available from Na- 
tional Wildlife Federation, Servicing 
Division, 232 Carroll Street, Northwest, 
Takoma Park, Washington 12, D. C. 

The Cleveland Film Council is now 
publishing an official monthly bulletin 
entitled News Flickers. Editor is George 
Shusta, Jr., of the Cleveland Electric Il- 
luminating Company. For free copy 
write Virginia Beard, Cleveland Film 
Council, 400 Union Commerce Build- 
ing, 925 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland 14, 

The importance of leisure-time ac- 
tivities is stressed in Better Use of Lei- 
sure Time, produced by Coronet In- 
structional Films, 65 E. South Water 
Street, Chicago 1. 

The British Information Services is 
offering interesting films, among them 
Amenu's Child (33 minutes, 16mm., 
sound). This is a story of how an 
African Gold Coast tribe freed itself 
from the superstitious influence of medi- 
cine men and fetish priests and adopted 
modern health habits. The film was a 
winner in both the Edinburgh and Ven- 
ice International Film Festivals. 

Also available are : The Road to Can- 
terbury (23 minutes, 16mm., color, 
sound), depicting the route of the me- 
dieval pilgrims over the great Roman 
thoroughfare; The Thames From 
Royal Windsor to Tilbury ( 10 minutes. 
16mm., technicolor, sound), with brief 
visits to the historic sites along its 
banks; and Bannister's 4-Minute Mile 
(6 minutes, 16mm., sound), an excel- 
lent aid to track training. Address: 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, or 
local offices in Chicago, Washington, 
D. C., San Francisco or Los Angeles. 

Whatever the craft 

you are teaching: woodworking, model 
building, leather, metal, plastics, ceramics 

x-acto knives, 
tools & sets 

designed by craftsmen and precision-made 
for fine craftsmanship 

will help you 
do a better job 

by helping your students get better results 
and more creative satisfaction. 

Explore Indiancrat fs send for Beadcraft 
booklet: detailed instructions, full color de- 
sign, patterns 254. 

Complete X-acto 28 page catalog FREE 

No. 62 X-ACTO 




48-99 Van Dim St.. long Island City 1, M. Y. 

you pay postage only 



I I 


I I 


I I 



By Walt Disney 



Write for Free List! Dept. R 


347 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Branch libraries! 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




W. C. Sutherland 

In a new book of the above title by 
Margaret Williamson,* the author an 
experienced student of supervision 
has made a unique contribution to lit- 
erature on this subject by emphasizing 
the growth patterns of individuals, as 
well as techniques and methods as chan- 
nels for work motivations. This book 
belongs in every supervisor's profes- 
sional library. The following few points 
with condensed explanation give 
some idea of the value of its contents. 

Administration This is the process by 
which the aims of an organization are 
determined, and plans made and car- 
ried out for achieving them. The ideas, 
feelings and experiences of people are 
the materials of the administrative proc- 
ess because the organization is peo- 
ple. The relationship with and between 
people is the real focus of administra- 
tion. Administration consists not only 
of building organizational machinery. 
That the workers feel that they are an 
important part of the whole, and not an 
isolated segment, helps them to work at 
their individual and collective best. 

What Supervision Is It is essentially 
a matter of the relationship of people; 
it individualizes workers as persons to 
be helped in the doing of their respec- 
tive jobs. The expression "supervision 
of program, or building" may lead 
falsely into an overseeing function and 
losing sight of the human element. The 
art in supervision is primarily the build- 
ing of creative human relationships. 
Supervision has been broadened from 
overseeing to an educational function 
and at times to actual teaching. 

Job Description A written job descrip- 
tion is necessary for every worker that 
he may know his duties and responsi- 
bilities and see clearly the relation of his 
work to the total program. Even volun- 

* Woman's Press, 425 Fourth Avenue, New 
York 16. Pp. 170. $3.00. 

teers should be selected carefully and 
for specific jobs. Jobs should exist and 
descriptions written up to avoid hit or 
miss recruiting and confusion in the 
work situation. The volunteer needs 
about the same amount and type of con- 
sideration as the paid worker. Volun- 
teers are people too. They should be 
encouraged and helped to make their 
own unique contribution. 

Interpretation of Policy This is es- 
sential, and operations should keep faith 
with policy. Careful statements of per- 
sonnel policy enhance the dignity and 
significance of jobs and aids recruiting. 

How Workers Learn Workers learn 
best by doing, and they learn with their 
feelings as well as with their minds. 

The Supervisor Learns No supervisor 
should feel he has finished, has nothiag 
more to learn. The opportunities for 
learning never cease. 

Supervision is an art an art that 
can be developed on higher and higher 
levels of expression. Its development 
will call for the mastery of certain tech- 
niques and the acquiring of an expand- 
ing body of knowledge. Just as there 
is no such thing as a finished artist, so 
nobody has the last word about super- 
vision; the good supervisor is continu- 
ously a learner. Classroom study and 
related field work practice do not guar- 
antee good supervisory practice. 

The Secondary Leader The supervisor 
may assume the role of secondary lead- 
er as he assists the group leader so he 
does not work alone. This does not 
mean an experienced to an inexperi- 
enced relationship but rather a partner- 
ship of two roles needed to carry out a 
joint enterprise. This secondary lead- 
ership function is essential in every su- 
pervisory relationship to be carried on 
by the supervisor along with teaching 
and administrative responsibility ac- 
cording to the needs of the situation. 

The primary leader working close to the 
situation needs the free and more de- 
tached thinking of the secondary leader. 
The two persons together provide a 
basis for moving forward objectively. 
The Interview The interview is a joint 
quest, not an inquisition or an imposi- 
tion. Two persons coming to do busi- 
ness together is not all, more important 
are the feelings in the experience. Pre- 
conceived impressions of each other's 
role may influence the building of the 
relationship between them. The inter- 
viewer is not a symbol but a real person. 
He has the advantage of security in his 
position, the organization is back of 
him. He knows a lot about the situation 
and feels at home. The other person 
comes alone, unprotected, and without 
eminent relationships and dependable 
inside information. The interviewer is 
a good listener and knows when and 
how much to talk, what questions to ask 
and how to direct them. It is up to him 
to guide and control the interview and 
to terminate it appropriately. No one 
set of techniques will apply to every 

Supervisory Visits and Conferences 
The supervisor prepares for his visit for 
observation on the job. Things to watch 
for are : ( 1 ) the kind of relationship the 
worker has with the group; (2) evi- 
dences of cohesion or lack of it; (3) 
worker's interactions and leader's reac- 
tion to behavior of individuals; (4) evi- 
dences of democratic procedure; and 
(5) quality of program. Visits should 
not be hit and run affairs. 
Attitudes and Conditions Not many 
things can be standardized in working 
with people because of their unpredic- 
tability. Relaxation is essential to self 
expression, people must feel at ease to 
get close to each other's thoughts. Be- 

MR. SUTHERLAND is the director of the 
NRA Recreation Personnel Service. 



ware of the outworn concept of authority 
which underscores the "super" in super- 
vision. "Super" is not for power over, 
but the right to serve. Keep the vision 
in supervision. 

The first step in understanding others 
is understanding self, and that self-ori- 
entation, self-discipline, self-evaluation 
are essential to security, serenity and ef- 

Evaluation The chief function of eval- 
uation is to help the worker to do a 
better job to the end that programs may 
be enriched and the quality of services 

Conditions and principles in evalua- 
tion : ( 1 ) accept evaluation as a natural 
element in the supervisory process; (2) 
the job performance should be judged 
by and in relation to the job descrip- 
tion; (3) the self-respect and confidence 
of the worker should be protected; (4) 
the supervisor must face up to his con- 
tribution to the success or failure of the 
worker; (5) if termination is indicated, 
the surgical operation should be clean ; 
(6) evaluation substitutes an orderly 
process for casual, hit-or-miss estimates 
of workers; and (7) it enables the 
worker to get a perspective of his own 

Summary Supervision is an adventure 
in human relationships; its potentiali- 
ties are limitless in terms of personal 
growth and satisfactions. It can break, 
or it can build. The successful super- 
visor is "a stable, secure individual free 
from the need to impose his drives on 
others . . . flexible enough to share re- 
sponsibilities with others, tolerant 
enough to accept their foibles, wise 
enough to see their strengths." 


Joe G. Brookshire, superintendent of 
recreation, Alice, Texas; Ralph E. Car- 
ter, recreation director, Georgia Lock- 
heed Employees Recreation Club, 
Smyrna, Georgia : Margaret Collins, as- 
sistant superintendent of recreation, 
Plainfield, New Jersey ; Laurent J. For- 
tier, superintendent of recreation, Wa- 
tertown, Massachusetts. 

David J. Gessner, supervisor of play- 
grounds and community centers, Recre- 
ation Department, Ft. Lauderdale, Flor- 
ida; Jack Hans, superintendent of rec- 
reation, Galena Park, Texas; Stanley 
Kashuba, recreation therapy supervisor, 
Massillon State Hospital, Ohio; Kath- 
erine Mclntyre, executive director, Sum- 
mer Camp of Central Branch YWCA, 

New York City. 

Binnion D. Parsons, superintendent 
of recreation, Garland, Texas; Beverly 
Rodenheber, recreation director, New 
Jersey State Reformatory for Women, 
Clinton, New Jersey ; Edmund W . Shea, 
assistant director, Division of Recrea- 
tion, Welfare and Planning Council of 
Dade County, Miami, Florida; Alfred 
P. Strozdas, superintendent of parks 
and recreation, Dayton, Ohio. 


February 10-12 Fifth Annual Indus- 
trial Music Clinic, Purdue University. 
Discussions and workshop for music 
directors, recreation specialists, per- 
sonnel directors and so on. Indus- 
trial Music Clinic, c/o Musical Or- 
ganizations, Hall of Music, Purdue 
University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

February 24 Southern Illinois Folk 
Festival, Southern Illinois University. 
Demonstration of folk songs, music, 
dances, legends, arts and crafts. John 
Allen, Area Services, Southern Illi- 
nois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 

March 6-12 Girl Scout Week. Theme 
for 1955: "Believe, Belong, Build." 

March 6-9 Mid-Continent Regional 
Park and Recreation Conference, 
University of Minnesota Center for 
Continuation Study. To cover all 
facets of the park and recreation 
field. Fred Berger, Director of the 
Center for Continuation Study, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis 14. 

March 13-19 Kentucky Recreation 
Workshop, Kentucky Dam Village, 
Kentucky. Featuring crafts, folk 
dances, games and folklore, nature 
study, sketching, songs and recrea- 
tion philosophy. Miss Alda Henning, 
Experiment Station, Lexington, Ken- 

March 13-20 Camp Fire Girls Birth- 
day Week. Theme for 1955: "Let 
Freedom Ring!" 

March 16-18 Southeast District Rec- 
reation Conference, Whitley Hotel, 
Montgomery, Alabama. 

March 16-19 Middle Atlantic District 
Recreation Conference, The Inn, 
Buck Hill Falls, Pennsylvania. 

March 22-25 Great Lakes District 
Recreation Conference, Pantland, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

March 22-25 Midwest District Rec- 
reation Conference, Fort Des Moines, 
Hotel, Des Moines, Iowa. 

March 23-26 Southwest District Rec- 
reation Conference, Biltmore Hotel, 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 

Of almost all sports 


Table Tennis alone takes less precious 
space than almost all sports! Even 
volleyball requires 150 sq. ft of 
floor space per player, to Table 
Tennis' 49. And, no permanent in- 
stallation is required. Any well 
lighted room serves admirably, and 
in minutes you convert a room to 
Table Tennis, because Harvard tables 
are made for quick set-up and 

Harvard Table Tennis 
Teacher ... the com- 
plete guide lully illus- 
trated by the nation's 
champions lor coach- 
es, physical education 
and recreation in- 
structors and players. 
Yours free with the 
coupon below. 


COSTS LESS Because Table Tennis 
requires less space, allows greater 
student participation and needs a lower 
equipment investment . . , yet, Table 
Tennis costs less! 

pare the ten players who use a basketball 
court for an hour with the forty-eight 
who can play Table Tennis in the same 
space and time . . . yes, Table Tennis 
serves more players. 

Your supply ol 
Harvard Tourn- 
ament Charts... 
Merely forward 
the coupon be- 
low today. 

Run a tournament as outlined in Harvard's 
Table Tennis Teacher, Score it 'on a 
Harvard Tournament Chart, both Free 
with the coupon below .' . . know then how 
true it is that Table Tennis costs less, 
serves more players, takes less space . . . 
and delivers greater satisfaction than 
almost all major gym sports. 

Harvard Table Tennis Co. 
60 State St., Boston 9, Mass. 

Please forward FREE copy ol: 
GHamrd Table Tennis Teachei 
ONamri Tournament Charts to 






When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




Viewpaque, an attachment for View- 
flex slide, or slide and filmstrip project- 
ors, is a new visual tool for hobbyists, 
photo enthusiasts, collectors, lecturers. 
It projects opaque objects of any size 
clearly in full-screen size. Stamps, coins, 
charts, snapshots, drawings, plans, 
newspaper clippings, song cards, and so 
on, can be shown to large audiences 
or it can be used for close-up study of 
small detail. Viewflex, Inc., 35-01 
Queens Boulevard, Long Island City 1, 
New York. 

Fiberglas Acoustical Tile provided 
an unusually high degree of sound con- 
trol plus an attractive decorative treat- 
ment in the new Hotchkiss School swim- 
ming pool at Lakeville, Connecticut. 

In designing the pool, the architects 
sought a new solution to the inherent 
problems of high humidity and rever- 
beration of sound. Sono-faced acousti- 
cal tile Fiberglas covered with a plas- 
tic film met their requirements of a 
product with a non-painted surface, de- 
sirable acoustical and thermal insulat- 
ing properties, good light reflectivity 
and imperviousness to moisture. Owens- 
Corning Fiberglas Corporation, 16 East 
56th Street, New York 22, New York. 

Wilhold Glue in a new Dip'n Dab dis- 
penser bottle is a boon to hobbyists. 
Without removing the lid, the Dip'n 
Dab applicator may be pulled out with 

a small amount of glue on the tip. The 
applicator is brush-shaped to make a 
handy spreader and, when returned to 
the bottle, it is self-sealing for storage. 
Wilhold Glue is an odorless, white 
liquid glue which dries colorless and 
stainless and is non-inflammable. Wil- 
hold Products Co., Chicago 44, Illinois, 
or Los Angeles 31, California. 

Guiiver Corner Clamp is a handy 
pocket-size clamp which holds mitered, 
tenoned or butt corners into a tight 
right angle joint for gluing, welding, 
dowelling* and other fastening opera- 
tions. This clamp provides a firm grip 
on mouldings and picture framing stock 
as well as conventional materials. The 
Gunver Manufacturing Company, Hart- 
ford Road, Manchester, Connecticut. 

Dyna-Kiln for enameling, Model E 49, 
has such features as a pyrometer for 
visual temperature reading, and an in- 
put control switch which enables the 
operator to control the rate of speed of 
firing to the maximum point and makes 

it possible for kiln to quickly recover 
temperature lost in opening and closing 
the counterweighted door. It is equip- 
ped with Dyna-Glow elements and por- 
celain element holders which offer im- 
proved firing qualities, eliminate elec- 
trical shock hazards, facilitate element 
replacement and, according to the man- 
ufacturer, last longer. 

The kiln's firing chamber is 4 inches 
high, 8 l /2 inches wide, and S 1 ^ inches 
deep. L & L Manufacturing Company, 
Chester, Pennsylvania. 

Ping-O-Ball is the new fast-action 
game for adults and children which re- 
sembles ping-pong, but does not demand 
the lavish space and special table need- 
ed for that game. 

The equipment includes two paddles, 
two regulation balls and the Ping-O- 
Ball hoop which can be set up on any 
kitchen, dining room or bridge table, 
or a regulation tennis table. Object of 
the game is to place the ball back and 
forth through an elongated steel hoop, 
rather than over a net. Other rules are 
similar to table tennis. Zenith Toy 
Corp., 57 Thames Street, Brooklyn 37, 
New York. 

Frate-Gate, an elevating end-gate de- 
signed for installation on the rear of a 
!V2-t n r larger truck and semi-trail- 
ers, lifts or lowers loads up to 2,000 
pounds. It makes it possible for one 
person to handle most loading. Full- 
power operation, including power clos- 
ing, complete safety controls, and sim- 
plified design for easy maintenance are 
major Frate-Gate features. Write Cus- 
tomer Service Department, St. Paul Hy- 
draulic Hoist, Wayne, Michigan, for 
further details. 


When writing to these manufacturers please mention RECREATION. 


Books & Pamphlets 

TORY, THE : Eighty-Fifth Annual Re- 
port, July 1953 through June 1954. 
The American Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park West at 79th 
Street, New York 24. Pp. 94. Sent 
to members of the museum upon re- 

TION. New York State Youth Com- 
mission, 66 Beaver Street, Albany 7, 
New York. Pp.30. Free. 

THE, Robert M. Cunningham, Jr., 
Public Affairs Committee, 22 East 
38th Street, New York 16. Pp. 28. 


AGENCIES, 1954-1955. State Recrea- 
tion Commission, 721 Capitol Ave- 
nue, Room 609, Sacramento 14, Cali- 
fornia. Pp. 51. Limited number of 
copies available on request. 

Eugene Morris. Association Press, 
291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 144. 

NITY, Jean D. Grambs. The National 
Conference of Christians and Jews, 
381 Fourth Avenue, New York 16. 
Pp. 124. $.25. 

tical Guide, A. J. Wraight. The Uni- 
versity Press of Washington, D. C., 
Munsey Building, Washington 4, D.C. 

Pp.98. $2.25. 

ING FOR THE DOCTOR. Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, One Madi- 
son Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 33. 

FOOD FOR THE FAMILY. Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, One Madi- 
son Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 16. 


Wagner. Dodd, Mead & Company, 
432 Fourth Avenue, New York 16. 
Pp.96. $2.95. 

tion, 1955. Porter Sargent, 11 Bea- 
con Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Pp. 334. Cloth $3.30 ($3.00 cash) ; 
paper, $2.20 ($2.00 cash). 


MAGIC FOR BOYS, G. Sherman Ripley. 
Association Press, 291 Broadway, 
New York 7. Pp. 183. $3.00.* 

Emerson Books, Inc., 251 West 19th 
Street, New York 11. Pp. 160. $2.50. 

ton & Company, Inc., 300 Fourth 
Avenue, New York 10. Unpaged. 

and Reeves. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York 11. Pp. 368. 

tan Life Insurance Company, One 
Madison Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 
29. Free. 

ORGANIZATION, Helen D. Green. 
Whiteside Press, Inc., 425 Fourth 
Avenue, New York 16. Pp. 253. 

Annual Report for the year ending 
September 30, 1954, Gertrude Folks 
Zimand. The National Child Labor 
Committee, 419 Fourth Avenue, New 
York 16. Pp. 18. Free. 

CY. New York State Youth Commis- 
sion, 66 Beaver Street, Albany 7, New 
York. Unpaged. Free. 

feld. Sterling Publishing Company. 
215 East 37th Street, New York 16^ 
Pp.156. $2.95. 

IN CANADA, THE. (Reprint from Pro- 
ceeding of Canadian Conference on 
Social Work, 14th Biennial Meeting, 
Toronto. June 24-26, 1954) , R. E. G. 
Davis. The Canadian Welfare Coun- 
cil, 245 Cooper Street, Ottawa 4, 
Canada. Pp.16. $.25. 

Werner and the Staff of the Walt 
Disney Studio. Simon and Schuster, 
Inc., 630 Fifth Avenue, Rockefeller 
Center, New York 20. Pp. 124. $2.95.* 

* These publications are available from the 
National Recreation Association at list price 
plus fifteen cents for each book ordered to 
cover postage and handling. Active Associate 
and Affiliate Members of the Association re- 
ceive a ten per cent discount on list price. 
Remittances should accompany orders from in- 
dividuals; organizations and recreation de- 
partments will be billed on their official orders. 
Address orders to Combined Book Service, 
National Recreation Association, 8 West 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 

Campbell and Henry D. Ambers. Bu- 
reau of Governmental Research and 
Services, University of Washington, 
Seattle 5. Pp. 121. $2.00. 

WHITE MANE, Albert Lamorisse. E. P. 
Dutton & Company, Inc., 300 Fourth 
Avenue, New York 10. Unpaged. 

(fro 7C * 
<8>Z. to. 

Magazine Articles 

CAMPING MAGAZINE, November 1954 

What is Your Health and Safety IQ? 

Eight Steps in Evaluating Camp 

Personnel, Richard E. Stultz. 
Your Day-by-Day Public Relations 

Program, Lou H. Handler. 
Your Camp Feeding Program, 

George Fauerbach. 


Christmas in the Capital, Edward H. 

National Conference on Facilities, 
Caswell M. Miles. 

A Dual Purpose Stadium, Eugene 
Hansen and Ralph Stacker. 

School Play and Game Areas, Gene- 
vie Dexter. 

Recreation on Wheels, Roland C. 

PARK MAINTENANCE, November 1954 

Soil Paths But No Mud. 
December 1954 

Education Is Best Cure for Vandal- 
ism, W. Drew Chick, Jr. 
Road Binder From Sulphite Waste of 

Pulp Mills, Robert P. Willson. 
Prevailing Fee Schedules Charged 
By State Parks. 


Our National Shame, Ira B. Lykes. 

The Birds' Christmas Tree, Katie 

Building and Operating Outdoor Ar- 
tificial Ice Rinks, George B. Caskey. 

Lengthening the Life of Your Equip- 
ment with Proper Maintenance, 
Lee M. Hall. 

THE GROUP, December 1954 

Recreation and the Welfare Dollar, 

Alan F. Klein. 
Kurt Lewin on Adolescence, Gordon 

Arts and Crafts as a Group Centered 

Program, Ruth R. Middleman. 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 

Handbook of Trail Campcraft 

John A. Ledlie. Association Press, 
291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 187. 
_ $4.95.* 

This book is the re- 
sult of five years' re- 
search and testing of 
material, collected and 
prepared by sixteen 
educators and out- 

Other excellent 
books are available on 
campcraft, but most 
of them are written 
for the individual. This one is for the 
camp staff and would be excellent for 
training purposes. It is planned around 
units of experience, beginning with the 
simplest, such as a hike and cookout, 
and goes through more advanced units 
or two-week trips, including an excellent 
unit on a canoe trip. 

Detailed breakdowns on these units 
of experience in terms of objectives, 
preparations and planning, skills, neces- 
sary leaders and equipment needed, and 
sources of information are valuable aids 
to organizing a successful trail camp- 
craft program. 

The book is fully illustrated with 
photographs and drawings, includes 
menus, charts, what-to-take lists, as well 
as a bibliography of books and films. 

How to Be a Successful Teen-Ager 

Dr. William C. Menninger andothers. 
Sterling Publishing Company, 215 East 
37th Street, New York 16. Pp. 256. 

"The more you really know and 
understand about yourself," Dr. Men- 
ninger tells the teen-age reader of this 
new book, "the better you can manage 
yourself and your life. The more you 
understand about people, the better you 
can get along with them and with your- 

It is good to hear from Dr. Menninger 
again. Nationally and internationally 
known authority on mental health and 
one of the heads of the famous Men- 
ninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, he is 
no stranger to the recreation profession. 
He gave a striking address at the Na- 

tional Recreation Congress in Omaha 
in 1948 which was published in RECREA- 
TION and has been distributed ever since 
in reprint form. He has just become a 
board member of the National Recrea- 
tion Association. 

The purpose of this book is to con- 
tribute to the easing of the strain of 
teen years and to show how they may 
become years of growth and accomplish- 
ment. He and his fellow authors are in 
continuous contact with young people, 
and know the problems and questions of 
youth. Their answers present facts that 
you can trust. Illustrated with charm- 
ing drawings, the text covers such topics 
as: understanding yourself, exploring 
your personality, how to solve your 
problems, making and keeping friends, 
how to live with parents, growing up so- 
cially, understanding sex, and others. 
A top-notch reference book for today's 
teen-agers, or for their counselors. 

Taking Hold of Television 

Roger S. Hall. Hermitage House, 
Inc., 8 West 1 3th Street, New York 1 1 . 
Pp. 119. $3.50. 

If you are planning to tell your story 
over TV, hoping to use this medium for 
spot announcements, to present a show 
or to conduct a program, this is the 
manual for you. Written to be of prac- 
tical use to the small agency or organi- 
zation without a professional public 
relations staff, it contains suggestions 
on all phases of this subject, factors and 
situations which any agency can take 
advantage of, and pointers based on the 
experience of all kinds of agencies who 
have been doing this for some time. 

Some of the topics covered are : what 
TV can do for the agency ; how agencies 
can work together; TV committee; TV 
workshop; the TV station and its 
people; spots; integrations; using 
films on TV; formats, including inter- 
views, panels, "variety" skits, news pro- 
grams, dramatizations; props and vis- 
uals; scripting; and budget. 

The author, assistant national direc- 
tor of Visual Aids Service, National 
Council, Boy Scouts of America, has 
recently completed thirteen shows on 
scouting, made in Hollywood for na- 
tional TV use. 


Marjorie S. Larsen. Burgess Publish- 
ing Company, 426 South Sixth Street, 
Minneapolis 15, Minnesota. Pp. 46. 

Speed-A-Way is a new combination 
game especially suited for girls of jun- 
ior high school level, but it may also be 
played by boys and by girls of high 
school or college level. It was invented 
by Marjorie Larsen, chairman of the 
girls' physical education department at 
Edison High School in Stockton, Cali- 
fornia. Miss Larsen started out to find 
a game that would serve as a leadup 
for field hockey, but the game as it now 
stands is a combination of soccer, bas- 
ketball, speedball, fieldball and hockey. 
The rules of these games have served 
as a basis for Speed-A-Way. 

The game is played by two teams of 
eleven players using a soccer ball on 
an area just the size of that used for 
field hockey. The skills are not difficult ; 
there is opportunity for vigorous acti- 
vity, also competition and team play; 
and best of all, it is greatly enjoyed by 
the players. The rules are clearly ex- 
plained. The safety angle has been em- 
phasized, and several contributing edi- 
tors have worked out valuable teaching 
hints for practicing techniques of the 

Recreation leaders should find it the 
answer to "where can I find a new team 
game for girls one that is active, not 
too difficult, and can be played out-of- 

It is a good game and can be recom- 
mended for girls. Helen M. Dauncey, 
{Catherine F. Barker Memorial Secre- 
tary for Women and Girls, NRA. 

* See footnote on page 95. 


All-Metal Table Tennis Company ... _ 54 
American Playground Device Company .. 63 

Association Films, Inc. ... 91 

Chemical Equipment Company ..55 

Chicago Roller Skate Company 53 

Cleveland Cratts Company _ .. _ 71 

The Copper Shop .. 81 

Elgin-Retinite 81 

Harvard Table Tennis Company _ 93 

The J. E. Porter Corporation 49 

Rawlings Sporting Goods Company __ 81 

S. & S. Leather Company _ 55 

The Seamless Rubber Company _ 57 

Square Dance Associates 54 

Tri-King Enterprises, Inc. . 89 

W. J. Voit Rubber Corporation .71 

X-acto, Inc. 91 



Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 

February, March and April, 1955 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 


Creative Recreation 


Arts and Crafts 

Greenville, Mississippi 
February 7-10 

Tempe, Arizona 
February 28-March 3 

Pasadena, California 
March 21-31 

Los Angeles County, California 
April 11-21 

Lumberton, North Carolina 
February 7-10 

Griffin, Georgia 
February 14-17 

Milstead, Georgia 
February 28-March 3 

Manchester, Georgia 
March 7-10 

Cicero, Illinois 
March 14-17 

Emporia, Kansas 
March 21-24 

Columbus, Ohio 
February 14-17 

Pensacola, Florida 
February 21-25 

St. Petersburg, Florida 
February 28-March 3 

Tampa, Florida 
March 7-10 

Bade County, Florida 
March 14-17 

Hollywood, Florida 
March 21-24 

White Plains, New York 
March 28-31 

St. Louis, Missouri 
February 7-10 

Pasadena, California 
February 28-March 3 

Long Beach, California 
March 7-10 

Phoenix, Arizona 
March 14-17 

Siunter, South Carolina 
February 7-10 

Greensboro, North Carolina 
February 14-17 

E. M. Ward, Recreation Director 

Miss Anne Pittman, Women's Physical Education Department, 
Arizona State College 

Edward E. Bignell, Director of Recreation, 1501 East Villa Street 

B. P. Gruendyke, Superintendent, Department of Parks and Recrea- 
tion, 834 W. Olympic Boulevard, Los Angeles 

Miss Virginia Gregory, Recreation Specialist, North Carolina Rec- 
reation Commission, Education Building Annex, Room 134, Raleigh 

George S. Gentry, Jr., Recreation Director 
James F. Snider, Callaway Mills Company 

C. V. Blankenship, Callaway Mills Company 

Alan B. Domer, Executive Director, Cicero Youth Commission, 
5341 W. Cermak Road 

James A. Peterson, Superintendent of Recreation, 120 West Fifth 

Dorothy Jones, Recreation Supervisor, Department of Public Rec- 
reation, City Hall 

Dr. Robert L. Fairing, Head of Department of Citizenship Training, 
General Extension Division of Florida, University of Florida, 

Carl Waite, Commissioner of Recreation, Administration Building 

John A. Turner, Recreation Superintendent, Municipal Courts 

Edward E. Bignell, Director of Recreation, 1501 East Villa Street 

Duane George, Long Beach Recreation Commission, Municipal 

Henry T. Swan, Superintendent of Recreation, 2700 North 15th 

Harry R. Bryan, City Recreation Director 

Oka T. Hester, Director, Parks and Recreation Department 

Miss Walker will participate in the program of the California State and Pacific Southwest District Conference, February 13-16, 
1955, at Santa Cruz, California. 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsor 
of the course listed above. 


8 West Eighth Street. New York 11, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter 

"IValiente!' cried 
the Spanish admiral 

He cheered as his 
launch fished this man 
and seven more water- 
logged American sail- 
ors out of Santiago 
Harbor, Cuba, on the 
morning of June 4, 
1898. This was strain- 
ing Spanish chivalry 
to the breaking point, for Richmond Hobson 
(right ) and his little suicide crew had spent the 
previous night taking a ship into the harbor en- 
trance under a hail of cannonade and deliber- 
ately sinking her to bottle up the Spanish fleet. 

Hobson was actually an engineer, not a line 
officer. In Santiago Harbor, he led his first and 
only action against the enemy. But his cool- 
headed daring made him as much a hero of the 
day as Admiral Dewey. And proved again that 
America's most valuable product is Americans. 

These Americans proudly confident of their 
nation's future are the people who stand be- 
hind United States Series E Savings Bonds. 
They are the people who, by their spirit and 
abilities, make these Bonds one of the world's 
finest investments. 

That's why there's no better way to protect 
your future than by investing in America's 
future! Buy Bonds regularly! 

It's actually easy to save money when yoti 
buy United States Series E Savings Bonds 
through the automatic Payroll Savings Plan 
where you work! Y<>u just sign an application 
at your pay office; after that your saving is 
done for you. And the Bonds you receive will 
pay you interest at the rate of 3% per year, com- 
pounded semiannually, for as long as 19 years 
and 8 months if you wish! Sign up today! Or, 
if you're idf-cmployed, invest in Bonds regu- 
larly where you bank. There's no surer plan- to 
put your money, for United States Savings 
Bonds are as safe as America! 

For your own security and your country's, too 
invest in U. S. Savings Bonds! 

8. Qoftnmtnt dot* not pay for Ml* arierrtimemntt. It it donated fry MU publication ta cooperation vi<* 
t* Aiffrtiting Council and (Ac Hagazine PublitkfTM of America, 

BUmrY >*}*MtTVr Obi 



Looking ahead to summer programs? Need materials . . . for play- Tj 
ground leadership training courses . . . for volunteer leaders . . . for - 
new personnel . . . for experienced personnel in search of new 
ideas? These publications are geared to your needs. Order now! 

Arts and Crafts Book List (P 42) 

Extensive listing of references classified by types of 

Craft Projects for Camp and Playground (P 173)... 

Finger Puppets (P 112) 

Flying High Kites and Kite Tournaments (P 65). 

Make Your Own Games (P 124) 

Make Your Own Puzzles (P 126) 

Masks Fun to Make and Wear (P 107) 

Nature Crafts for Camp and Playground (P 177)... 

Nature Prints (P 180) 

Simple Frames For Weaving (P 178) 

Simple Puppetry (P 96) 

Directions for making and leadership techniques. 

Nature Games for Various Situations (P 187) 

Informal Dramatics; Playground Series: No. 2 (P 100). 

Inexpensive Costumes for Plays. Festivals and Pageants 
(P 203) 

A detailed discussion of inexpensive costumes how to 
make them, materials to use, how to costume a play, etc. 






Joseph Lee Memorial Pageant (P 58) 25 

Pageants and Programs for School, Church and 
Playground (P 206) 

Active Games for the Live Wires (P 98). 

88 Successful Play Activities 

Rules for many special events, including kite contests, 
doll shows, pushmobile contests, marble tournaments 
and many others. 


For the Storyteller 50 

How to select stories and tell them effectively; bibli- 

Games for Boys and Men 50 

He-man activities! Active and quiet games, stunts, con- 
tests and other fun-filled ideas. 

A Playground Fair (P 138) 25 

A playground show featuring music, dancing and nov- 
elty acts. 

Singing Games (P 21) 50 

Well-known and not-so-well-known singing games for 
the five-to-seven age group. 

Suggestions for an Amateur Circus (P 130) 35 

Treasure Hunts (MP 212) 35 

Excitement, adventure and loads of fun in these hints 
for hunts. 

Action Songs (P 89) 35 

Songs which provide fun and exercise for large groups 
where space is limited. 

Annotated Bibliography for Music Leaders in Camp. Play- 
ground, Recreation Center (MP 303) 15 

Community and Assembly Singing 75 

A 64-page guide for those conducting community sing- 

The Playground Leader His Place in the Program (P 103) 50 

A discussion of the importance of leadership and ways 
of developing the qualities of good leadership. 

Some Leadership "Do's" (MP 389) 25 

Personnel qualifications, preparation for recreation lead- 
ership and leadership techniques. 

Youth Out of Doors (P 216) 15 

Suggestions for various kinds of outings, sports and out- 
door social activities and service projects. 

PLAYGROUND SUMMER NOTEBOOK ............................................................ 2.50 

Twelve bulletins on playground activities and programs, available 
as a set in April. (Price to NRA members $2.00.) 

Special Playground Issues 

April 1952 ...................................................................... . ............................ 35 

April 1953 ................................................................................................... 35 

April 1955 (Available March 25. Copies may be ordered now.) .50 

8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 

Of almost all sports 


Table Tennis costs less per student 
than almost all major sports. Be- 
cause Table Tennis requires less 
space, allows greater student par- 
ticipation and needs a lower equip- 
ment investment, more physical 
education and recreation directors 
everywhere are starting Table Tennis 
as part of their regular programs. 
Why don't you? 

Harvard Table Tennis 
Teacher ... the com- 
plete guide fully illus- 
trated by the nation's 
champions lor coach- 
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and recreation in- 
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coupon below. 

TAKES L^SS SPACE Even volley 
ball requires 150 sq. ft. of floor space 
per player, to Table Tennis' 49, And no 
permanent installation is required. 

pare the ten players who use a basketball 
court (or an hour with the forty-eight 
who can play Table Tennis in the same 
space and time . . . yes, Table Tennis 
serves more players. 

Qet Q 

Your supply of 
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the coupon be- 
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Harvard Tournament Chart, both Free 
with the coupon below . , . know then how 
true it is that Table Tennis costs less, 
serves more players, takes less space . , . 
and delivers greater satisfaction than 
almost all major gym sports. 


Harvard Table Tennis Co. 
60 State St., Boston 9, Mass. 


Please forward FREE copy ol: 
DHarvard Table Tennis Teacher 
[Harvard Tournament Charts to 
















Wigs, Make-up 

Van Horn & Son, Inc. 


811-13-15 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

Rollin W. Van Horn Gerhard Weidler 


Fun For Everyone! 

From 8 .to 80 here is exciting recrea- 
tion for all ages . . . keen enjoyment 
for players and spectators. 

Rugged, Dimco FreeGlide Shuffle- 
board sets are available for both out- 
door and indoor installation. 
Easy to install . . . low in upkeep! 

Write today for colorful folder, "Let's 
Play Shuffleboard," containing com- 
plete information on court layout and 




at low cost and upkeep 

It's easy to start a roller skating program! 
It's a healthful exercise and the popular 
way to build strong bodies. A favorite 
with boys and girls and budget planners, 
too . . . roller skating makes a grand co- 
recreational activity. Handles the largest 
groups quickly and easily. Halls, gyms, 
or any large floor area make fine roller 
rinks. Invest in health and fun this season. 

Rubber Tire Skates 


Gyms, Ballrooms or Halls 


Rink clamp skates developed by 
CHICAGO specially for skating on 
waxed floors. The rubber wheels 
are ideal for use on tile, ballroom 
floors or any highly waxed surface. 
Will not harm or mark. 

Write Now to the Leader in Rink 
Skates on How to Start 



The Choice of Champions ... for over 45 Years 
4490 West Lake Street Chicago 24, Illinois 

MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 


OTTO T. MAI.LERY Chairman of the Board 

PAUL MOORE, JR First Vice-President 

SUSAN M. LEI Second Vice-President 

GRANT TITSWOHTH Third Vice-President 

ADRIAN M. M ASSIE Treasurer 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY Treasurer Emeritus 



F. GREGG BEMIS Boston, Mass. 

MRS. ROBERT WOODS Buss Washington, D. C. 

HOWARD H. CALLAWAY : Hamilton, Ga. 

HOODING CARTER Greenville, Miss. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER Jacksonville, Fla. 

MRS. ROLLIN BROWN Los Angeles, Calif. 





MRS. HOWARD A. FRAME Los Altos, Calif. 


ROBERT GARRETT Baltimore, Md. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX Michigan City, Ind. 


MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON Tucson, Ariz. 

SUSAN M. LEK New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MALLEBY Philadelphia, Pa. 

HENRY W. MEERS Chicago, 111. 


CARL F. MILLIKEN Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OCDEN L. MILLS New York, N. Y. 

PAUL MOORE, JR Jersey City, N. J. 


MRS. RICHARD E. RIECEL Montchanin, Del. 

WILLIAM S. SIMPSON Bridgeport, Conn. 

MRS. SIGMUND STERN San Francisco, Calif. 



J. C. WALSH Yonkers, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Executive Director's Office 




Correspondence and Consultation 


Program Service 


Recreation Magazine 


Special Publications 



Personnel Service 


Research Department 


Hospital Recreation Consulting Service 


Work with Volunteers 


International Recreation Service 


Field Department 




Service to States 

Areas and Facilities Planning and Surveys 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Secretary 
for Women and Girls 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses 




New England District 

WALDO R. HAINSWORTH, Northbridge, Mass. 

Middle Atlantic District 

JOHN W. FAUST East Orange, N. J. 


Great Lakes District 

JOHN J. COLLIER Toledo, Ohio 

ROBERT L. HORNBY Madison, Wis. 


Southern District 

Miss MARION PREECE . .Washington, D. C. 
RALPH VAN FLEET Clearwater, Fla. 

Midwest District 

ARTHUR TODD Kansas City, Mo. 

Southwest District 


Pacific Northwest District 

WILLARD H. SHUMARD Seattle, Wash. 

Pacific Southwest District 

LYNN S. RODNEY Los Angeles, Calif. 

Affiliate Membership 

Affiliate membership in the National 
Recreation Association is open to all non- 
profit private and public organizations 
whose function is wholly or primarily the 
provision or promotion of recreation serv- 
ices or which include recreation as an im- 
portant part of their total program and 
whose cooperation in the work of the asso- 
ciation would in the opinion of the asso- 
ciation's Board of Directors, further the 
ends of the national recreation movement. 

Active Associate Membership 

Active associate membership in the 
National Recreation Association is open to 
all individuals who are actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed basis 
or as volunteers in a nonprofit private or 
public recreation organization and whose 
cooperation in the work of the association 
would, in the opinion of the association's 
Board of Directors, further the ends of the 
national recreation movement. 


The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
to year is made possible by the splendid 
cooperation of several hundred volunteer 
sponsors throughout the country, and the 
generous contributions of thousands of sup- 
porters of this movement to bring health, 
happiness and creative living to the boys 
and girls and the men and women of 
America. If you would like to join in the 
support of this movement, you may send 
your contribution direct to the association. 

The National Recreation Association is a nation- 
wide, nonprofit, nonpolitical and nonsectarian civic 
organization, established in 1906 and supported by 
voluntary contributions, and dedicated to the serv- 
ice of all recreation executives, leaders and agen- 

cies, public and private, to the end that every child 
in America shall have a place to play in safety and 
that every person in America, young and old, shall 
have an opportunity for the best and most satisfy- 
ing use of his expanding leisure time. 

For further information regarding the association's services and membership, please write to the 
Executive Director, National Recreation Association, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 



MARCH 1955 




Editorial Assistant, AMELIA HENLY 

Business Manager, ALFRED H. WILSON 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 


Price 50 Cents 

No. 3 

On the Cover 

THE DRUMS OF SPRING In the month of 
March, attics and closets give up their store of tops, 
jump ropes, skates, marbles, bicycles ; and once more 
spring sunshine resounds with the renewed exuber- 
ance of children's laughter. Photograph courtesy of 
Greenwich House and Three Lions, Inc., New York 
Next Month 

In April, the annual Playground Issue of RECREA- 
TION will carry information to help in planning for 
summer playgrounds, programs, and leadership. 
Some of the articles: "New Concepts Behind the De- 
signs of Modern Playgrounds"; "How We Plan 
Joseph Lee Day"; "Organization of Children's Fi- 
esta Parade"; "Games and Status Experience"; 
"Practical Techniques for Leadership of Games"; 
"A New Trend in Playground Training Courses"; 
how-to-do-it information for crafts and other pro- 
jects; and the last in the series of articles on "Out- 
door Swimming Pools." 
Photo Credits 

Page 107, Charles E. Grover, Denver, Colo.; 108, 
109, Recreation Department, Denver, Colo.; 110, 111, 
Peter Smith & Company, Stratford, Canada; 113 
(top left) United States Rubber Company ; (bottom 
right) Dun's Review and Modern Industry, New 
York City; 117, Adelphi College Children's The- 
atre, Garden City, N. Y.; 118, Office of Information 
Service, San Francisco, Calif.; 123, Art Allen, Cort- 
land, N. Y.; 127, Recreation Commission, San Mateo 
County, Redwood City, Calif.; 130, Department of 
Parks, New York City; 131, Oglebay Institute, 
Wheeling, W. Va.; 138, Arthur Odell, Oakland, 

RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the _ National Recreation Association, a 
service organization supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, at 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
York; is on file in public libraries and is indexed in 
the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. 
Canadian and foreign subscription rate $4.50. Re- 
entered as second-class matter April 25. 1950, at the 
Post Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917. authorized May 1, 1924. Microfilms of cur- 
rent issues available University Microfilms, 313 N. First 
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Space Rfpresentath-es: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 East 
44th Street, New York 17, New York; Mark Minahan, 
168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; Keith 
H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, and 
593 Market Street, Suite 304, San Francisco 5, 

Copyright, 1955, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. ,5==N 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



MARCH 1955 

Our Gadgets Set Us Free (Editorial) Dorothy Thompson 100 

Recreation and the Ultimates 101 

The Congress Goes to Denver T. E. Rivers 107 

Public Recreation in Denver /. Earl Schlupp 108 

From Little Acorns Stratford's Shakespearean Festival 

Leonard H. McVicar 110 

Hobbies Develop the Executive Margaret L. Jones 112 

The Case for Creative Arts in Recreation . . . .Grace Stanistreet 117 
Air Force Fights Boredom 118 


Make the Most of Water Recreation Arthur Todd 115 

Research Reviews and Abstracts 119 

Baseball for Boys Vincent L. Fowler 122 

Outdoor Swimming Pools Part III George D. Butler 125 


Include Hobbies and Hobby Shows in Your Program 

Muriel E. McGann 130 

Make a Square Knot Bracelet (How To Do It) 

.Frank A. Staples 133 

Organize A Spring Top Spinning Contest 134 

Bring Your Secretary (Idea of the Month) 136 


Letters 102 

Things You Should Know 104 

Editorially Speaking 106 

Reporter's Notebook 120 

Personnel How To Spend Your Summer and Have it Too 

Pat Cavanaugh 138 

Recreation Leadership Training Opportunities 140 

Market News 142 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Periodicals, 

Magazine Articles 143 

Advertisers' Index 143 

New Publications 144 

How To Do It! Idea of the Month See Program 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses Inside Back Cover 



Dorothy Thompson 

The world has a false picture of 
America. Foreigners see us and in 
this they are correct as the most high- 
ly developed and advanced technologi- 
cal society. We are a country of mass 
production, achieved by the greatest di- 
vision of labor, in which each worker 
is confined to a single process. Num- 
erous European writers depict every 
American as a cog or an expert, as a 
mechanical man. The individual, they 
ruminate, is absorbed in the work pro- 

The perfection of technology, they 
therefore argue, leads to a centralized 
collectivist society since it is impossible 
to "put the clock back" to a simpler, 
more individualistic age. I should like 
to offer a counterthesis : that in America 
technology is leading, and will increas- 
ingly lead to more decentralization, 
greater self-sufficiency of the family 
unit, and that the future promises to be 
basically and spiritually more like the 
world of our grandparents, that the 
American is rapidly recovering his ama- 
teur status in life as a whole, and that 
the very gadgets that European intel- 
lectuals despise are encouraging the res- 
toration of a more whole person, who 
puts to use manifold gifts and ingenui- 

When Emerson wrote, a twelve-hour 
day and six-day week were usual. Man 
was absorbed in his subdivided function 
during all his waking hours. Today 
technology enables him to produce and 
earn several times as much in half the 

What do Americans do with the time 
that technological development has 
handed back to them? 

Reprinted and condensed by special permis- 
sion of the Ladies' Home Journal. Copyright 
1953. The Curtis Publishing Company. 


In the conventional picture they sit 
at television sets, go to movies, play 
canasta, and that is about all. In reali- 
ty, although they do all these things, 
they also paint pictures, make inven- 
tions, decorate and even partially build 
their own houses, landscape gardens, 
make their own clothes. The scholar 
prides himself as a cook; the garment 
worker attends art classes; the physi- 
cian fiddles in an amateur orchestra; 
the advertising executive makes the 
furniture for his children's playroom. 
Technology has not only given him time 
to do so, but every day in the week it is 
furnishing him with new tools to help 
him work for himself. 

Half of all the gadget patents issued 
in this country go to basement and gar- 
age "inventors" whose paid work is un- 
related to invention or even to science. 
The American genius has never been 
confined within scientific laboratories. 

If Sunday painters rarely produce 
distinguished works of art, some occa- 
sionally do -- in America as well as 
in France. They don't paint, however, 
for money or for fame, but as an out- 
let for creative energy. Sometimes they 
are discovered by critics, dealers or mu- 
seum directors, as Grandma Moses was 
discovered, to charm two continents. 
The President of the United States loves 
to cook, and is, by all accounts, very 
expert at it. And I know businessmen, 
writers, artists, journalists and univer- 
sity presidents who would rather dis- 
cuss the Gourmet Cookbook than their 
own professions. 

The professional cook, as a household 
domestic, has all but vanished, but 
American cookery has not thereby de- 
clined. Women who "never boiled an 
egg," and "career" women at that, whip 
up four-course meals with professional 
attention to balance and taste in the 

The American home has again be- 
come a great work center for self-im- 
pelled persons, working for their own 
pleasure and profit. 

Check on the sales of the mail-order 
houses, who advertise pages of power- 
driven tools for carpentry. Last year, 
from such houses and other firms, 
$100,000,000 worth of such tools were 
sold to homeowners who are not car- 
penters and who spent upwards of three 
billion dollars for materials to be self- 

No country produces by virtue of di- 
vision of labor as comely well-cut cloth- 
ing as cheaply as does America. But 
in no other country is there as much 
home dressmaking ! The Singer Sewing 
Machine Company recently reported 
that today 30,000,000 American women 
make some, at least, of their own and 
their children's clothes. Last year home 
dressmakers bought over half a billion 
dollars' worth of yard goods, $51,000.- 
000 worth of notions and novelties, and 
kept 32,000.000 sewing machines hum- 
ming. In 1950, the last year for which 
figures are available, they bought 200.- 
000,000 dress patterns, more than there 
are people in the United States! 

"Do it yourself!" Last year paint 
firms sold a billion and a half dollars 
worth of their products; sixty-five per 
cent of this was put on walls by house- 
wives or their husbands at a fifth of 
the cost of hiring someone to do it. Did 
they do a good job? Certainly. The 
new paints with a liquid-rubber base, 
together with rollers and new-type 
brushes, are almost foolproof for the 

Check on the sales of work clothes. 
Last year clothing manufacturers pro- 
duced 173,000,000 work pants, overalls 
and work shirts. Who wears them? The 
executive, the diplomat, the editor, the 
salesman. Doing what? Among other 


things, trimming hedges, potting and 
setting out seedlings and pruning 
shrubs in eighteen and a half million 
gardenerless home gardens and with 
ingenious tools designed by technology 
for amateurs. 

The farmer used to sell his fatted 
calves, his buck lambs, his broilers and 
his fowl on the wholesale markets and 
then find himself unable to afford to 
buy meat back at retail. Today the 
farmer takes out enough to feed his fam- 
ily for a whole season, and puts it into 
his freezer or rented locker. Farm fam- 
ilies are eating today better than they 
ever did, at less cost because of a sim- 
ple invention the freezer. 

Thus, the net effect of the division of 
labor and the enormous efficiency re- 
sulting from it is to return man to him- 
self and to his home, and increase, not 
diminish, his self-sufficiency and range 

of activities. 

The American refuses, now as always, 
to be confined to one job, one process. 
Actually, I think our greatest satisfac- 
tions are derived from the things that 
we are not "supposed" to do. Praise me 
for an article that I have written and I 
shall be pleased, because I have never 
written one that wholly satisfied my- 
self. But admire the dainty blanket 
covers on my guest-room beds ; say you 
never ate a better Bavarian cream; 
praise the flowers that grew from seed 
to seedlings to great clumps from win- 
dow sill to garden ; ask me for my recipe 
for puff paste that will make me blush 
with pleasure. That will make me real- 
ize that I am not a "writer," but a wom- 
an who writes, writes for pleasure, 
writes for a living, but is not a writing 
machine. I laugh at my husband, who, 
when a critic admires a painting he has 


made, is likely to add, "But I made the 
frame" the painting being the profes- 
sional thing that he knows he knows 
how to do, the frame being the hobby 
executed by an amateur craftsman. 

Recreation is nothing but a change of 
work an occupation for the hands by 
those who live by their brains, or for 
the brains by those who live by their 
hands, and we shall yet, I am sure, cre- 
ate that whole society of whole men 
which Emerson envisioned. And if we 
accomplish this, at least in large meas- 
ure, even communism will one day stop 
in its tracks and take another look 
around. Man was not meant to live in 
an anthill, even with the best plumbing. 

Recreation and the Ultimates 

In St. Louis, last fall, the National Recreation Congress 
dealt with ultimates character, spirit, freedom, and the 
creative life, citizenship, victory, democracy, brotherhood 
as they are related to recreation. And the relationship 
was crystal clear. All that we hold dear in our better mo- 
ments was marshaled before us by leaders qualified to speak 
with assurance. Whatever roads lie ahead for the recreation 
movement there was a vantage point! From it we all saw 
the future beckoning. To it we all can turn when reassurance 
is needed. 

And in the turning there will again rise before us, like 
flashing challenges, the personal statement of Gaylord Don- 
nelley, one of America's ablest young business statesmen, 
as to recreation's part in personal, business, and community 
life; the simple expression of faith of Soichi Saito, one of 
Asia's spiritual leaders and a representative of a former 
enemy nation, as to the reconciling and unifying influence 
of recreation between nations; the unforgettable analysis 
of C. D. Jackson, who, because of a remarkable experience 
and awareness of what moves people and nations in war and 
peace, clearly listed recreation as a basic component of the 
conviction necessary to victory in the present world strug- 
gle; to the overwhelming impact of the message of Dr. James 
W. Clarke, whose rare eloquence literally lifted the entire 
Congress to a plane of builders of the cathedral and hand- 
maidens of God. 

The pages in those proceedings will recall for you many 
other messages and many other aspects of the Congress. We 
commend them to you for reading and rereading. The work- 
shops, the discussion groups, the demonstrations were of 
a high order. The committee meetings, the ideas, the tech- 
niques, the professional problems on all of these progress 

was made and great appreciation has been expressed. 

It is always satisfying when the housekeeping chores of 
administrative leadership meet with favor, and we gladly 
pay tribute to the contribution of hundreds of persons who 
shared in the conduct of the Congress. But the thing of 
which we can be proud the thing that gives meaning to the 
dedication that has gone into the building of the recreation 
movement is that the ultimates were recognized, dealt with, 
and appreciated at the St. Louis Congress. 

May those of you who were at St. Louis continue to find 
satisfaction from recalling, with the help of those pages, the 
spirit of that week. For all, this book is full of information 
on the giant strides of the recreation movement and the basic 
beliefs which have sparked progress. 

The above is essentially the foreword for the Proceedings 
of the 37th National Recreation Congress. We penned it to 
introduce the written record of what transpired in St. Louis, 
to focus our minds on the eternal values to which the Con- 
gress contributed. But in a very real sense the ultimates so 
unerringly sketched for us there were not for St. Louis alone, 
and that is why we refer to them again at this time. 

In great cities teeming with millions of people hungry for 
life, in drab small towns, in lonely rural areas here, and 
in the undeveloped lands of the earth; in churches, schools, 
hospitals, homes and industries; in parks, playgrounds and 
community centers, wherever gifted workers are guiding 
people to a richejr, more meaningful life through recreation 
there the ultimates are being experienced. 

As we start our labors in 1955 we can lift our heads as 
high as our hearts. For recreation leaders and all who sup- 
port them are dealing with ultimates. T. E. RIVERS, Sec- 
retary of the National Recreation Congress. 

MARCH 1955 



30 years 
built info this 

vacuum aes/gn 

300 to 1000 Ib* 

Freedom from 
Hi repair costs 
makes Type 
M series 
in Us field 
SO to 300 Ib. 
Vacuum desigtf 

fto springs on 
dtaphratns or 
sttaJt delicate 
parts to corrode 
eat up or 
wear out 

Vacuum design 

C hem co 
25 years old 
are still in 
Gvrt bust em, 
A// mode /s can 
vacuum design 


-30 YEARS 



P. 0. Box 3098 Terminal Annex 
Los Angeles 54, Calif 


70S W. Wacker Drive Chicago 6, III. 


Intangible Values 


This is to congratulate you on the 
article by Sigurd F. Olson in the Janu- 
ary number of RECREATION. This article 
to me is an interpretation of what nature 
and wholesome living can mean to real 
people and could mean to more people 
if we had more models to successfully 
point the way. I would like to meet the 
writer of this article; he would make a 
grand companion. 

Give us more articles interpretative 
of our objectives written in such an in- 
spiring manner. The little tot on the 
front cover of that magazine is going to 
need a place where such ideas prevail 
when she grows up. 

GRANT D. BRANDON, 81 8 State Street, 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

"If You Have a Good Ear . . ." 


An article in your January issue en- 
titled, "Music Comes to Main Street," 
by H. W. Heinsheimer, pleased me be- 
yond words. The comment described by 
Mr. Heinsheimer about a young com- 
poser and music teacher, Morton S. Cit- 
ron, who has a studio in Carnegie Hall, 
reminds me of an old Chinese saying, 
"A tutor who knows to suggest instead 
of pouring the instruction into the ears 
of his pupil is the best teacher of all." 

When I first came to see Mr. Citron, 
my inferiority complex was deepened to 
the core and the thought that I had that 
no one would be able to change my mo- 
notonous style of piano playing was in- 

glorious. But it was Mr. Citron who 
convinced and said to me one day, "If 
you have a good ear for music and the 
will to do it, there is nothing impos- 
sible." I followed his sound advice and 
method, and at the same time I listened 
very carefully to his many ways of 
euphonizing a melody. Today, after 
studying with him for less than two 
months, my technique of syncopating 
any melody has beautified to a real 
sense of music. 

STERLING CHEN, Director, Mutra 
Inc., Exporters Importers, New 
York, New York. 

Note to Mr. Orcutt 


Just read your letter to the editor in 
RECREATION magazine in December. 
Permit me to congratulate you for the 
very clear presentation of facts as they 
actually exist. We in Pennsylvania 
agree wholeheartedly with you. 

OTT WUENSCHEL, President, Penn- 
sylvania Recreation Society, Greens- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

A Master Social Calendar 


Your very excellent article, "Taking 
Stock" in your January issue, was a 
grand job on a recreation inventory. In 
fact, your "Idea of the Month" is a gem. 

Five years ago the Eastchester Rec- 
reation Commission put a Town Master 
Social Calendar into business. Every 
organization in the town was asked to 
appoint a social recreation chairman 


c4tkletic Equipment 


W. J. Volt Rubber Corp. 
2945 East 12th Street 
Los Angeles 11, Calif. 

New York 1 1 , Chicago 1 0, Los Angeles 1 1 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


and forward the name to the Commis- 
sion. At the same time, the organiza- 
tion was asked to forward their social 
calendar of the year also. All activities 
were compiled on a master calendar. 
Whenever any organization wanted to 
run an additional social activity they 
would call the recreation office for 

The local newspaper features our cal- 
endar in a prominent part of the paper. 

The calendar works two ways. We 
have a list of people to whom we send 
it and it is read at all meetings in 
town. Organizations in the town are no 
longer bucking each other with their 
social affairs. 

At each meeting in town you will 
often hear, "Call the Eastchester recre- 
ation office for clearance." A very profit- 
able bit of public relations at no cost. 
VINCENT D. BELLEW, Director, East- 
chester Recreation Commission, 
Tuckahoe, New York. 

From Sweden 

My experiences from the very nice 

>und-trip [in the United States] in 
L948 have been most helpful for my job. 

Ls a few examples, shuffleboard, box- 
lockey and bingo have been introduced 
icre and have become very popular. 
Facks are still planned. They are not 

lade here and I have given samples to 
it least four firms without success as 
pet; but I am still trying and hope for 

RECREATION magazine is indeed ex- 

remely good and the practical hints on 
lifferent subjects we have made use of 

lany, many times. Just now, we have 
in-service training im table games both 
old, as Mah Jong and Backgammon, and 
new. So, of course, Kalah and Go from 
the October RECREATION will be taught. 
By the way, in-service training was the 
first thing I started on my return. 

I was very glad to receive the National 
Recreation Association report on Inter- 
national Recreation Services sent to me 

last spring by Mr. Rivers. The Swedish 
playground movement is still develop- 
ing as I hope it will always be. I am just 
on my way to Gothenburg to study the 
result of a Scandinavian playground 
competition and to discuss the starting 
of a Swedish playground association 
with a first conference in 1955. The next 
step will be a Scandinavian association 
and later on perhaps a European one. 

There is a great interest in supervised 
playgrounds in many countries in 
Europe, but so far there is not very 
much done except in Denmark, Finland, 
Holland and Sweden. England is just 
starting but the interested persons have 
a great job in convincing people of the 
importance of trained leaders. Infor- 
mation about other countries I have 
obtained from visitors who have come 
to Stockholm both through the U.N. and 
privately and for an International Con- 
ference on Open Air Education in 
Zurich last year. 

Last June the U.N. Technical Assist- 
ance Office in Geneva sent me to Finland 
for ten days to lecture about play- 
grounds. Helsinki already has quite a 
good program and in the other big cit- 
ies people are very interested. It is so 
interesting to see how similar the prob- 
lems are and how differently they can 
be solved according to customs and na- 
tional distinctions. On this trip our new 
filmstrip was most useful. 

A very strong wish of mine is to get 
the opportunity to make another visit to 
the United States and, preferably, to a 
national recreation congress. Just now 
I cannot see any possibility of this, but 
I do hope to find some way to realize it 

tendent of Playgrounds and Recrea- 
tion, Stockholm. 

Mrs.Wretlind-Larsson will be remem- 
bered by many in the recreation field 
for her visits to recreation departments 
throughout the country in 1 948. Ed. 


^ During the year 1955 all orders amounting to $10 or more will be 

shipped transportation prepaid via least expensive way. If any 
5 other way is specified, customer shall pay the difference. 


4705 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland 3, Ohio 

Do You Have Our 1955 Catalogue? 
If Not, Write For Your Copy Today. 



For Outdoor and 
Indoor Use 

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A tremendous success in 

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Outdoor and Indoor Recreation 

Centers, Playgrounds, Resorts, Clubs, 

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You'll enjoy reading this new Daisy 
brochure. It briefly details club forma- 
tion and explains how communities, 
parents, children all benefit from the 
NRA Junior 15-Foot spring-type air rifle 
marksmanship program. Send for your 
free copy. 


Dept. 5335, Plymouth, Michigan 
Please send Free 12-page Brochure. 


ST. & NO 


MARCH 1955 


When writing to our advertisers ploase mentien RECREATION. 


continued to climb in 1954, according 
to a report of the Recreation Personnel 
Service of the National Recreation As- 
sociation. The median salary for rec- 
reation executives placed by the service 

I was $5000 an increase of $500 over 
1953. A total of 731 positions, 480 with 
tax-supported agencies, was handled 
during the year, in addition to which 
ninety-four placements were made for 
the military as a part of the Associa- 
tion's defense-related services. Well 
over one-half of men registered for ex- 
ecutive positions required a salary of 
$5,000 to $5,500; among women reg- 

istered, salaries of from $4,000 to 

; $5,000 were desired. : 

Highlights of a comprehensive report 

' on. salaries for community recreation 
workers are appearing in the March 
issue of the NRA Associate Membership 

1954 annual report of the Michigan In- 
ter-Agency Council for Recreation. Ad- 
dress the council at: Stevens T. Mason 
Building, Lansing 26, Michigan. 

use in announcing summer program, 
promoting bond issues or special levies, 
publicizing program activities will be 
available about the first of May to rec- 
reation departments affiliated with the 
National Recreation Association. They 
will be based on cover design of the 
Association's annual report for 1954, in 
two colors, and will be 19%- by 11%- 
inches - - standard size for cards in 
street cars and buses. They can also be 
used for TV spots. Charges: ten to 
twenty-four twenty cents each ; twen- 
ty-five to forty-nine eighteen cents 
each; fifty to one hundred -- fifteen 
cents each. Special quotes on larger 
quantities. Watch for picture of the 
poster and further details in next issue 

^ A RESEARCH STUDY to determine the 
value of recreation for chronically ill 
and aged patients has been launched in 
a New Jersey hospital under the direc- 


tion of the National Recreation Associa- 
tion and New York University. Psycho- 
logical and medical tests will be used 
. . . general habits and attitudes of the 
patients will be observed. 

National Social Welfare Assembly in- 
vites cooperation in the United States 
Assembly of Youth, to be held at Ober- 
lin College, Oberlin, Ohio, September 
8 to 13, 1955. The theme for this year 
will be "Freedom in the Balance." The 
purpose of the Assembly is to gather 
together young Americans in the eight- 
een to thirty age group, and staff mem- 
bers of national organizations, for dis- 
cussion of some of the most pressing 
issues facing citizens today. Partici- 
pants will act as individuals and not as 
organizational representatives. For fur- 
ther information write to : Young Adult 
Council, National Social Welfare As- 
sembly, 345 East 46th Street, New York 
17,' New York. 

^ WATCH FOR the new group accident 
insurance plan which will be available 
this spring to baseball and softball 
teams in the recreation programs of af- 
filiate members of the National Recrea- 
tion Association. Details will soon be 
available. This has been specially de- 
veloped for the association as the best 
possible type of insurance providing 
maximum benefits at minimum cost for 
teams in all age brackets. 

observed this year during the month of 
May. Local communities are encour- 
aged to initiate special programs to call 
attention to the values of sports and 
recreation in American life. The NRA 
is one of the national organizations 
sponsoring the festival. 

^ ARE YOU PLANNING for National Mu- 
sic Week which will be observed May 1 
to 8? Send to National Music Week 
Committee, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11, New York, for brochure sug- 
gesting possible program activities. 

^A NEW PUBLICATION is Playground 
Leaders Their Selection and Training 
by Ray T. Forsberg for the Committee 
on In-Service Training of NRA's Na- 
tional Advisory Committee on Recruit- 
ment, Training and Placement of Rec- 
reation Personnel. Publication date of 
the new manual is March 1 ... price 
eighty-five cents. 

quests for the bound volumes of REC- 
REATION magazine its early years. Un- 
fortunately we have been unable to nil 
all of these because our supply was lim- 
ited. Now it is completely exhausted. 

^ AMERICA is DEVELOPING a population 
that will go to school all its life, accord- 
ing to an editorial note in the January 
1955 McCall's. It states that in ten years 
grown-up students will out-number 
those in grades one to twelve. Right 
now thirty million people men and 
women in equal numbers are. taking 
courses of one kind or another. Cali- 
fornia leads the field with almost one 
million enrolled all free. New York 
ranks next. About half take "brain" 
courses, half crafts. People are "learn- 
ing to be block leaders or aviators, to 
hunt for deep sea pearls, to get along 
with their spouses . . . some of them 
even taking courses in radio listening!" 

Professional Opportunities with Army Special Services 

In Alaska, Europe, Japan, Korea, Okinawa or the United States. 
Asst. Club Directors and Program Directors. Basic requirements: single female; age 
26-40; degree with major in recreation or related field; two or more years successful 
experience in recreation leadership. Salary $3795.00 per annum. 

Club Directors. Basic requirements: single female; age 30-45; degree. and 3 or more 
years experience, one of which must have been in an Army or Air Force Service Club; 
administrative and supervisory ability. Salary $4,205.00 per annum. 
Crafts Director. Basic requirements: degree with major in Arts and Crafts; single men 
or women; age 24-40; demonstrated proficiency in directing a comprehensive program 
including ceramics, graphic arts, leathercraft, metalwork, model building, photography, 
woodwork. Salary $3410 to $5060, based on experience. 

U. S. citizenship .and excellent physical and mental health required for all positions. 
For information write: 


Office of Civilian Personnel 9 

Old Post Office Building, Washington 25, D. C. 



Series in 


Physical Education., 

and Recreation 






A distinctive text emphasizing 
leadership skills in social recreation . 



Teachers College, Columbia University 

31 2 pages $4.75 



This outstanding work provides a practical, down-to-earth 
discussion of social leadership objectives and techniques 
applied to the recreation needs of various types of groups 
of all sizes and all ages. 

It covers the background of social recreation in this coun- 
try, the role of recreation in everyday life, leadership ob- 
jectives and techniques in working with recreation groups, 
and wide variety of time-tested, accepted materials: 

active and inactive games and mixers 
social dance icebreakers community singing materials 
folk and square dances informal dramatic activities 

Caution against harmful games and stunts; recent recrea- 
tional dance history; and some original dramatic activities 
are also considered. Lists of periodicals, record albums, 
and other useful materials in the field are included. There 
is an extensive treatment of program planning to meet the 
needs of different types of groups. 

The first complete book on the subject . . . 


A Guide to Its Organization and Administration 


American Association for Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation 


It is intended as a practical guide to industrial recreation 
directors in administering employee recreation programs 
and also for those studying the organization and adminis- 
tration of such a program. It is, in addition, an analysis of 
the employee recreation program with relation to the vari- 
ous social problems faced by modern industry and to the 
total community recreation program. Specific recommen- 
dations principles, methods, and techniques on plan- 
ning and initiating a program are thoroughly discussed. 
Program activities, program leadership, financing the pro- 
gram, facilities and equipment, publicity and public rela- 
tions, etc., are soundly treated in this practical and compre- 
hensive report on industrial recreation. In addition, there 
is a thorough discussion of the history of employee recrea- 
tion and its benefits to industrial relations. 

Send for copies on approval 

330 West 42nd Street 


New York 36, N.Y. 



Now your classes can easily enjoy this fascinating 
craft with The Copper Shop's low-cost supplies. 
Complete enameling kit with pyrex topped, visible 
firing unit only $14.95. Contains everything needed 
for dramatic demonstrations or class projects. FREE 
Idea-Book gives step-by-step instructions for pro- 
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imaginative copper items for your own use or resale. 
All items ready for firing. No Metal Working 
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The Copper Shop is famous for outstanding enameling ideas. 
Our new 1955 Idea-Book lists scores of items never before 
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Manual SK-4 


Every year sees new and higher 
standards -of hygiene required 
of swimming pools. Today, pro- 
per sanitation and the protection 
of the bather is the first consid- 
eration of those who plan and 
operate swimming pools. You 
can save yourself time, trouble 
and money by consulting with 
losam on these problems. Josam 
Manual SK-4 has a wealth of 
valuable up-to-date information 
at your disposal on popular 
types of pools. 

Send Coupon Today! 


Michigan City, Indiana Dept. R 

Please send Manual SK-4 




City Zone State 

MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Editorially Speaking 

April is Hobby Month 

Prepare for it Now 

Many recreation departments and industries across the country hold an 
annual hobby show. Some open it to certain age classifications or groups : 
some make it a city-wide or company-wide affair. If you have missed the 
boat so far, try one this year. See article, "Include Hobbies and Hobby 
Shows in Your Program," page 130; also "Hobbies Develop the Executive," 
on page 112. 

Hobby Slogans 

The following are suggested by 
George Sargisson, executive director. 
Recreation Promotion and Service. Inc.. 
Wilmington, Delaware: 

You can do it too. get a hobby! Get 
a hobby it's later than you think! 
People stay where people play get a 
hobby! Have fun, be fun, make fun 
get a hobby! Be hobby-wise and scru- 
tinize ! There's a hobby in your future ! 
Show what you know at the hobby 
show! Our hobby is fun - - what's 
yours? The place to go the Hobby 
Show! What's your hobby? - - Let's 
share it ! All for fun, fun for all Share 
your hobby. Hobby hours are happy 
hours! Lobby for your hobby ! 

Selecting a Hobby 

The number of hobbies to choose 
from seems endless, yet it is possible to 
find printed materials on almost every 
subject. Many government agencies 
stand ready to help the hobbyist. For 
instance, the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, Department of Interior, offers Fish- 
ery Leaflet 315, Aquarium Construction 
in the Home Workshop ; Fishery Leaflet 
43. Care of Aquarium Fishes; and Fish- 
ery Leaflet 165, Some Aquarium Fishes. 
The Rural Electrification Administra- 
tion, Department of Agriculture, tells 
how-to-do in an eight-page pamphlet. 
Leaflet Number 317, Electric Lamps 
That You Can Make or Modernize. 
Write to the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C., for a list of other 
government hobby publications. 

Hobbies may bring in a small income 
now and then; although, of course, if 
pursued only for monetary reasons, the 
activity ceases to be a hobby at all. This 
is an important distinction which should 
be watched. It is better to make things 
for fun, and then, if you happen to sell 
one or two, the personal satisfaction and 
enjoyment a hobby offers will still be 

Hobbyist, Test Yourself 

Here's a test to determine if your hob- 
by is a good one. Gordon Hendrickson 
of the University of Cincinnati faculty 
says a good hobby has eight character- 
izations. It should involve a tangible 
product that can be admired by others, 
should fit the hobbyist's age and cir- 
cumstances, and should have a group of 
devotees in whom can be found social 
contacts, recognition, and acceptance. 

Also, the hobby should be difficult 
enough to challenge the skill but not too 
difficult to prevent some success; it 
should further and not interfere with 
family life; it should not interfere with 
one's vocation; it should be the hobby- 
ist's servant and not master; and it 
should have possibilities for growth and 
continued interests throughout the 
years. New York Post, January 21, 

Hobby School 

The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion in Seattle, Washington, is conduct- 
ing a successful hobby school which 
averages 2,500 class enrollments annu- 
ally for the fall, winter, and spring quar- 

ter. There, young husbands and wives 
have gained mutual leisure-time inter- 
ests which will last throughout life, and 
family enrollment has been promoted. 
Interesting among the many subjects 
are courses such as : The Art of Travel- 
ing; Ballroom Dancing for Teen-Agers; 
Flower Arrangement; Foldboating 
(Kayaks) ; Fly Fishing and Fly Tying; 
Horseback Riding: The Art of Letter 
Writing; Photo Tinting: Pleasure 
Trips in Poetry; Oldtime Dancing: and, 
of course, crafts, painting, photography 
and sports are included. 

Pursuit of Leisure 

You and I are now on the greatest 
"fun" buying spree of our entire his- 

This year alone we're spending close 
to thirty-one billion dollars on leisure 
activities alone on amusements rang- 
ing from hunting, fishing and golf to 
pleasure reading, music and photogra- 

This represents a thumping twelve 
per cent of our total income after taxes; 
it's twice as much as we spend on new 
cars or household goods; it's a record 
high sum, of course. 

It's a trend on which we can place no 
limit for the simple reason that it has 
no limit and every force behind it is 
gaining power. 

To the "inalienable rights" of "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness," 
our generation has added the "pursuit 
of leisure." And it is typical of us that 
we are pursuing leisure with boundless 
energy. Sylvia F. Porter, in her col- 
umn, "Labor and Business." New York 
Post, December 9, 1954. 



T. E. Rivers 

If you've never been to Denver, it is probably a city you've 
always wanted to visit. If you have ever been there, you 
no doubt have been wanting to return. Denver's clear air 
and invigorating climate, a mile above sea level; Denver's 
spectacular setting, with the Rockies as its western horizon ; 
Denver's people, friendly and informal; Denver's spirit 
all of these and more make Denver an inviting city. We are 
glad to be going to Denver this year for the 37th National 
Recreation Congress, September 27 to October 1. 

Denver and nearby Colorado Springs and the whole Colo- 
rado Recreation Society are enthusiastic about entertaining 
us ; and they long ago began making plans for the occasion. 
The national parks, so near to Denver, are tempting. Every- 
body will, for instance, want to see the hugh outdoor theatre 
in the Park of the Red Rocks, where rock formations pro- 
vide natural acoustics, which seats 8,000 persons. J. Earl 
(Curley) Schlupp's article in this issue of RECREATION (see 
page 108) will interest many. Others will want to see and 
do some real mountain square dancing. There are more 
than 12,000 square dancers in Denver as if they were ever 
still enough to be counted. 

Denver potentialities for the Congress are high. We hope, 
therefore, that as the Congress program develops you will 
find you can't possibly stay away from Denver in September. 
Just to play safe hadn't you better begin planning to attend 
right now? Better to plan early than too late. 

Congress a Cooperative Venture 

Committees will help again this year in the planning of 
many Congress meetings. Suggestions from planning com- 
mittees and from individuals are always heavily relied upon. 
Membership of several committees is already complete and 
is listed below; other committees will be listed in RECREA- 
TION as their memberships become complete. 

National Advisory Committee 

Stewart G. Case, recreation specialist, Agricultural Ex- 
tension Service, Colorado A & M College, Fort Collins, Colo- 
rado; Garrett G. Eppley, chairman, Department of Recrea- 
tion, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; Mrs. Ever- 
ett M. Findlay, Long Beach Recreation Commission, Muni- 
cipal Auditorium, Long Beach, California; Willard N. 
Greim, director of health, physical education and recrea- 
tion, Denver Public Schools, Denver, Colorado; Thomas 
W. Lantz, superintendent of recreation, Tacoma, Washing- 
ton; Andrew G. Ley, director, Hamilton Recreation Coun- 
cil, Hamilton, Ontario ; Jesse A. Reynolds, director, Depart- 
ment of Recreation and Parks, Richmond, Virginia ; Donald 
F. Sinn, director of recreation, Concord, New Hampshire; 

MR. RIVERS is the assistant executive of the NRA and the 
secretary of the National Recreation Congress. 

MARCH 1955 

Set your sights high this year! This is LaPlata Peak, 14,340 
feet above sea level, in central Colorado. Majestic beauty 
of this country defies words. Fine roads lead to all mountain 
areas and the national parks and across the Continental Divide. 

Beverly S. Sheffield, director of recreation, Austin, Texas; 
Rupert J. Tarver, Carver Service Center, Galesburg, Illinois: 
Austin J. Welch, National Catholic Community Service. 
Washington, D. C. 

Hospital Advisory Committee 

Miss Edith L. Ball, assistant professor, School of Educa- 
tion, New York University, New York, New York; C. C. 
Bream, chief, Recreation Division, Special Services, Veter- 
ans Administration, Washington, D. C.; Miss Ruth Flan- 
nery, American Red Cross, Fitzsimmons Army Hospital, 
Denver, Colorado; Colonel Cecil Morgan, Springfield Col- 
lege, Springfield, Massachusetts; Miss Bertha E. Schlotter, 
chief, Occupational and Recreation Therapy Service, Illinois 
Department of Public Welfare, Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Bream 
is chairman of this committee. 

Recreation Executives Committee 
on Administrative Problems 

The National Advisory Committee on Recreation Admin- 
istration (see RECREATION, February 1955, page 50) has 
agreed to help this year with the planning -of these impor- 
tant Congress sessions for executives. George Hjelte, gen- 
eral manager, Department of Recreation and Parks, Los 
Angeles, California, is chairman and C. E. Reed, manager, 
Field Department, National Recreation Association, is sec- 
retary of the committee. 

Other committees in process of appointment include: 
Local Arrangements, which J. Earl Schlupp, director of 
recreation, City and County of Denver, Colorado, will head ; 
Town-Country Recreation ; Supervisors ; Board Members. 


National Recreation Congress City 
September 27 October 1, 1955 

Because of its western inheritance and its feeling for liv- 
ing out, not up, the people of Denver maintain adequate 
backyards, so recreation actually begins at home. A visitor 
quickly senses the pride and care given to both the land- 
scaping and the utility of grounds around Denver homes. 

This, of course, ties in with the development of Denver's 
parks. Anyone familiar with recreation organization would 
realize that the need for tot lots is virtually nil. One would 
also realize that here the family lives as a unit and hies to 
the hills or nearest large park and enjoys the good life. 

As a matter of fact, a visit from a distant cousin is reason 
enough for a Denverite to "close up shop," call the family, 
and take the visitor through our parks and into the more 
than 15,000 acres of city-owned mountain parks. With an 
inheritance like this, it has been natural to design a man- 
agement program for recreation which gives a maximum of 
service with a minimum of interference or regimentation. 

As early as 1911, the Denver public schools initiated after- 
school and summer supervision for recreation. Consequent- 
ly, the board of education is well aware of the need for a 
physical set-up other than that employed for a formal curric- 
ulum, and it has used considerable wisdom in the selection of 
sites, design of buildings, and provision of adequate areas. 
The three major high schools and a large junior high school, 
for instance, adjoin Denver's larger parks, bringing edu- 
cation and park sites into proximity for use of both areas. 

As Denver's park system was attracting thousands of users 
and many existing agencies were developing youth and 
adult activity programs, it was determined that central man- 
agement for the coordinated promotion and development of 
recreation was necessary. In 1943, the municipality pro- 
vided a budget for the recreation department as an agency 
under the mayor. To date this agency has grown to a com- 
plement of 47 year-round full-time workers, and from 90 
to 180 part-time* workers. 

At the basic conception of recreation management in Den- 
ver, it was agreed that the first function was service; the 
second, coordination and cooperation; and the third, vita- 
lizing and developing proper habits in public activities. Also 
important were the redesigning of existing facilities for mod- 
ern use and the developing of workable long-range plans 
to satisfy the needs of a growing city for future use. Main- 

J. EARL SCHLUPP is the director of recreation in Denver. 

Bowling on the green. Climate good for outdoor recreation. 

tenance and construction for recreation were to remain a 
function of the parks division which was equipped to expand 
such equipment and service. This is an effective community 
plan that achieves almost maximum use of existing facilities 
and citizen participation in decisions affecting them. 

Community Plan 

A unique part of Denver's recreation plan is the com- 
mittee, known as the City-School Coordinating Committee 
on Recreation, appointed by the mayor. It is composed of 
six members, and a paid chairman who is a professionall 
prepared person. Three of the members are nominated by 
the superintendent of schools and the board of education 
The committee's present members illustrate its representa 
tion: the president of the city and county Parent-Teache 
Association ; the principal of one of the large high schools 
a member of the board of education; the director of plan 
ning for the City and County of Denver; the chairman o 
the city council recreation committee; and the assistant man 
ager of improvements and parks in charge of parks and rec 
reation. The chairman is the director of health education 
and recreation for Denver public schools. 

One of the prime functions of the coordinating committee 
is to preserve the autonomy of expenditures for recreation 
by the board of education and by the city. There must be 
constant review of both programs to prevent duplication o 
service, duplication of plans and facilities, duplication of 
recruitment and training of employees, to mention three, all 
of which could lead to wasteful use of tax dollars. 


J. Earl Schlupp 

Out of this coordinated planning committee has come a 
widely diversified program for all ages, with public interpre- 
tation and understanding of intent. The existing Opportuni- 
ty School and its multiple extension services to adults fitted 
into the planning. Services were distributed to neighbor- 
hood schools and municipal structures. 

The great potential existing in the development of the 
neighborhood schools as a community plant will be realized 
as a result of the recent $30,000,000 bond issue voted for 
new school buildings and sites. The acquisition of park and 
recreation land adjoining these school sites has real mean- 
ing for Denver's future growth. 

In 1947 the citizens of Denver voted a $1,000,000 bond 

One of many groups which total over 12,000 square dancers. 

issue for recreation improvements, and visitors to the Na- 
tional Recreation Congress this September will view several 
of these completed projects. One of particular note is a 
twelve-acre park which combines the most recent features 
of recreation and park planning now in use and demon- 
strates the meeting of utility and beauty while providing 
wide variety of both formal recreation activities and mul- 
tiple choice informal opportunities. 

Denver, because of its unique position as the largest city 
in Colorado, and because of its rapidly developing role as 
an air terminal, gravely accepts its responsibilities for lead- 
ership in the Midwest. It borrows from the happy experi- 
ences in the East, and cautiously observes the rapidity of 
growth in the West, in order that it may seek out the best 
ingredients for sound recreation management. And so, in 
its continual search for efficient organization and manage- 

MARCH 1955 

ment, in the past year Denver merged the parks operation 
which heretofore, by charter, had been a part of the im- 
provements and parks department with the recreation de- 
partment under single management. This was effected by 
an executive order of the mayor. If successful, a referendum 
to the citizens will be offered creating, by charter reform, a 
parks and recreation department. 

It is hoped that those attending the National Recreation 
Association Congress will find Denver an on-the-spot case- 
study for discussion of many nationwide problems such as : 

1. City-school cooperation. 

2. Combined management of parks and recreation. 

3. Community organization for maximum cooperation of 
national and local recreation agencies other than public. 

4. Long-range planning and its effect on parks and rec- 
reation development. 

5. The design and development of formal park areas and 
its relationship to the multiple-use informal area. 

6. The neighborhood plan of administration versus the 
building-centered activity. 

Certainly we, in Denver, hope to gather, during the Con- 
gress, information regarding the latest nationwide develop- 
ments and hope to offer something to the visitor in return. 

To those of you driving to Denver, national parks and 
our mountain beauty are encountered just twelve miles from 
our city. We recommend, either before or after the confer- 
ence, a visit to the natural scenic spots that are Colorado's.* 

If you are coming by train, your ticket to Denver can be 
arranged to include Colorado Springs without additional 
cost, and there you will find a mountain playground in the 
Pike's Peak area. 

It would be an oversight if we did not close by saying that 
lack of space prohibits mentioning Theater of the Red Rocks 
and its multiple summer use by the Denver Symphony and 
other related organizations; but we will plan an activity 
at the Congress to take you there and present to you a bit 
of the West in a program. And we haven't mentioned our 
fine bluegrass golf courses on which we hope you will play. 

* An article on the mountain and national parks surrounding Den- 
ver will appear in the September 1955 issue of RECREATION. Hold up 
on your final driving itinerary until you have seen this article. Ed. 

City music program includes five neighborhood choral groups. 






Leonard H. McVicar 

< Shakespearean 
I Festival 

Since the writing of this story in the spring of 1953, the Stratford Festival has seen two seasons of rous- 
ing success, received wide acclaim and is now the subject of a newly published book, Twice Have the Trum- 
pets Sounded, by Tyrone Guthrie, Robertson Davies and Grant Macdonald, Clarke, Irwin & Company, 
Toronto, Canada. It is most interesting to read of their early struggles in the light of these developments. 

More willingly than not, most of Strat- 
ford's 19,000 residents are taking part 
in the coming Shakespeare Festival. 
Careful investigation shows that the 
only major factor which keeps the city 
from unanimously giving whole-hearted 
support to the scheduled five-week run 
of two Shakespeare plays is one word: 
culture. The citizenry in some cases 
has adopted an almost negative attitude 
toward this word and anything pertain- 
ing to it. 

Although the Stratford Shakespear- 
ean Festival, which grew from an idea 
to concrete reality only two years ago, 
is aimed largely at furthering culture, 
a few citizens have been aware, how- 
ever, that the presentations will further 
community spirit, perspective, and co- 
hesion. In addition, the effect on Can- 
ada as a whole may be profound. Al- 
ready a smaller center in the county of 
Perth is planning a summer festival of 
dramatic works, not necessarily Shake- 

The start of it all was a local boy's 
dream - - Tom Patterson's vision of a 
Shakespearean Festival on Avon, here 
in Ontario. He came back from England 
after the war more completely sold on 
the idea than ever, having visited the 
original Stratford-on-Avon. Not being 
able to convince anyone at the time, he 
joined the editorial staff of Civic Ad- 
ministration magazine. Attending a 

MR. LEONARD H. MCICAR is director 
of recreation in Stratford, Ontario. 

mayors' meeting in Winnipeg, he met 
Stratford's Mayor Dave Simpson and 
talked over his dream. 

The mayor liked the idea and Tom 
presented it to the city council. They 
also liked it and sent him to New York 
to see Laurence Olivier about partici- 
pating in the festival. Unfortunately. 
Olivier was under contract and could 
not come. Tom then set out for Eng- 
land and made his contacts there. Dr. 
Tyrone Guthrie, well-known director, 
came back to look the situation over. 
The chamber of commerce stepped into 
the picture, a committee was formed 
and out of all this the Shakespearean 
Festival Foundation was born. 

So, like it or not, ready or not, for 
good or for bad, the festival is coming, 
and it is already beginning to be felt in 
the Dominion. 

To begin with, Stratford has begun a 
beautification program. Citizens who 
for many years have idly eyed their un- 
painted steps, sagging fences, untrim- 
med hedges each spring, for some rea- 
son, have "gotten around to that job at 
last." There was no direct movement 
leading up to this. The attitude of the 
populace might be: "If the festival is 
coming, I want my place looking clean 
and fresh." 

Paint is brightening the beautiful 
homes of this city, and lawns, taking on 
their springtime green, are being care- 
fully trimmed and tended. The city 
parks department is engaged in an un- 
usual flurry of activity. The effect is 
widespread, and it is wholesome. 

Businessmen of the community al- 
ready have recognized the importance 
of an influx of festival visitors. Singly, 
or as a result of businessmen's meet- 
ings, they have taken pains to improve 
their stocks and beautify their stores. 

The possibility of bringing native cul- 
ture into the foreground, even before 
the festival can have any real effect on 
fostering a native Canadian drama 
form, has not been neglected. Plans for 
exhibiting Canadiana are in the mak- 
ing. Canadiana includes works of na- 
tive sculptors, painters, jewelry makers, 
perhaps featuring clothing and blankets 
things truly Canadian. An exhibition 
will bring these things together for the 
benefit of visitors from other lands, and, 

Stage is designed to operate without 
sets, curtains or footlights. It has screen 
levels, a trap door, two ramps leading to 
exits underneath the auditorium proper. 



Inner, outer tents make theatre canopy. Weatherproof 
multiple walls and ceiling assist ventilation and acoustics. 

Concrete amphitheatre seats rise in tiers from, and three- 
quarters around, projecting stage apron. At left is ramp. 

possibly most important, for Canadians. 
The effect of the festival on culture 
already has been indicated. It is to be 
hoped that the desire to experiment in 
drama will become contagious, until all 
parts of this land strike out on their 
own, not only in drama or cultural 
fields, but in all fields of human endeav- 
or. Another effect to be hoped for in 
this community might be to see among 
the anti-culturists at least a toleration 
of some form of cultural activity. This 
cannot be forced, but if given a chance 
to be spectators, some people may be 
able to evaluate it, and perhaps like it. 

Aside from those individuals merely 
opposed to the idea of "higher things," 
however, are those idealists who feel 
that a scheme developed by a native of 
this city can make little or no contribu- 
tion to its actual culture. Some think, 
too, that such a project particularly on 
such a large scale will deter amateurs 
from attempting anything similar here, 
or that the idealistic aims for the festival 
will deteriorate under the weight of ma- 
terialism. They point out that the pro- 
ject will use little Canadian talent. Most 
agree, nevertheless, that a try, at least, 
will not be amiss. 

The principals will be Alec Guinness, 
well known English stage, TV, and mov- 
ie star, and the foremost director in the 
J. Arthur Rank organization, Tyrone 
Guthrie, in the productions, Richard III 
and All's Well That Ends Well. 

The plays will be presented in a mod- 
ern adaptation of the Elizabethan the- 
atre, on a specially-designed stage re- 
creating the conditions under which 
Shakespeare's plays were presented in 
his own day. 

The aims of the festival itself have 
been set forth by the festival committee. 

Without elaboration, their nine objec- 
tives are: 

1. To promote interest in, and the study of, 
the arts generally and literature, drama, and 
music in particular. 

2. To advance knowledge and appreciation 
of, and to stimulate interest in, Shakespearean 
culture and tradition by theatrical perform- 
ances and otherwise. 

3. To provide facilities for education and 
instruction in the arts of the theatre. 

4. To provide improved opportunities for 
Canadian artistic talent. 

5. To advance the development of the arts 
of the theatre in Canada. 

6. For the purposes aforesaid to acquire 
and construct such property as may be re- 

7. To conduct an annual Shakespearean 
Festival at Stratford, Canada. 

8. To collect money by way of donations, or 
otherwise to accept gifts, legacies, devises and 
bequests, and to hold, invest, expend or deal 
with the same in furtherance of the objects of 
the corporation. 

9. To do all such other things as are inci- 
dental or conducive to the attainment of the 
above objects. 

The Stratford Recreation Department 
must help in making visitors to the festi- 
val feel at home, in an environment in 
which they can become acquainted with 
real Canadian things, so they may carry 
away favorable impressions and ideas. 
Among the things this department may 
do are : the organization of sunset sing- 
songs in the city's beautiful park system 
on the River Avon; the provision of a 
free guide service to conduct visitors on 
tours of the city's interesting points: 
and the development of an exhibition of 

Stratford on Avon boasts of one of 
the prettiest park systems and the friend- 
liest community in Ontario. A festival 
of Shakespearean plays in this setting is 
bound to be a success. 


The 1953 festival played to capacity 
houses, with a total attendance of 68,- 
600 persons and ticket distribution cov- 

ering Canada, the United States. Eng- 
land, Italy, South Africa. 

What the critics said: 

Henry Grunwald, Time magazine 
"A minor theatrical miracle .... Sel- 
dom have so many Shakespeare lovers 
owed so much to so few." 

A. W. House, Industrial Canada 
"The Stratford Shakespearean Festival 
is a miraculous achievement." 

San Francisco Chronicle ''A roar- 
ing theatrical success that can make 
Broadway rub its commercial eyes." 

Walter Kerr, New York Herald Trib- 
une "Theatrical coup of the season." 

The Right Honourable Louis St. Lau- 
rent, Prime Minister of Canada "It is 
something that redounds to the credit of 
the whole Canadian people." 

Never before in the history of Canada 
has such a spotlight of publicity been 
turned on any single event. 

The 1954 Festival, which drew 125,- 
115 spectators, was directed by Tyrone 
Guthrie and Cecil Clarke, and pre- 
sented, among other distinguished the- 
atre people, James Mason and Frances 
Hyland, in Measure for Measure, Tam- 
ing of the Shrew and Oedipus Rex. 

Also in the summer of 1954 the 
board of governors of the Stratford 
Shakespearean Festival, as a first step in 
establishing a theatre school with 
courses in acting, theatrical production, 
and design in connection with the festi- 
val, introduced a short drama course to 
stimulate and interest students in the 
theatre as a whole. 

Thus this story achieves a triumphant 
conclusion, accomplished by a small 
city of 19,000, through faith, energy 
and imagination, and not least 
through generous support from busi- 
ness and industry. 

MARCH 1955 





Margaret L. Jones 

For the busy man who thinks hob- 
bies are for the idle: An analysis 
of why and how to have one. 

WHY . . . 

A hobby enables you to be more effec- 
tive in the job that is the source of your 
daily bread: 

^ A hobby furnishes you with addition- 
al knowledge that opens those new vis- 
tas which are a part of the self -broaden- 
ing process. 

^ A hobby develops another source of 
self-confidence, and of reserve skills on 
which to fall back during a time of crisis 
or indecision. 

^ A hobby adds another facet to your 
life that makes you more interesting to 
others, that reenforces your personality 
and causes you to be a better compan- 
ion, friend, and boss. 
^ A hobby introduces you to more peo- 
ple. The wider your circle of acquaint- 
ances, the greater the chance to improve 
your insight and handling of the varia- 
tions in personalities. 
^ A hobby is another motivation in 
your private life to "be up and doing." 
to take you out of yourself, to seek the 
change that rests, to make life more tol- 
erable in short, to help you fulfill that 
essential prerequisite to any success, 
sound mental health, and emotional sta- 

^ A hobby requires clear thinking; 
gives one practice in the working out of 
a problem. 

^ Epitaphs always come at the end. The 
relationship of these to this article is 

Reprinted with permission from Duns Re- 
view and Modern Industry, March 1954. Miss 
Jones is Executive Methods Editor. 

obvious. From the tombstones of two 
unknowns : 

/ was well, but trying to be better, I 
am here; and, 

Here lies a person who grew old, and 
died in self-neglect, 

HOW . . . 

A hobby can develop from a mere killer 
of idle time into a challenging, enjoya- 
ble avocation : 

There are two sorts of hobbies : those 
that fill leisure hours pleasantly, even 
profitably the theater, golf, walking 
and those that occupy a grandstand 
seat in a man's life. 

It is possible to claim many hobbies 
in the first group as your own. Any- 
one can dally with a number of pas- 
times quite easily. But when an activity 
is so important it is a man's second oc- 
cupation upon which he feeds his mind 
and sharpens his individuality, it usu- 
ally is not lumped in with other diver- 

Hobby-riding of this latter kind is 
very purposeful as well as pleasant and 
fun. It is an enduring activity, where- 
as hobbies that are purely diversional 
often end under attic memorials of dis- 
carded photographic equipment and 
dust-covered canvases and brushes. 

Let's not kid ourselves. The purpose- 
ful hobby is work; and it results from 
a viewpoint that considers this work 

Between a shutterbug whose para- 
phernalia may end in the attic and Du 
Font's president, Crawford H. Greene- 

wait, whose photographs are well 
known, lies a difference in viewpoint 
that is wide enough to be the Atlantic 
Ocean. For Greenewalt, photography 
has grown into a personal occupation to 
which he puts his mind and makes pe- 
culiarly his own by tackling it as only 
a man with his technical training could. 

Of course, a hobby, no matter how re- 
warding and worth-while, should never 
supplant one's real life work. A presi- 
dent who wants to stay at the head of 
his firm, or a man desiring to land some- 
where in that vicinity, would certainly 
be losing his perspective and humor if 
he allows himself to become a nut over 
some interest outside his business life. 

But what turns a hobby into a chal- 
lenging, yet fun-to-do activity for such 
busy, highly intelligent men as Greene- 
wait, and others like him? 

One thing that turns the trick, as men- 
tioned before, is viewpoint. Consider a 
hobby from the angle of making a study 
of it. Has it enough facets so the mind 
is led down a number of trails and per- 
sonal interest is constantly activated? 
Will the hobby hold you, be enduring? 

Fulfillment of these requirements de- 
pends partly on the man, partly on the 
activity itself. Take a simple illustra- 
tion: sailing. Anyone, loving the out- 
doors and water, could easily take to 
relaxing in a sailboat, enjoying the club 
life and sociability that goes with this 
sport. If it ends there, sailing is only 
a healthy pastime. 

But, if the individual makes a study 
of it, sailing develops a skilled navi- 



To U. S. Rubber's vice-president, John 
Caskey, painting is a way of life. He 
knows he makes mistakes, but he thinks 
lessons restraining, prefers own way. 

gator, opens a new area of knowledge, 
the subject of weather and tides, in- 
creases manual dexterity, and promotes 
an interest in building construction and 
materials. Even more, to those for 
whom it is an avocation, sailing offers 
plenty of chances to practice thinking 
quickly and correctly in a crisis. 

John E. Caskey, U. S. Rubber's vice- 
president and general manager of its 
Naugatuck Chemical Division, has an 
interesting viewpoint. Actually, he is 
a successful dual hobbyist, being an en- 
thusiastic gardener and painter. He 
paid attention first to gardening. Weath- 
er, though, curtails this interest during 
certain months. So, in the winter, he 
began to paint. Painting has become a 
philosophy with him, he points out, 
rather than a hobby. "In summer I paint 
with flowers, in winter with oils." 

Watch Out for This 

Look at a hobby also from the view- 
point of whether or not it turns you 
into a participator. There is nothing 
against spectator interests, in being a 
theater fan for instance. But these in- 
terests provide vicarious pleasures. 
Someone else is in there pitching or en- 
joying a success. So don't sit all the 
time during leisure hours. 

A hobby that requires its pursuer to 
participate is usually the one that out- 
lasts other interests and influences per- 
sonal development the most. 

After getting the correct viewpoint, 
consider how a hobby can be integrated 
with your previous, or present, back- 

MARCH 1955 

ground. Can something from your 
work, or your educational training, con- 
tribute to the hobby's development and 
your own success in it? Is the hobby 
a means of putting to work some skill 
or knowledge you already possess? 

Often it is this element of integration 
that provides the high level of interest 
necessary to propel an extremely busy 
and alert executive into an avocation. 
A hobby should perform this fusion 
without duplicating the major aspects 
of an individual's vocation. It it doesn't, 
then he's chosen the wrong hobby. For 
the interest the hobby represents must 
provide some contrast to one's daily 
work ; and the activity should be a rela- 
tively unfamiliar one at first. 

The business man, for instance, who 
thinks running another business in his 
spare time is relaxation really is sprint- 
ing as hard as he can to that tombstone : 
7 was well, but trying to be better, I am 

If this man works with people all day, 
his primary interest during leisure 
hours could well be with things. Many 
professional entertainers are noted for 
their switch from people to things when 
choosing a hobby. Microscopy caught 
Harold Lloyd's interest, for example; 
and Fred Waring collects old furniture. 

The opposite holds true, of course, 
for anyone like a researcher. A survey 
of science and technical men from well- 
known companies was made recently by 

Maurice Holland, New York industrial 
research adviser, to discover what these 
men do for avocations. Many of them 
wisely hasten from their "ivory tower" 
to spend time with people. For example, 
those interested in bridge, poker, and 
indoor sports like pool and bowling, in- 
dicate that, aside from mental stimula- 
tion, the strong appeal is mixing with 
people. With photography, an attrac- 
tion was : "Serves as an introduction to 
fellow enthusiasts." The same went for 
community-service hobbies : "Meet non- 
technical people." 

These researchers appear to be riding 
their hobbies with common sense, which 
brings up another point: the practical- 
ity of certain hobbies for certain peo- 
ple. Be practical in your choice, if you 
want to find more than a time killer. 

Don't, say, pick something for which 
you have no potential to be good at. 
A hobby is meant to give self-satisfac- 
tion ; and it is unsatisfying to be a dud. 
One should be physically and tempera- 
mentally suited for the activity. 

Chris Argyris of Yale's Labor and 
Management Center points out that 
while hobbies are definitely an impor- 
tant outlet for an executive's pent-up 
feelings, some unfortunately often pick 
up hobbies which increase, rather than 
decrease, such tensions. 

This runs contrary to a characteristic 
of successful executives, as observed by 
Argyris, which is their exhibition of a 

DuPont's president, Crawford H. Greenewalt, was the average amateur with a col- 
lection of vacation photos until he became interested in bird movements. Now, 
he shoots picture's unique from ornithologist's as well as photographer's view- 
point. Self-development follows hobby only when the latter is pursued seriously. 

high-frustration tolerance. It stems 
from either a natural ability to work 
effectively under frustrating conditions 
without ever blowing up, or from the 
methods these men develop to release 
tension such as participating in a 
sport that helps them let off steam. 

Another practical pointer: A hobby 
becomes a burden, not a release, when 
it is out of line with one's economic situ- 
ation. Don't steal money (or time) that 
sensibly belongs to other parts of your 

Furthermore, if the selection of a 
hobby is swayed by the possibility that 
it "will make money, by golly" (stamp 
or antique collecting) , impracticality 
once more creeps into the situation. 
You pick a hobby primarily for the per- 
sonal satisfaction to be gained from it, 
not for its monetary rewards. Go into it 
with idle money that won't be missed. 


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If the hobby turns out to be a source 
of extra dollars, well and good. A sound 
bet for a vocation after retirement is 
certainly something on which to capi- 
talize. One hardware executive always 
kept a good machine-tool shop in his 
basement. Later, upon retirement, he 
moved to California, taking his equip- 
ment along. The shop not only gave him 
something to do but brought in addi- 
tional income, for he rented space and 
equipment to local handcraft hobbyists 
not blessed with a similar set-up. 

Here are a few more donts : 

Don't attempt to take up a hobby 
simply because you want to meet more 
people who can "help" you in business. 
Both hobby and new friends will turn 
sour on you. 

Don't fasten onto a hobby simply be- 
cause you think you will be at home in 
it since other people of your "type," or 
"social position" like it. Interest that is 
stimulated by what the Joneses do falls 
flat where hobbies are concerned. 

Don't expect to be uninterrupted in 
your avocation. Count the fact that you 
can leave and return to it as one of its 
many blessings. As a matter of fact, the 
way time is made for hobbies depends 
on the individual's personality and the 
character of the activity. 

Finally, see if a hobby can pass the 
acid test of these two questions : 

Will it still interest me if I achieve all 
of my present goals or if my daily 
work is suddenly taken from me? 

Am I concentrating on it, and doing 
it well, rather than forcing it to com- 
pete with too many oufside interests? 

Hobbies have been divided and sub- 
divided into many classifications. Psy- 
chologist Dr. L. G. Freeman, now ac- 
tively engaged in developing a new kind 
of test one for avocational interests- 
at Cornell University, specifies nine 
areas: (1) collecting: the instinctive 
tendency to gather stuff together; (2) 
creating or re-creating: painting, pho- 
tography, music, sculpture; (3) mental 
skills: chess, bridge, word games; (4) 
physical skills: sports; (5) handcrafts: 
activity of the hands in woodworking, 
metalcraft; (6) nature study: raising 
plants, breeding animals; (7) social 
and community services; (8) science, 
mechanics, and inventing; (9) escape 
reading and travel. 

Dr. Freeman breaks down hobbies 

into this grouping which, though small, 
still covers the entire range of avoca- 
tional activities and represents basic 
interests. While a man can exist with- 
out having part in any of these nine 
types of activity, his life will be richer 
for them. 

The one interest area, of the nine 
listed, which Dr. Freeman regards with 
some suspicion, especially for energetic 
executives, is escape reading and travel. 
For their tension reduction, it is too 
passive. Also, a deeper analysis may 
prove that this interest really is the out- 
ward expression of a more fundamental 
feeling. Thus, a science-fiction reader 
may be essentially interested in the 
sciences. Look behind your reading 
habits : they may be hiding a more self - 
enriching interest. 

Plenty of Know-How Dope 

For the person wishing to study the 
details of a specific hobby much ma- 
terial is available. Among publications 
produced by the National Recreation 
Association, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11, New York, one, costing ten 
cents, is Some Sources of Information 
on Hobbies. Mostly, it lists books, 
prices and publishers. 

Man is by nature multiskilled. Unless 
he is careful, though, the specialization 
of the century he now lives in will push 
him to the point where his personality 
is sterile. For his daily life today doesn't 
force him to display any more than a 
skill or two. The rest can wither un- 
noticed, until he becomes, to any but the 
primary circle in which he moves, a nar- 
row, inept, fussy individual who speaks 
only one social language. An executive, 
to be successful, cannot allow this to 

He helps to prevent this starvation of 
self by understanding and properly 
using a hobby an activity half-way be- 
tween hard work and play. It is one 
area left where he can be as crazily 
unique as he pleases without fear of con- 
demnation, where he need feel no pres- 
sure to conform, and where he can ini- 
tiate and control action exactly as he 
desires with no hints from his employer 
or his community. 

In this area of living, he finds an ego 
builder ("a hobby makes everybody 
somebody") ; and a safe and sane way 
to live with his limitations. 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Wort o TV ate* 

/ * a swimming pool or beach has the 
choice of offering a public service or 
maintaining an attractive nuisance. No 
facility or program is more popular and 
none imposes greater responsibility for 
the protection of the user. 

Swimming and water sports are a 
part of a broad recreation program. The 
underlying principles and philosophy 
are the same for swimming as for base- 
ball, golf, picnicking, arts and crafts, 
skating, or playgrounds. Satisfaction 
comes from participation, the physical 
exercise involved, relationships with 
others (the social element) , develop- 
ment of skills or achievement. It can 
include competition and certainly re- 
quires cooperation. It is essentially an 
individual activity and each person can 
participate and find enjoyment on the 
level of his own capacity and interest. 
That is why good recreational swim- 
ming pools are designed to provide op- 
portunities for the dub as well as the 
expert, and for all stages in between. 

To a high degree, water activities 
combine many of the most desirable 
characteristics of constructive recrea- 
tion. They are a natural for family par- 
ticipation; they can be enjoyed equally 
by the very young and the very old. 
There is almost no limit to the skills that 
can be acquired. They are of interest 
to spectators as well as those who take 
part. They promote good health and 
safety. They offer opportunities for 
special events, shows, carnivals, fiestas 
and exhibitions, many forms of games, 
contests and relays. The aesthetic ele- 
ment is present in everything from 
graceful swimming, well-executed dives, 
to synchronized swimming. They are 
relatively inexpensive. They bring to- 
gether a whole neighborhood or com- 
munity and promote civic morale and 

Condensed from a talk delivered at the Kan- 
sas Beach and Pool Conference, December 
1954, by Arthur Todd, field representative for 
the National Recreation Association. 

Arthur Todd 

well-being. As much as any of the other 
activities, they fulfill the purposes of 
recreation to refresh, renew, re-create. 

The direction of such a program, in 
order to fully achieve these objectives, 
requires sound administration, quali- 
fied leadership, specially trained per- 
sonnel, promotion and publicity, pro- 
gram planning, good maintenance, and 
special attention to all matters of hy- 
giene and safety. The degree to which 
these responsibilities are discharged de- 
termines the extent to which the pro- 
gram is of service to the public. 

The operation of a public facility 
should be as efficient as any business in 
which profit is the motive. Successful 
commercial operators have learned that 
courtesy, public relations, and attention 
to all the wishes of their clients pay 
dividends. They work hard for good 
will because it increases profits. 

Those of us performing public serv- 
ices are in a position to go even further. 
Our plans and decisions are based ex- 
clusively upon whether they are in the 
public interest, whether they will bene- 
fit people and whether the people will 
like them. There is no weighing of per- 
sonal gain against public advantage. 
Public service means what it says and 
just because it is publicly supported 
does not mean that the service should 
be inferior, performed grudgingly, or 
be wanting in quality, style, or effi- 
ciency. Our rewards come from the 
knowledge that we have met human 
needs and have satisfied the desires of 
people, have contributed to their health 
and happiness, and have done it com- 
petently. We think in terms of people. 

Rules and Regulations 

Definite rules and regulations are an 
absolute necessity for the operation of 
pools and beaches. Obviously they are 
for the protection of the participants 
and accordingly should constantly be 
explained, together with the reasons for 
them. They should be posted conspicu- 

ously and stated positively and courte- 
ously whenever possible, and they 
should be kept to the minimum required 
to accomplish the purpose. Unless they 
are enforced they are worse than useless 
they are harmful. 

This means that they must be known 
and understood by the personnel who 
have the responsibility of enforcing 
them, an important part of whose job is 
the maintenance of a safe, clean, and at- 
tractive environment. It means that pool 
personnel must not only know the rules 
but be able to secure their observance 
at all times with firmness and cordiality. 
This takes skill in handling people, in 
knowing what to do about discipline 
problems, in anticipating trouble and 
preventing it before it happens, in know- 
ing when to get tough and act decisively 
and when to warn and suggest. 

Effective supervision cannot be ex- 
pected without definite rules governing 
the responsibilities of the personnel. The 
person who accepts a job of this kind 
commits himself to responsibility for 
the lives of people. He must maintain 
a constant vigilance on the job. He 
should welcome rigid and detailed regu- 
lations regarding his own behavior. He 
should be glad to know exactly what is 
expected of him because, in spite of 
every effort to anticipate all the prob- 
lems and emergencies, he still may be 
forced to use his own judgment at times. 


This subject can only be touched 
upon at this time.* It involves enough 
to warrant an entire meeting or even a 

The operation of public recreation 
facilities, including swimming pools, is 
held to be either a governmental or a 
proprietary function, and states vary in 
their attitude depending upon court de- 

* Anyone who wishes to pursue this subject 
further should read the book, Liability in Pub- 
lic Recreation, by Dyer and Lichtig, published 
in 1949 by C. C. Nelson Publishing Company. 

MARCH 1955 


cisions or liability cases. Where recre- 
ation is considered to be governmental, 
it is held that, since this service or facil- 
ity is maintained by the local govern- 
ment as a necessary function for the 
welfare or benefit of the public, it can- 
not be held liable for accidents that may 
occur. This goes back to the old con- 
cept that "the king can do no wrong." 

The proprietary interpretation holds 
that, in performing this service or 
maintaining the facility, the govern- 
ment is assuming the role of a private 
operator, that the program attracted 
people to it and consequently liability 
is assumed and damages must be paid 
in case of accident. The fact that there 
are fees or charges does not necessarily 
affect the decision if the income is used 
to help maintain the facility or program. 

Court decisions within a given state 
are not necessarily consistent so that in 
some states there is no clear cut distinc- 
tion, making it impossible to predict the 
outcome of a new case. In fact, there is 
no assurance that precedents will be 
followed, and there has been consider- 
able shifting, usually away from the 
governmental concept. 

There also has tended to be a shift 
nationally from governmental to pro- 
prietary. This seems to have been a re- 
sult, in large part, of the feeling that 
exemption from liability tends to en- 
courage negligence and that people 
should have recourse when they have 
suffered accidents. Negligence always 
must be proven before damages are 

Aside from the legal aspects we must 
recognize the moral liability that is in- 
herent in operating pools and beaches. 
There is no escaping it. It is no service 
to anyone to disregard people's safety 
through carelessness, negligence, ignor- 
ance, or for any other reason. This 
heavy responsibility devolves upon 
every employee and cannot be impress- 
ed upon them too strongly. It is not 
enough to talk about it in the abstract. 
The point is to do everything that can 
be done to meet all standards. This can 
and must be done. 

Selling the Value of the Facility 
to City Administration 

The best promoter of swimming fa- 
cilities in Kansas is something with 
powers beyond our puny efforts the 

weather. Nothing in the way of the 
written or spoken word, facts and fig- 
ures, demonstrations or exhibits, is 
nearly as convincing as a few days of 
one hundred degrees in the shade. 

There are, however, some gilt-edged 
arguments for pools which can hardly 
be ignored. A number of them have 
been mentioned here. These and others, 
which we could easily compile, should 
be presented in an effective way to both 
public officials and the general public. 

Other Facts 

About 7,500 people drown each year 
because of inability to save themselves. 
A large percentage of these could have 
been saved if they had been taught even 
the rudiments of water safety and swim- 
ming. The ability to swim will widen 
an individual's hobbies to include boat- 
ing, fishing, sailing and other water 
sports. Good swimming and safety must 
be learned. A well-planned pool and a 
management or administration which 
stresses and promotes a good instruc- 
tional program is a real public service. 

A swimming pool ranks at the top of 
the list in popularity of facilities. There- 
fore, it is one of the best public rela- 
tions assets that a city can have. Usual- 
ly a pool is a magnet which draws peo- 
ple into a community; it can be a good 
business proposition for the town. These 
are some of the things that should be 
explained in the selling of a local pool 
in the many ways at our disposal. 

Training of All Staff Members 

The only known way to carry out an 
adequate program of pool operation and 
management is through the training of 
the personnel. It goes without saying 
that all the personnel should be care- 
fully selected in the first place. They 
must be trained for the particular jobs 
they are to perform. 

They need to know just what those 
jobs are in detail. This calls for job de- 
scriptions. This information, in writ- 
ing, helps in the selection of workers 
and in their supervision; it helps the 
manager organize the program of work; 
and it helps the workers know what their 
responsibilities are. It becomes a basis 
for the training program. 

Life guards should have refresher 
courses before the pool opens. All em- 
ployees should meet prior to the open- 

ing to learn about pool procedures, rules 
and regulations, and to discuss them. 
The training should include discussions 
on public relations, handling the pub- 
lic, problems of discipline, emergencies 
and how to prevent them. This pre- 
training program should not be con- 
densed to the point of being superficial. 
It should be planned carefully. 

The pre-training alone is not enough. 
Regular weekly in-service training ses- 
sions are also necessary to keep things 
going smoothly, to take up problems 
that inevitably arise, to plan the special 
events, and to improve the service. 

RECREATION Magazine Articles 
on Swimming Pools and Activities 


Shields May 1950 


George D. Butler April, May 1951 


Reardon April 1951 


and Sam Basan May 1952 

WATER SHOWS, Nathan L. Mallison, June 1953 

POOL, V. H. Krieser November 1953 


Birkhead April 1953 


Eric W. Mood April 1954 


Nelson Bryant June 1954 


June 1954 


Gremley November 1954 


Myron C. Hendrick January 1954 


January 1954 

TION January 1954 


January, February, March, April 1954 







In Recreation Grace 

From an address on the panel of Well-Rounded 
Program at the 36th National Recreation 

WORDS ARE what we make them. They may be packed 
with meaning or wrung dry. And there are levels of 
meaning. For example, the word re-creation. If we look at 
the word creation, it may refer to a hat or to the beginning 
of the world. The latter is an awesome connotation but if 
we look at it as building, then the word re-creation has a 
friendly sound like rebuild, renew, refresh. The words art 
and create have top levels of meaning that take us up into the 
rarer atmospheres. These words applied, however, acquire 
less austere meaning. Names are words and meaningless 
until the name is known for its character. When a new trend 
emerges it is named to differentiate it: "The New Look," 
"The New Deal," "Progressive Education," "The Creative 
Arts." In the process of adoption of new trends or ideas 
some of the original design and purpose is lost or changed. 
We must constantly redefine meaning and test results. 

The word recreation has fared well. It has grown from 
walk-on to starring role in the national scene. It must have 
been one of the first names to incorporate within itself the 
creative idea. 

The word which is the keynote for my comments is crea- 
tive. This word is enjoying a long run, but it has been used 
carelessly so often it does not have the impact that it ought 
to have. What we must do then is to make results measure 
up to the original standard and intentions of the people who 
first found it serviceable. When Hughes Mearns * was asked 
many years ago what he called his kind of teaching, he was 
silent and then he said: "You might call it a creative ap- 
proach to education." What was Mearns doing that was 
different, that required a label? It was a difference in em- 
phasis and concept. He changed the emphasis from subject 
matter to child. He was "teaching individuals not geogra- 
phy." Here was a concept of education not as facts but as 
needs. When Winifred Ward first conceived the idea that 

* Dr. Hughes Mearns, who has been a source of inspiration and 
guidance to teachers and leaders of children for many years, is the 
author of Creative Youth, The Creative Adult, and Creative Power. 

Children's need for what art experience can provide is so 
great we must equip leaders with constructive attitudes 
toward the arts. Recreation can lead this field of service. 

dramatics belonged in the school program, in order to dis- 
tinguish educational dramatics from exhibitionary drama- 
tics, she called it creative dramatics. The need for a dis- 
tinguishing label is apparent. When dancers since Isadora 
Duncan and Ruth St. Denis recognized dance as a natural 
joyous medium of expression for children, they called it 
creative dance. Dances were not learned, but created. 

From these uses of the word creative, we gather certain 
implications, a relationship to education, a relationship to 
the arts, and- a relationship to children. An integrating pro- 
cess is suggested by these inter-relationships and a means 
by which we may arrive at the art of living. The factors in- 
volved in this process are education, the individual's source 
of supply, and expression, our source of release "intake 
and outgo." 

The very principles of recreation are those of the creative 
approach: development of the individual, refreshment and 
stimulation, opportunity for release. Recreation has become 
recognized not as a thing apart from education but as a vital 
means of learning. It takes place not only on the play field, 
but wherever there is opportunity for personal enrichment 
for fulfillment. And the rich recreation program provides 
many of these opportunities through the creative arts. 

Recreation itself has demonstrated the fact that artistic 
expression makes all we do more effective. Physical rhyth- 
mic execution of a task or a movement saves time, eases 
strains. The sense of fitness and appropriateness preserves 
beauty, makes order itself a thing of beauty. Singing while 
we work or play makes for happy experience. Recreation 
has been coordinating for years; but it can incorporate, it 
can emphasize the arts to an even greater extent. 

When we speak of the creative arts, we are talking of per- 
sonal expression, communication and satisfactions by means 
of music, movement, acting, painting, drawing, modeling. 

GRACE STANISTREET is the director of the Adelphi Children's 
Theatre at Adelphi College, Garden City, New York. 

MARCH 1955 


We are not talking of busy work or of skills. We do not 
necessarily refer to classes an painting or dramatics but of 
opportunities to learn by doing what is natural for us to do. 
What is recreation but doing things we enjoy? What do 
children enjoy? They enjoy projecting themselves beyond 
themselves and in so doing, they grow. They paint, they act, 
they sing, they dance. They need to do these things. With- 
out opportunity and encouragement they stop doing them. 
Many adults know the hurt of not being able to satisfy needs 
similar to these. 

One of the reasons for some lack of interest in the arts 
for children is because of the emphasis on self-expression. 
Self-expression is a distasteful word to some because they 
interpret it as undisciplined activity. In reality, artistic ex- 
pression requires self -discipline of the highest order. If we 
desire to express, we have purposeful expression, meaning- 
ful expression. Expression is the result of knowledge and of 
experience, and an indication of a free person. Recreation's 
major concern is to free people. 

I am convinced that acting experience is important for 
all children. The more indirectly they receive the oppor- 
tunity, and the more it is tied in with all they do, the more 
valuable the experience. Acting is not a subject to be studied 
by children ; but acting as doing, as behavior, as fun, should 
be part of living for children. 

How are they to get this opportunity? Through their 
leaders and teachers who may not be actors or students of 
theatre but who recognize how valuable it is to capitalize 
on this natural response to life, to guide children to a way 

of life. Here is a teacher who in teaching geography drama- 
tizes, makes the whole country alive on an imaginary bus 
trip. Here is a scout leader who draws her group together 
with a project, something to entertain a group of handi- 
capped children. 

In the course of this development, the members of the 
group discover themselves and their community. They learn 
to take responsibility, they learn to apply many kinds of 
knowledge. This is what we call an integrating experience. 
We know today the dangers of departmentalization. We 
know from bitter experience we cannot be self-sufficient and 
we cannot separate learnings ; but, rather, we must integrate 
learnings and learning with life. 

Of course the special arts program has a place when 
skilled art teachers are available, when children are ready 
with interest and desire, when sponsorship can support such 
a program. But the need of the many children for what art 
experience can provide is so great that we can best satisfy 
this need by equipping leaders and teachers with construc- 
tive attitudes towards the arts, techniques of using them, 
and belief in their importance. 

Recreation, because of its positive attitude toward the 
creative arts, because of its present achievement in the area, 
can lead in this field of service. Recreation leaders can 
subtly educate a public beginning to sense the full meaning 
of the word. Leaders can, by direct approach to educators, 
achieve cooperation from the colleges and universities for 
training programs that will equip future leaders who can, 
in their time, fulfill the promise of the name recreation. 


Airman finishes stitching on 
purse in a one-week course at 
a recent Fifth Communication 
Group Hobby Craft School. 

Hobbies to the rescue again ! At isolated communication 
stations in Korea, personnel of the Fifth Air Force have 
had their hobby craft programs expanded by a course which 
has provided craft instructors for many sites where only a 
few men are stationed. Men from twenty-four posts of the 
Fifth Communication and 502nd Tactical Control Groups 
attended a one-week hobbycraft school, taught by Miss 
Raleigh Marks of Washington, D. C., at the headquarters 
of the Fifth Communication Group. The men, who were re- 
lieved from regular duties by site commanders to attend the 
school, have become the crafts instructors at their own sites 


during off-duty hours. The course was given in two one- 
week sections, one for each of the two units. 

Leatherwork and coppercraft were featured in the school, 
each man completing both a leather and a copper project. 
These included leather purses, belts, and wallets, many with 
intricate carving. The copper items included plaques, medal- 
lions, and ash trays, all of them polished and lacquered to a 
high luster. Emphasis was placed on the techniques of in- 
structing as well as the crafts skills. A display of all the 
items made climaxed the Hobby Crafts School. 

Miss Raleigh Marks helps with intricate tooling in course train- 
ing twenty-four men to be craft instructors at lonely sites. 






Recreation as a Function of Government in Virginia 

This report* by James E. Pate, professor of political sci- 
ence, College of William and Mary, consisting of ninety type- 
written pages and including numerous charts and tabula- 
tions, is very comprehensive and could act as a guide to 
state departments and state organizations other than those in 
Virginia. It shows how the Inter-Agency Committee on Rec- 
reation was created by executive order of the governor of 
Virginia and includes the functions of such committees. Or- 
ganizations and personnel contributing to the report are 
authorities familiar with Virginia problems and interests. 

The report recognizes that the program should function 
through all types of agencies, public, private, and commer- 
cial. Many times the commercial side of recreation is almost 
forgotten in such studies. 

It further recognizes that recreation deals with people. 
It devotes considerable space to bringing to the attention of 
the committee information on population growth, age 
spreads, relationship of urban to rural populations, employ- 
ment, business trends and characteristics of the people. 

Delinquency and criminal acts as committed were studied 
with a view to determining whether recreation acts as a pre- 
ventive. Mental disease was also studied for leads to possi- 
ble relationship. Particular recognition was given to federal 
recreation activities in Virginia and to recreation activities 
of state agencies. 

Often missed in an article of this kind, written from the 
state level, is the point of view of local communities and how 
they serve adjacent communities and accept the services of 
state agencies and organizations. A section of the report 
devoted to information of this nature shows clearly the im- 
mediate need of cooperation and coordination on all levels 
of government. 

In discussing the various state divisions, the report not 
merely records the information submitted by the divisions, 
but in many cases suggests problems that should be solved 
and certain adjustments to their thinking that should be 
made. Recommendations are made throughout the report. 
ROBERT L. BLACK, Recreation Section, Missouri Division 
of Resources and Development. 

Recreation in California 

This report, compiled by the State Recreation Commis- 
sion, contains comprehensive data on finances and person- 
nel of public recreation agencies in the state for the years 
1953-1954 and 1954-1955. The figures relate only to public 
recreation and park agencies providing year-round services. 

* Prepared for the Inter-Agency Committee on Recreation, Rich- 
mond, Virginia, December 1953. 

MARCH 1955 

George D. Butler 

The amounts budgeted for operating costs to recreation 
departments and combined recreation and park agencies in 
1954-55 are summarized as follows : 

Recreation Agencies 

Recreation and 
Park Agencies 

Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 





























Population Range 

(and number of 
cities reporting) 
1,000 5,000 (76) 
5,000 10,000 (23) 
10,000 20,000 (46) 
20,000 30,000 (22) 
30,000 50,000 ( 9) 
50,000100,000 (11) 
Over 100,000 (10) 

A separate table recorded the park services in 87 cities and 
counties also rendering year-round recreation services. The 
total amount budgeted for the park agencies for 1954-1955 
was $8,518,084 for operation and $1,365,246 for capital pur- 
poses. Comparable figures for 204 recreation agencies, in- 
cluding combined recreation and park agencies, were $35,- 
625,389 for operation and $6,083,384 for capital items. 

Other sections of the report deal with administrative titles, 
employment practices, employed personnel and rates of pay 
in selected recreation positions. The personnel reported by 
203 public recreation agencies included 147 full-time and 
56 part-time administrators, 49 full-time and 12 part-time 
assistant administrators, 233 full-time and 188 part-time and 
seasonal supervisors. In addition 745 full-time recreation 
leaders and specialists were reported; 4,538 such workers 
employed part-time and 5,056 others employed on a sea- 
sonal basis. 

Golf Course Information 

The National Golf Foundation, Inc., 407 S. Dearborn 
Street, Chicago 5, Illinois, has issued a report entitled "Aver- 
age Income and Operating Costs of Municipal Golf Courses." 
This contains detailed information with references to more 
than thirty nine-hole courses and some eighty eighteen-hole 
courses. Detailed information is given for most of the 
courses, as to green fees, season tickets, length of season, 
number of employees, salaries of workers, revenue and oper- 
ating costs. 

The average annual income and operating costs are sum- 
marized as follows : 

9-Hole Courses 

18-Hole Courses 


Average Total 

Average Total 

Average Total Average Total 







500,000 Up 





100,000 to 500,000 





50,000 to 100,000 





10,000 to 50,000 





Under 10,000 





MR. BUTLER is director of the NRA Research Department. 




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People in the News 

MARK A. McCLOSKEY was recently 
appointed chairman of the New York 
State Youth Commission by Governor 
Averell Harriman and in his new post 
will coordinate efforts of private, state, 
and local government agencies to com- 
bat delinquency. Mr. McCloskey has 
been director of community education 
activities for the New York City Board 
of Education and has served as director 
of recreation for the Federal Security 
Agency and director of the Office of 
War Community Services. 

New York's Youth Commission was 
originally created to study and analyze 
youth problems and the prevention of 
delinquency. It also provides state 
financial aid to municipalities for youth 
bureaus and education and recreation 
projects. More than 800 communities 
in the state operate youth projects. 

The Omaha, Nebraska, Park and 
Recreation Commission marked the 
close of the city's centennial observ- 
ances in December by naming a new 
park for MRS. PAUL GALLAGHER, a for- 
mer chairman of the commission, who 
is a member of the board of directors 
of the National Recreation Association. 
The Rachel K. Gallagher Park will be 
dedicated during the coming summer. 
Mrs. Gallagher, in recalling the efforts 
to preserve the park as a public area, 
stated, "So much 'blood, sweat and 
tears' have gone into saving that piece 
of ground for joyful use that it is almost 
like having a battlefield as a namesake." 

VINCENT J. HEBERT, superintendent 
of recreation and parks in Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, was recently honored 
with a distinguished civic service award 
by the city's Jaycees. Mr. Hebert was 
cited as a man "who through his lead- 
ership inspired the employees and vol- 

unteers of the recreation and parks de- 
partment to build the finest recreational 
program in the state." He received par- 
ticular mention for opening new pro- 
jects at Allendale Playground, Onota 
and Pontoosuc Lake developments, and 
for the expansion of instruction and 
general community programs. 

RAYMOND L. QUIGLEY, president of 
the ABC California Amateur Baseball 
Congress and former director of recrea- 
tion in Fresno for thirty-nine years, re- 
cently won two honors for his years of 
public service. The Fresno Fraternal 
Order of Eagles presented him with a 
civic citation for his work in developing 
the city's recreation program, and the 
board of park commissioners recom- 
mended to the city council that it name 
a recently authorized ten-acre park and 
playground in his honor. 

HAROLD G. MANCHESTER is the first 
director of the newly created depart- 
ment of parks and recreation in Dear- 
born, Michigan. Consolidation of the 
park and recreation functions in Dear- 
born was approved by popular vote last 

BUFORD BUSH has returned to his for- 
mer position as a recreation specialist 
representing the California State Rec- 
reation Commission in the communities 
of San Joaquin and Southern California 

UDF Meetings 

The United Defense Fund will hold 
its annual meeting in Washington, D.C. 
on April 18 and 19. Eight regional 
meetings will be conducted shortly 
thereafter during April and May. 

National Publicity for Recreation 

The importance of community rec- 
reation and the work of the National 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Recreation Association was highlighted 
in a radio program, "The Search That 
Never Ends" over the four hundred sta- 
tion network of the Mutual Broadcast- 
ing Company. 

"The Town That Woke Up" was the 
title of the half -hour program produced 
by the Mutual Broadcasting System in 
cooperation with the Institute of Life 
Insurance. In documentary style the 
program showed how many people lead 
empty lives and how an organized reo 
reation program helps give impetus and 
direction to their energies. Joseph Pren- 
dergast was featured as a guest speaker. 

A half-hour TV show over the RCA 
coast-to-coast network was devoted to a 
discussion of the philosophy of play and 
recreation by Joseph Brown of Prince- 
ton University. The program, "Shaping 
Things and Vice Versa" is one in a se- 
ries of education programs sponsored 
by the network and Princeton Univer- 

Playground devices invented by Pro- 
fessor Brown and shown on the pro- 
gram were introduced at a general ses- 
sion of the 35th National Recreation 
Congress in St. Louis, and have been 
featured since in RECREATION magazine 
(December 1954) and Sports Illus- 
trated (November 1, 1954). 

Dates to Remember 

Pan American Day on April 14 
marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of the 
First International Conference of Amer- 
ican States which met in Washington to 
create a league of American nations 
from which has evolved the present-day 
Organization of American States. For 
ideas, materials, and literature to help 
celebrate Pan-American Day contact 
the Pan American Union, Washington 
6, D.C. For other ideas regarding com- 
munity observances of this event con- 
sult such National Recreation Associa- 
tion publications as Our Neighbors to 
the South (MP 310 $.15) and Pan- 
American Carnival (MP 312 $.35). 

National Hobby Month (April) car- 
ries the slogan: "Hobbies Tighten the 
Family Circle." The month's activities 
will be divided into four parts: "Na- 
tional Arts and Crafts Week," April 
1-7; "National Model Building Week," 
April 8-15; "National Do-It-Yourself 

* Affiliated with the National Recreation 

Week," April 16-23; and "National 
Photography Week," April 24-30. 

News of Affiliated Societies * 

The Indiana Park and Recreation As- 
sociation has adopted plans for a state- 
wide TV publicity campaign using 
slides and spot announcements to point 
up the importance of park and recrea- 
tion work over the state's twelve sta- 

At a meeting of the Colorado Recrea- 
tion Society, it was decided that mem- 
bers of that organization would wear 
western garb during the National Rec- 
reation Congress in Denver from Sep- 
tember 27 to October 1, and that all 
members should urge full participation 
by their staffs, committees and boards. 
It looks as though congress delegates 
are in for a demonstration of real west- 
ern hospitality and color. 



John J. Downing, director of recrea- 
tion of the New York City Department 
of Parks died on January 31. He had 
been an employee of the department for 
forty-one years. Actively interested in 
amateur athletics, he had been president 
of the Metropolitan Amateur Athletic 
Union and at the time of his death was 
second vice-president of the National 

As a member of the National Recrea- 
tion Association's Committee on Stand- 
ards in Playground Apparatus, Mr. 
Downing contributed to the preparation 
of a report issued in 1931 that for many 
years exerted a wide influence on play- 
ground development and is still referred 
to as a valuable guide. At the time of 
his death Mr. Downing was serving on 
the Association's International Recrea- 
tion Service Committee. 


Fred Cooper, for the past thirty-one 
years superintendent of recreation for 
the department of parks and public 
property, Trenton, New Jersey, died on 
January 6. Mr. Cooper had been asso- 
ciated with the department since 1909 
when he worked as a volunteer. He was 
an ardent enthusiast of soccer and was 
the author of the "substitute" rule and 
is also credited as having introduced 
the "pass" in basketball. 



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MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


A Testing Program 

Vincent L. Fowler 

Great advance has been made in presenting organized 
baseball programs for boys at various age levels. All have 
specific advantages and disadvantages characteristic of ac- 
tivity programs of this nature. Our own baseball program 
is conducted by the Cortland Recreation Commission as an 
integral phase of the summer recreation program. 

In 1949 the boys' baseball program was organized for 
participants of various age levels. Thus we had four classi- 
fications: Grasshopper League for boys twelve years of age 
and under; Midget League for boys thirteen and fourteen 
years old ; Junior League for youths fifteen and sixteen years 
of age, and Senior League for lads nineteen years old and 
under. As the season progressed, this program presented 
several indications and trends. The most important trend 
was the fact that boys in organizing squad personnel did so 
strictly on the basis of ability, the ultimate result being that 
all the best players banded together on one or two squads 
in each classification. This obviously resulted in lopsided 
victories for a few teams, humiliating defeats for all others. 

No participants benefited from this program to any ex- 
tent. Instead of attracting all possible participants to the 
play areas, we were in reality accomplishing the opposite. 
A study of the facts proved that forfeits were directly at- 
tributable to this failure of basic organization structure. 
No one enjoys being "trounced," and actually very few peo- 
ple derive much satisfaction from an easy victory. The 
number of participants indicated that interest was highest 
in the young classification and gradually decreased as the 
groups advanced to older classifications. 

To rectify these problems so our baseball program would 
achieve the objectives for which it was organized, several 
alterations were necessary. The recreation department em- 
ployed a well-qualified and respected individual, Carl "Chug- 
ger" Davis, as boys' baseball director. Mr. Davis has been 
physical education instructor and coach at Cortland State 

MR. FOWLER is director of recreation, Cortland, New York. 

Teachers College since 1929. He is a graduate of Missouri 
State Teachers College and Springfield College. 

Utilizing the information and data we had compiled on 
previous league standings, participants, forfeits, and aver- 
ages, we decided that a baseball school was necessary in 
order to achieve the objectives of the community recreation 
program. This was organized. Each morning boys in the 
age group of twelve years and under would participate in 
group drills and motor ability skills. Afternoons were de- 
voted to older boys divided into two sections, fifteen years 
and under, and nineteen years and under. Adjustments in 
the level of baseball instruction were of a nature suited to 
the specific age group difference.* 

Equipment. Batting tees were improvised from discarded 
gallon buckets, broom handles, and bicycle tires. These were 
constructed at various heights depicting the different levels 
at which the pitcher makes his delivery. Wetting down the 
sand filled buckets prior to usage aided in retaining the ex- 
tension handles in place. 

Rectangular pitching targets were also constructed from 
two lengths of baling wire stretched between two anchor 
sites. (We used a nine-gauge wire-fence tennis backstop 
and light pole for anchorage.) Spaced approximately ten 
feet apart, targets were formed between the suspended wires. 
These were made of white or yellow twine and represented 
the rectangular target seventeen inches wide across home 
plate and the distance between the batter's armpits and knees 
in normal batting stance. Wire loops were made at the 
points of anchorage. At both ends of the suspended wire 
lengths, a light coil-spring and spring-snap were attached. 
Thus, the entire rig could be assembled or taken down in a 
few moments. Catchers could be utilized behind the target 
with no danger of being struck by deflected balls (usually 
the result of taut wire). 

This testing device was made more realistic by improvis- 
ing home plates and pitching rubbers from ends of orange 
crates and painting them white. These were each secured 
to the ground by two marine spikes and tamped to surface 
level, and they could be set down or removed with economy 
of time and effort. 

* Baseball School Outline available upon request from Mr. Fowler, 
Recreation Commission, Cortland, New York. 



Evaluation. The testing program was an individualized 
subjective evaluation. Each lad was observed, and his me- 
chanical kinesthetic reactions analyzed in skill tests utilizing 
the improvised testing devices previously mentioned. Sup- 
plementing the batting test from the stationary tee, and the 
control pitch, were skill tests in fielding ground balls and 
infield throw (combined) , and the fielding of flyballs and the 
long throw (combined). 

Every participant was given a rating on a scale which in- 
dicated values of: one above average; two average; three 
below average. It was considered essential that each par- 
ticipant be tested and judged in his specific age group. The 
most important finding in Cortland's testing program was 
that a definite cleavage was found in the age bracket twelve 
years and under. This prompted a further division in our 
instruction programs. Boys eight to ten years were organized 
into a nine o'clock section, and those eleven to twelve into a 
ten-thirty section. This marked inability of boys ten and 
under to compare favorably with boys eleven and twelve, 
caused us to revamp our age groups for league play also. 






5 strikes out of 10 pitches 



7 assists out of 10 chances 



6 accurate throws out of 10 chances 



4 hits out of 10 times at bat 


* 4 

Fly Balls 

4 catches out of 10 chances 


Out Field 

3 accurate throws out of 10 chances 



2 fair bunts in 10 attempts 


NAME Johnny Jones AGE 9 years YEAR 1953 

Selection of Squads 

Having made the basic subjective test evaluations, Mr. 
Davis, John Moiseichik, playground supervisor and phy- 
sical education teacher in Cortland's elementary schools, 
and the author proceeded to select squads of fifteen boys. 
Consideration was given to individual rating and age in 
the selection of each player. Using an alphabetized list of 
participants in each group, we equalized teams as nearly as 
possible. For instance : Adams John, age twelve, rating two, 
was assigned to team number one in his age classification. 

Carl "Chugger" Davis, left, helps Mike McDermott's bat- 
ting. Instruction is adapted to participants' age levels; 
the boys are divided into three sections on this basis. 

We continued down the list until every team in that classi- 
fication was assigned a player, age twelve, rating two. Parti- 
cipants rated one and three were assigned to each squad in 
a similar manner. With this method, teams in each age 
group were equalized as much as possible. 

Our organized league classifications resulted as follows: 
Pee Wee League, ten years and under ; Grasshopper League, 
eleven and twelve years; Junior League, thirteen, fourteen 
and fifteen years; Senior League, sixteen, seventeen, eight- 
een, and nineteen years. As the participant's age increased, 
the particular classification was inclusive of greater age 
range. This was an attempt to maintain the competitive level 
in direct relationship with the maturation period. 

To further check the chance of human error, three addi- 
tional days were devoted to playing under game conditions. 
To facilitate the process, three teams participated in each 
game. Team number one started in the field, rotated to ob- 
servation, and then batted. Rotation continued until all 
teams of a specific age classification had participated against 
one another. Obvious weaknesses or strengths necessitating 
adjustments in squad personnel were then made. 

In selection of squad personnel, possible problems had to 
be anticipated. Special consideration was given to assure 
each squad of capable catching and pitching. Successful 
operation was insured by placing on each squad two boys 
who had known or exhibited strong characteristics of lead- 
ership. In an effort to place importance on the acceptance 
of responsibility, all squads elected their own captains and 
co-captains. Surprisingly enough, all potential leaders whom 
we had placed on squad rosters were selected. 

In addition, each team had to appoint or elect three mem- 
bers to the "call committee." Each member of this commit- 
tee had the responsibility of informing four other teammates 
of each playing date, time, and location. These boys had to 
be individuals other than the captain and co-captain. Inter- 
est was constant and actually increased during the season. 

Sponsorship of any teams was procured through the ef- 
forts of that team. Selection and ordering of uniforms with- 
in the scope of the respective sponsors' generosity were team 
problems. Complete business transactions between sponsor, 

MARCH 1955 


Sports Equipment 

team, and sporting goods dealer were conducted and com- 
pleted by team members. Several teams earned money for 
T-shirts and caps by selling tickets to the Lions Club circus. 

In ventures of this nature, cooperative factions must have 
previous orientation as to what is to be expected. This was 
accomplished through the medium of public relations by the 
recreation department. This phase of the organized baseball 
program is important. A fine learning experience and ex- 
posure to future responsibilities were presented to the par- 
ticipants in a controlled situation. 

Our 1952 records and data concerned with the integrated 
summer playground program conclusively indicated mutual 
benefits for all participants in the baseball program. Attend- 
ance figures increased in all planned activities such as swim- 
ming instruction, golf, archery, crafts, and quiet games. 
This was, in part, attributable to evenly contested baseball 
games and league competition which originally attracted 
participants to play areas. This latter point is especially im- 
portant as boys would come to play baseball regardless of 
their individual native abilities, because each team encoun- 
tered successful experiences to some degree. Once on the 
play area, individuals were directed by competent recrea- 
tion leaders into other worthwhile leisure activities. 

This year, our integrated boys' baseball program gives 
every indication of being more instrumental in the develop- 
ment of a qualitative community recreation program. To a 
great extent, this reflects the organization efforts of the rec- 
reation commission and the essential community coopera- 
tion which insures maximum returns from maximum efforts. 



for the famous 

oval trade-mark 

on the bat 

you buy ... 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 





George D. Butler 

Spring day view of wading pool adjoining Barre, Vermont, 
swimming pool. Dimensions: 20 by 30 feet; 6 to 18 inches 
deep. Note shelters and benches for watching mothers. 

Basic Design Features 


Seating for Spectators 

Every pool, regardless of type, attracts persons who enjoy 
seeing others have a good time in the water. Fathers and 
mothers like to watch their children in the small neighbor- 
hood pool, and adults are more likely to bring groups of 
children to a pool if comfortable, shaded facilities, where 
they can sit and see the children, are provided nearby. Such 
facilities also help to make customers out of spectators. 

Special events such as swimming meets, water pageants, 
and aquatic carnivals attract great numbers of spectators to 
the large city pool, where ample seating facilities are essen- 
tial. The question of the amount and type of seating to be 
provided therefore must be considered in the planning of 
every pool in order that suitable space may be set aside for it. 

Permanent bleachers have been provided more often at 
the large pools designed for competitive and feature events 
than at smaller units, but there is evidence that seating fa- 
cilities increasingly are considered an essential pool fea- 
ture. Permanent seats are commonly supplemented by re- 
movable bleachers when special events are held. Seats 

MR. BUTLER, director of research for the NRA, is currently 
chairman of the Swimming Pool Study Committee of the 
Conference for National Cooperation in Aquatics. 

MARCH 1955 

We are pleased to announce that this 
series of articles will be extended to 
include Part IV which will appear in 
the April issue of RECREATION. 

should be on the west or south side of the pool so the sun 
will not be in the eyes of the spectators. A location near the 
deep end and at right angles to the diving boards is desirable. 
The roof of the bathhouse or filter building is used as a 
spectators' gallery at some pools, in which case access to the 
roof must be from outside the pool area. 

Spectator space should be entirely separated from that 
used by the bathers, preferably by a low fence that will not 
interfere with a view of the pool activities. If seating area 
is of concrete construction it should be sloped to a drain so 
it can be flushed with a hose without any water entering the 
area used by bathers. A low curb to prevent dirt from being 
carried into the pool area may be essential. 

The Wading Pool 

Swimming is a favorite form of family recreation and, in- 
creasingly, family groups are encouraged to use community 
pools. At some of these, with a minimum depth of a foot or 
less, a portion of the shallow section is fenced off for use by 
small children. At others a concrete wall separates a shallow 
children's area from the main pool. Since the minimum 
water depth in most pools is three feet or more, however, 
they obviously are not suitable for use by very young chil- 
dren. Consequently, there is a growing tendency to con- 
struct a separate wading pool as an adjunct to the swimming 
pool. The wading pool is usually completely enclosed by a 
fence in order to prevent the young children from wander- 
ing into the swimming pool area. The wading pool is com- 
monly located in an area adjoining the swimming pool deck 
so that parents using the pool can easily see their children 
in the wading pool. Proximity to the toilets in the bathhouse 
is desirable. 

Dimensions of the wading pool are usually twenty by thir- 
ty feet or more and the water depth commonly varies from 
six to twenty inches. The pool bottom should not slope more 
than one foot in fifteen. A paved walk several feet wide 
should surround the pool, and paving of the entire area with- 
in the pool enclosure is desirable. A concrete curb or coping 
a few inches high commonly extends around the edge of the 
pool. Benches should be provided along the fence for the 


use of mothers who bring their children to the pool, and a 
pergola or canvas shelter is sometimes erected to afford 
shade for them. A sand beach or court is a great attraction 
and provides valuable play opportunities; a sand trap is es- 
sential in a pool adjoining a sand area. 

It is customary at playground wading pools to have a con- 
tinuous flow of water into the pool while in use and to empty 
and clean the pool daily. When part of a swimming pool 
installation, however, the wading pool can be tied in with 
the recirculation system and filled with chlorinated water at 
the proper temperature. The water can thus be kept clean 
and purified, and the possibility of pollution that exists in 
the fill-and-draw type of pool is eliminated. Inlets are often 
installed that enable the water to be brought into the pool in 
the form of showers or fountain sprays a popular feature 
if the water is not too cold. In some wading pools the water 
is not returned to the filters, but the pool is emptied daily 
and refilled with treated water. 

The Bathhouse 

The bathhouse is an essential feature of every outdoor 
pool development except where the pool adjoins a building 
which can provide the needed facilities. It is more readily 
seen by the passerby than is the pool itself and should there- 
fore be so designed as to present an attractive appearance 
appropriate to the site and in harmony with the pool and its 
related facilities. The building should be readily accessible 
from the street and the parking area. It is often advisable 
to place the bathhouse where it will protect the pool from 
prevailing winds. Most authorities believe it should be at 
the shallow end of the pool so as to reduce the likelihood that 
children and poor swimmers will thoughtlessly run from the 
building and jump into the deep water. 

Many bathhouses are of architectural concrete or of ce- 
ment blocks with a stucco finish materials which fit in with 
the construction of most pools. The building usually oc- 
cupies at least one third as much space as the water area of 
the pool. Bathhouse facilities are sometimes incorporated 
in a recreation building, in which case they serve a dual 
purpose and are used the year round. 

Several factors should influence the design and construc- 
tion of every bathhouse. It should be planned in such a way 
that it can be supervised and operated by a minimum staff. 
Units should be arranged so that circulation of bathers 
through the building and to and from the pool is easy and 
direct. Rooms should be light and well ventilated. Materials 
used should be impervious to moisture; and floors, walls, 
and equipment should be constructed so as to facilitate clean- 
ing. Interiors painted in various colored pastel shades are 
reported most satisfactory and least likely to be defaced. 

The chlorinator should be placed in a separate room, 
equipped with a device to assure ventilation of any escaping 
chlorine gas. In some cases the lobby and dressing rooms 
are planned so the equipment can be removed and the rooms 
used for group activities outside the swimming season. 

Essential units in the bathhouse are a lobby, which serves 
as a center of control, and separate dressing, shower, and 
toilet rooms for men and for women bathers. Additional 
facilities are a manager's office, first aid room, checkroom 

A 35- by 75-foot pool. Desirable changes in this would be 
wider decks, bathhouse at the shallow end, with wading 
pool near the bathhouse, and provision of bicycle racks. 

for bags or baskets, equipment storage room, room for pool 
staff, snack bar, and toilet rooms for non-bathers. The filters, 
heater, and chlorination apparatus are usually installed in 
the bathhouse. 

The size and type of pool determine the number, types and 
sizes of the facilities required at a particular pool. The 
Joint Committee on Bathing Places 1 has suggested the fol- 
lowing standards for certain facilities, based on the assump- 
tion that two thirds of the bathers present at any one time 
will be men: 

1 shower for each 40 bathers 
1 lavatory for each 60 bathers 
1 toilet for each 40 women 
1 toilet for each 60 men 
1 urinal for each 60 men 

In some sections there is a tendency to build dressing fa- 
cilities of an "open court" type as they are less expensive, 
the sun and air help in keeping them clean, and they are less 
susceptible to vandalism. 

Much useful literature is available on the planning and 
equipment of dressing, shower, and toilet rooms, but little 
has been written about the bathhouse lobby and checkroom. 
The following suggestions by C. P. L. Nicholls, municipal 
supervisor of aquatics in Los Angeles, are consequently of 
special interest : 

"The function of the lobby is to provide a place where fees are ac- 
cepted, tickets are issued, and if suits and towels are to be furnished 
they are given to patrons entering the pool over the counter provided. 
The lobby must therefore have a counter with spaces for checking 
valuables, space for a ticket machine, space for a changemaker or 
cash register, whichever system is to be used, and cupboards and 
closets to store cash report forms, and cubbyholes and boxes to store 
the valuables checked for safekeeping by patrons. 

"In the smaller pools the checking racks are stored behind this 
counter. The clothes are stored in plastic checking bags which are 
passed through the windows on each side of the counter from the boys' 
dressing room on one side and the girls' dressing room on the other. 
Appropriate baffles are arranged so that the checking personnel may 
not have a view of the dressing room in order to provide the necessary 
privacy for those using these spaces. It is customary in some installa- 
tions to provide electric outlets and wall space for vending machines. 
Wall space is also provided for bulletin boards, trophy cases, and also 
some bench space for those waiting for friends. 

"In small pools clothes are stored behind the counter space in the 
lobby room ; in large pools space for checkrooms must be provided on 
the boys' side and also on the girls' side. However, no matter where 
the checkrooms are located, the same square-foot area is required per 
bag, and in the planning of the checkrooms this factor must be kept 
in mind; for instance, for each bag checked 1.5 square feet may be 
allowed for each when two rows high of checking bags are planned." 

1 Design, Equipment and Operation of Swimming Pools and Other 
1'u I>1 ic Bathing Places, The American Public Health Association, 
New York, 1949. 



Large rectangular pool, Redwood City, California. The popu- 
larity of the shallow area, use of deck space and protective 
wall, and the need for additional seating facilities is apparent. 

Bags or baskets are now used more widely than lockers 
for the checking of bathers' clothing. Few dressing facilities 
are provided at the small neighborhood pools in several 
cities, because a majority of the bathers walk to the pool 
dressed for swimming. Shower as well as toilet facilities 
are essential, however, since a warm bath in the nude is con- 
sidered a "must" for bathers by many pool and health au- 

Site Requirements 

The preceding sections of this article have dealt primarily 
with the phases of pool design which are related to space and 
which determine the amount of area that must be set aside 
for this type of facility. The pool itself, the deck, sunning 
areas, seating facilities, wading pool, game courts, refresh- 
ment area, parking space, the bathhouse and its setting 
all are important elements in the well-rounded swimming 
center. Some of them may be omitted at a specific project, 
but they all should be considered in planning for the pool. 
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that, in selecting the 
site for a pool, sufficient space be available to meet these 
varied requirements. The problem cannot be solved by build- 
ing the pool in the corner of an over-crowded recreation 
area or on any other restricted site. An ample, well-chosen 
site, on the other hand, is a big factor in assuring a popular, 
successful pool. 

Pool Construction Factors 

The construction of an outdoor pool requires considera- 
tion of a large number of factors, some of which are ob- 
vious. Others, however, are sometimes overlooked until after 
the pool is put in use, when it is impossible or difficult to 
provide for them. A few of these factors will be mentioned 
briefly below. As previously stated, the construction of a 
pool should be undertaken only after a design has been pre- 
pared by a competent architect or engineer. Valuable infor- 
mation on construction details will be found in the bibli- 
ography to appear in the April issue of RECREATION. 

Type of Construction. A pool should be built of material 
that provides a watertight tank with a smooth, light-colored, 
and easily cleaned surface. Reinforced concrete (usually 
form poured) has been used most widely in the construction 

MARCH 1955 


of public pools. In recent years pneumatically applied rein- 
forced concrete, commonly known as gunite, has been used, 
especially for smaller pools in sections of the country which 
do not have extremely cold winters. Its cost is appreciably 
less than that of form-poured concrete. A precast steel- 
reinforced concrete pool consisting of a poured concrete 
floor and twenty-foot precast wall sections was constructed 
in 1954. Wall sections, complete with fittings set in the 
panels, were lowered in place after the floor was poured, then 
bolted tight. This type of construction, permitting as it does 
a drastic reduction in the time required to build a normal 
poured pool and a considerable saving in building costs, 
merits study. 

The use of steel for the walls and floor of pools is receiv- 
ing considerable attention and several such pools have been 
built by municipalities. Few, if any, of these municipal pools 
have been in use long enough to afford a basis for compar- 
ing them with concrete pools, as to ease of maintenance and 
length of life. The statement has been made that, so far, 
steel pools appear to have "a susceptibility to soil acids that 
cause leakage and rust." 2 A considerable difference of opin- 
ion prevails as to the comparative construction cost of steel 
and reinforced concrete pools. 

Regardless of the material used, it is desirable that the 
corners of the pool wall be rounded to facilitate cleaning. 
The number of expansion joints should be at a minimum. 

Finish. The lining of the pool walls and bottom should be 
of a white or light-colored material so that persons or ob- 
jects in the water will be clearly visible. Among the various 
materials used for finishing the concrete surface of a pool 
are white cement and silica sand smoothly finished, marble 
dust and chips mixed with sand and cement, and a plaster 
finish such as "silicite." Care must be taken to protect the 
finish of the pool during construction to prevent it from be- 
ing soiled or stained. 

Use of such materials makes it unnecessary to paint the 
walls and floor an operation that must be repeated every 
year or two. If the pool is painted, the recommendations of 
the manufacturer should be followed precisely. A white 
paint is generally believed to be most satisfactory although 
color is often used. Paint should be applied only to thor- 
oughly cleaned surfaces. 

Tile, terra cotta, and precast concrete slabs may be used 
for the inner lining, but, because of the cost, they are rarely 
used in municipal pools. Asphaltic materials do not show 
the dirt readily or make the bottom easily visible, so are not 
considered suitable for pool lining. 

Walh and Floors. Side and end walls of all pools should 
be vertical, as they can be be cleaned readily and are less of 
a hazard than sloping walls. As previously indicated, the 
poured reinforced concrete wall is most widely used and 
generally favored. Walls must be designed to withstand the 
water pressure from within when filled and the pressure of 
the surrounding earth when empty. 

Precautions must be taken to protect the walls and floor 

"American Municipal News. 


A 165-foot T-shaped pool in Morganton, North Carolina. 
Note wide decks, ample bleachers, and the deck area with 
snack bar over bathhouse. Designed by Charles M. Graves. 

against damage by frost or external water pressure through 
adequate subsurface drainage. The expansion joints in 
walls should be keyed and made watertight. In general, 
pool walls are not less than ten inches thick and floors not 
less than six inches thick. Thickness, as well as the amount 
of reinforcement needed, depends upon many local factors. 

Overflow Gutters and Copings. An overflow gutter or 
trough is an essential feature of every pool, and it is gener- 
ally recommended that it extend around the entire perimeter 
of the pool. The overflow serves to remove foreign matter 
from the pool surface and affords a handhold for tired swim- 
mers and for practicing strokes and kicking. 

Among several types of overflows, the following are typi- 
cal : inset, back-set, and open or roll-out. The accompanying 
sketch illustrates the general nature of these types. The 
inset gutter, long the most widely used, has the advantage 
of being recessed; it therefore does not interfere with the 
swimmer and he is unlikely to come in contact with waste 
materials entering it. It is reported to have a better wave 
reduction factor than the other two types a consideration 
in pools designed for competitive swimming. It is difficult 
to clean and repair, however, and has sometimes been built 
so that an arm may be caught in it. 

Widely installed in recent years, the back-set type differs 
chiefly in that it is more open and hence easier to clean. 
The roll-out gutter is entirely open to the light and is there- 
fore easy to clean. It does not afford as good a handhold 
as the other two types and unless it is fairly level it may 
make entry into the pool more difficult. On the other hand, 
it enables the swimmer to get out of the pool much more 
easily. An increasing number of pools are installing the roll- 
out type. In the Conference for National Cooperation in 
Aquatics study mentioned in Part I, more people indicated 
a preference for this than for any other type of gutter. 

In all three types the bottom of the gutter should pitch 
at least one-quarter-inch per foot between drains, which 
should be installed at intervals of not more than fifteen feet 
around the pool. In the inset and back-set overflows, the 
width of the trough opening is generally at least three inches 
and the depth at least four inches so the swimmers' fingers 
will not reach the bottom of the trough. The roll-out gutter 
is usually at least ten inches wide, so the swimmer may rest 
on it after leaving the pool. 

Many authorities recommend installation of a curb or 
coping along the edge of the pool deck above the gutter. 
This prevents much dirt from being blown or washed into 
the pool and allows the use of high-pressure water lines for 
washing the deck. The pool gutter is usually of concrete, 
although some are lined with tile. One pool designer highly 
recommends that the overflow gutter and coping be made 
of Indiana limestone which is cut at the quarry. Although 
more expensive than formed concrete, it fits into place more 
readily and is permanent. 

The flush deck pool, a relatively new type, has no gutter, 
trough, or coping. The water is kept at the level of the deck, 
so swimmers may readily pull themselves out of the water. 
The problem of cleaning gutters is also eliminated. Reported 
disadvantages are that a backstroke swimmer may find him- 
self on the pool deck, and that the deck is constantly wet, 
and therefore slippery, and inconvenient for persons teach- 
ing or officiating around the pool. Furthermore, dirt and 
other foreign matter are deposited on the deck instead of in 
the gutter where they are carried away quickly. 

Ladders and Steps. These, of corrosion-resistant materi- 
als, are essential to facilitate egress from the pool. They 
should be provided along each side of the deep end of a rec- 
tangular pool, preferably fifteen feet or more from the end. 
One or more additional ladders on each side are usually 
required, depending upon length of pool. At least one lad- 
der or recessed stair is needed near the shallow end if the 
minimum water depth is more than two feet. Ladders should 
not be placed at the ends of the pool. In a diving pool or 
bay, it is desirable to place them on the side opposite the 
boards or tower, so that divers may leave the water promptly 
after completing a dive. 

As a rule, ladders should have a handrail on either side 
at the top, leading out over the deck or coping, and be con- 
structed so they can be removed easily for repairs or when 
the pool is used for special or competitive events. The treads 
should be of non-slip material and built so a swimmer can- 
not catch his arms or legs between the ladder and the pool 
wall. In some cases the ladders are recessed, with step holes 
inserted in the pool walls. Where this is done, they should 
be designed to be cleaned readily. 

In case the area around the pool is uneven or the pool 
and the bathhouse are not on the same level, the use of ramps 
rather than steps is recommended, where feasible. 

The fourth and final article in this series will appear in the 
April issue and will cover additional construction factors, 
water recirculation and purification, other important con- 
siderations, and a selected bibliography. 



OUTDOOR MODEL For elementary school 
children of all ages; steel construction, 
8' 4" long, 6' 3' wide, with 10' 6' tower 

INDOOR MODEL For young children; 
hardwood construction, 5' 0" square, with 
6' 9' tower. Slide 16" wide by 7' 10" long, 



No Other Climbing No other play device can 
Structure is a compare with the famous 
JUNGLEGYM JUNGLEGYM for safety, for 
low maintenance cost, and for 
beneficial development of a child's body 
and mind. No other play device can com- 
pare for popularity with children them- 
selves for the JUNGLEGYM offers 

unlimited opportunities for imaginative 
play, and satisfies the child's basic instinct 
to climb. 

There are scores of other reasons why 
thousands of JUNGLEGYMS are in daily 
use from coast to coast! For instance, the 
JUNGLEGYM accommodates more chil- 
dren per square foot of ground occupied than 
any other play device, and costs less per 
child accommodated than any other appa- 
ratus. No wonder leaders in education, rec- 
reation, health and social work have for a 
third of a century called the JUNGLEGYM 
"the perfect playground device." 

Swings Seesaws Slides Merry Go Rounds Combinations 





MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


"No man is really happy or safe without a hobby, and it makes precious little difference what the outside in- 
terest may be ... anything will do so long as he straddles a hobby and rides it hard." Sir William Osier 

Include Hobbies and Hobby Shows 

VERYONE NEEDS a hobby to give him an interest outside 
the routine of his daily work, to give him an oppor- 
tunity for creative self-expression, to make his life fuller and 
richer and more complete. And what a list there is to choose 
from ! Collecting things anything that strikes one's fancy ; 
making things with any of a wide variety of materials: 
picturing things with brush, pencil or camera: raising 
things flora and fauna. All these are fun-filled hobbies, 
and there are dozens more ! 

What Does the Recreation Director 
Do About Hobbies? 

He finds out what the people's interests are. 

He brings together those with similar interests. 

He arranges for meeting rooms or necessary facilities. 

He helps to organize groups and schedule meetings. 

He puts on a hobby show from time to time. 

Above all, he never looks down his nose at any hobby, no 
matter how silly it seems to him! Many men like to cook 
or to do needlepoint ; he arranges for them to do these things 
with a congenial group. Many girls like to make furniture: 
he doesn't tell them they'll hammer their thumbs, he sees to 
it that they learn to use tools safely. In short, he is helpful 
and cooperative, and he takes a personal interest in every- 
one's hobby. 

Where to Begin? 

With that old stand-by, the interest-finding questionnaire. 
It might look something like this : 


Or do you wish you had a hobby? So do lots of your fellow 
employees. Fill out this questionnaire today and let's get 

Check on the following list the hobby groups you would be 
interested in joining; check twice those in which you would 
be willing to give volunteer leadership: 

Arts and Crafts 
Great Books 
Model Building 
Puppets and 



Radio and Television 

.Home Address 


Telephone Number. 


Croup competition at one of handcraft exhibitions sponsored 
by N. Y. Trust Company, won by Grand Street Settlement. 

This is merely a suggested form. Adapt it. add to it. work 
out a better one. Make it suit your own people and their 
tastes as you know them. 

Arrange with someone to distribute and collect the ques- 
tionnaires. In industry someone from each department can 
do this during rest periods or lunch hours. Returns will be 
better if the forms are not taken home. 

When new people arrive at your center, or join the com- 
pany, see that they have an opportunity to fill one out. 

When the questionnaires have been collected and sum- 
marized, arrange organization meetings immediately for 
those groups in which a sufficient number have indicated an 
interest. Find out: how often the majority want to meet, 
what time suits most of them, what facilities they will need. 

Photographers will want a darkroom. 

Gardeners will want small plots of ground. 

Art and craft groups will want a large room with tables. 
running water, space for easels, a kiln if they are working 
in pottery or ceramics. 

Woodworkers will want tools, workbenches, drill 
presses, bench saws the usual equipment of a carpentr\ 

If you are in industrial recreation, or some other organi- 
zation which cannot make these facilities available, look 
around the community. Get in touch with the community 

MURIEL EDGERTON McGANN is a staff member of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association Publications Department. 




n Your Program 

Muriel E. McGann 

This puppetry demonstration took place during the Annual 
Hobby Show at Oglebay Institute, Wheeling, West Virginia. 

recreation director, schools, YMCA or YWCA, churches 
with parish houses, other organizations which might be 
helpful. Make use of every available resource. Coopera- 
tion with the community is good public relations. Also make 
your own facilities available to the community. Such neigh- 
borliness pays. 

Somewhere, somehow, you will find a suitable meeting 
place for each hobby group. These quarters must be avail- 
able at convenient hours and readily accessible by public 
conveyance, unless you can work out car pools which will 
accommodate all the members of the various groups. 

What About the Others? 

The hobbies in which a few people expressed interest, but 
in which the formation of a group was not warranted? Talk 
to the people who checked these interests. Find out whether 
they just have a vague idea that beekeeping, for example, 
might be fun, or whether they have a real interest in and 
working knowledge of the subject. If one or two of them 
really know something about it, you might arrange for these 
people to give a short talk in an appropriate place ; give them 
a chance to interest others ! 

A window display or shelf show of their work (see more 
about this in section on hobby shows) might help to stimu- 
late interest to the point where a group can be formed. If 
outside help is available, use it. Ask someone in the com- 
munity who is interested in this hobby to come in and talk 
to your group about it. 

In industry, the place of the hobby groups in the over-all 
program may be determined by each group having a repre- 
sentative on the plant recreation council; or the hobby pro- 
gram may be treated as a unit, with one or more representa- 
tives elected from the entire hobby membership. 

They may pay dues to an over-all organization or they may 
be more or less autonomous, with dues paid and expended by 
and for each individual club. Most hobbyists prefer the lat- 
ter arrangement. Whether or not the hobby clubs receive 
any subsidy from management will, of course, depend upon 
company policy. 

Beware of Too Much Organization 
Too Much Leadership 

Business meetings should be as short and as few as 
possible. The members are there to work or talk about their 
hobbies. The recreation director should be as inconspicu- 
ous as possible, and when things are running smoothly he 
should be completely invisible. He should keep his ear to 
the ground, know just how each group is getting along, and 
help when problems arise; but the members should be en- 
couraged to determine and work out their own program. 
They want the fun of doing things themselves. 

Give Special Attention to Those 
Nearing Retirement Age 

Retirement can be tragic, empty, aimless; or it can be 
the fulfillment for which the individual has worked the 
period in his life when he has time for the things he wants 
most to do. The recreation director can help to determine 
which it is to be. Some industries are now setting up educa- 
tion-for-retirement programs. Some time before the actual 
retirement date several years, if possible the industrial 
recreation director should discuss with the employee what 
he plans to do after he retires. The director should help to 
guide the employee in the selection of a hobby that he will 
be able to pursue for the rest of his life. If it has some 
money-making possibilities, so much the better. This type 
of hobby gives a man an added sense of being useful, and 
the extra dollars will be a welcome supplement to his pension. 
Whatever the recreation director does for these older work- 
ers should be coordinated with the company's retirement 

The recreation director, in whatever situation, should do 
everything in his power to make hobbies so important to in- 
dividuals that they can look forward to their retirement as a 
time when they will be able to devote many more hours to 
these absorbing interests. 

Hobby Shows 

To have a thing is nothing, 

if you've not the chance to show it. 
And to know a thing is nothing, 

unless others know you know it. Lord Nancy 

Everyone Likes to Show Off. People who have collected 
something or created something with their own hands have 
more right than most of us to want to show off a little. Hob- 
byists like to see other people's work; they like even better 
to display their own work ; best of all, they like to win some 

MARCH 1955 


sort of recognition. They'll be pleased with ribbons or cer- 
tificates of merit; they'll be delighted with inexpensive 
trophies. If, as sometimes happens, the best work of art is 
purchased for permanent exhibit, they'll be out of this 
world ! 

You don't need a great big space. Of course, if there is 
a recreation hall, or a community house, armory, or other 
suitable building in the neighborhood, that's fine; but if 
there just isn't any such place put your imagination to 
work! Build a set of shelves; use your windows as display 
cases; look for a vacant store; go outdoors and let the com- 
munity in on the fun. 

Shelf Shows can go on all year round. Somewhere there 
is a corner that will accommodate a cabinet or a bank of 
shelves perhaps in the lobby or cafeteria, any place where 
the majority of persons will see it in the course of their nor- 
mal routine. 

Before the shelves are built, talk to the hobbyists them- 
selves; get some idea of the size and shape of the articles 
that probably will be exhibited. Try to work out a pattern 
that will be adaptable to many different displays. Adjust- 
able shelves usually will prove to be the most practical. 

Use a neutral finish which will harmonize with everything, 
ivory or light gray if the shelves are painted, or a natural 
wood finish if the wood you are using is light and has an 
attractive grain. Glass doors that can be locked will protect 
the display from dust and from anyone who might be over- 
come by a desire to possess any of the exhibits ! 

The shelves may contain : a one-man show, an exhibit by 
all the members of any one of the hobby clubs, selections 
from the work of all the hobby clubs. Don't let the exhibits 
"get stale." Change them every two or three weeks to at- 
tract continuing interest, and to allow as many people as 
possible to show their treasures. 

Window Shows are eye-catchers! The whole community 
will stop to look at them if they are displaying: collections 
buttons, china figurines, art from other lands; models 
boats, automobiles, airplanes ; dolls perhaps the ones your 
group dressed to give neighborhood youngsters at Christmas. 

Anything that one person is interested in making or own- 
ing, others will be interested in seeing. Here, too, change 
the display often. If you haven't enough material for a con- 
tinuing exhibit, make the show an annual event, lasting for 
a week or two. Invite people in the community to display 
their handwork or collections, and don't forget the children. 
Invite Boy and Girl Scout troops, playground youngsters, 
and school art classes to set up shows. Be a good neighbor 
you need the community and the community needs you! 

Vacant Stores allow room for the exhibitors, too. Hold- 
ing the hobby show in a store that is temporarily unoccupied 
will make it possible for the exhibitors to meet the spectators 
and to give talks and demonstrations. The weaver can work 
at his loom; the artist can paint at his easel; the puppeteer 
can give a performance; the collector can tell the stories be- 
hind the very special pieces in his collection. 

They can all bring their hobbies to life, make them more 


interesting to others, and perhaps influence the spectators to 
take up hobbies of their own. 

Hold Outdoor Art Exhibits. Many communities are now 
presenting the sidewalk art exhibits which have long been a 
familiar sight in Paris and Greenwich Village; so can you! 
Hang pictures on fences or clotheslines, or prop them against 
a convenient wall. The art work in this type of show is fre- 
quently priced for purchase if the exhibitors are interested 
in selling their work. Some of the artists may be on hand 
during the show to make sketches, pen and ink drawings, or 
silhouettes of passers-by for a small fee. 

// You Have a Recreation Hall or some other appropriate, 
large room at your disposal you can give a show in which 
all groups, or individuals in one age group, such as golden- 
agers, are invited to participate. You will need committees 
for: clean up; decorating; entertainment and program; ex- 
hibits and entries; location, equipment, and floor manage- 
ment; publicity and, possibly, finance; reception; refresh- 
ments; transportation depending upon how elaborate your 
show is to be. 

Be sure to secure plenty of advance publicity. Such a 
show entails lots of work and deserves a large audience 
make sure that the whole town knows about it through news- 
papers, radio, and television broadcasts, posters, throwa- 
ways, word-of-mouth advertising. Urge everyone to "talk 
it up." 

If awards are to be given, the judging should be held at 
the beginning of the show, so that the exhibitors may have 
the satisfaction of displaying their prizes, and spectators will 
recognize the exhibits which were considered outstanding. 

Although you cannot guarantee the safety of any of the 
exhibited articles, every precaution against damage or loss 
must be taken. Many of the exhibits may have considerable 
intrinsic value and all of them are precious to their owners 
they must be protected in transit and while they are on 

Learn By Experience 

Don't attempt to put on a city-wide or company-wide hob- 
by show until you have held several smaller shows for in- 
dividual hobby clubs, perhaps and have some experience 
to guide you. Send for the National Recreation Association's 
booklet, Planning for Success Hobby and Art and Craft 
Shows, P66, $.25. It contains more detailed information 
about the types of shows mentioned here, including: duties 
of committees; suggested hobby classifications; ways of dis- 
playing exhibits; program suggestions. It deals primarily 
with community and playground hobby shows, but many of 
these ideas will be equally useful in planning shows for other 

Start Your Planning for Your Hobby Show Today. It \\ ill 
stimulate increased activity among the hobby groups, en- 
courage more people to take up hobbies of their own, gener- 
ate friendliness among the individuals, increase understand- 
ing and neighborliness in the community, be a tremendous 
source of pleasure and satisfaction to the hobbyists who 
would like their work displayed ! 


How To Do IT / bu J5LJ. G.JJ 



Cord or Ruq Yarn or Hound lac'mq , 
Household Cement and a Button. 


1 . Cut one strand Routes as lonq as \enq\h of bracelet 
plus 6 inches .Nate: Average bracelet 6"/ony~ strand 20" 


2. Cut tux) strands 3;? times bracelet lenqth-^//^^/?/ 

3. Loop first strand (0" strand} around pencil or stick andtasten ends -favour belt- and 
pencil to a stationary object. (See sketch A). 

4-.7!e the tiwo other sf rands tb pencil .(See sketch ft). 

Not~e: Use. different' co/or strands for best results. 
5. To make the square knot bracelet ~- 

a .Take left-hand strand (w^/'/^and throuu end 

right and overture middle strands (20"stranddoc< 

Note: Hold ttuomidd/e strands intension. 

b.Take right-hand strand (abr/:)and bhnq 'it"a round and over 

the end of white strand and then under two tension stmnds 

and up through loop made bt^ u>hite strand oMeft ofttuo 

tension strands. (See sketch D). With dank strand 'in - 

dnof white strand in right hand pull the knot figh-h complete tf\e square knot reverse the method of ti'einqthe knot. 

The dark strand on le-ftqoes Ofer cuhite sfrandand under tension strands 

and then up through loop on riqht side. /// fy 'fight: ^(5ee sketch E). 

d. Continue -Vfe'inoj square knots inthis uuaq around tens'ion strands until 

lenqth is secured. Then thread button on white strand and tie. one complete square /(not: 

Sketches Pand G-shooo hoouthis is accomplished. 


Button -threaded 
white strand. 

button in place 
on-fopsicfe of brace /ef. 

Loose ends cut off and 

elb adjust loop to proper si^e remove pencil and make iflarqer or 5 mailer 'to' fit" 
the button (loop isthebc/ft&nhole. for fost^ni no bracelet on the wr/sf\\\ loop \stoo small 
pull on loop-to increase its si^e~if"tbo larqealoop pull on -tension strands. 
f.Cutoff all loose ends and cover ends tuith household cement to make them secure, 

MARCH 1955 






Top-spinning, the age-old spring fa- 
vorite, can be used for exciting group 
contests, with elimination contests held 
between individuals within the group- 
in the center or on the playgrounds - 
and bang-up finals of city-wide propor- 
tions; or it can be an activity for indivi- 
dual competition within one group, 
club, or social center. 

No matter what sort of competition 
you plan, announce your events early 
and give contestants time for practice. 
If your tournament is to be city-wide, 
hold elimination contests in each age 
classification. Some communities set 
them up according to midgets, juniors, 
and intermediates. You will find, how- 
ever, that trick and stunt top-spinning 
will appeal to older boys and girls. Even 
fathers might be interested in getting 
into the act. Your craft groups can make 
their own tops and compete within their 
own group. In any case, make a big 
event of the finals either within the 
city or within the group. Judges are 
needed for stunts of skill. 

How to Spin a Thrown-Top 1 

Two things are necessary to spin a 
t0 p a tight, evenly wound string and 
a proper throw so that the top lands 
peg down on the ground. In winding the 
string, grasp the top with the thumb 
firmly pressed on cord as shown in Fig- 
ure 1 and start winding at the collar of 
the peg. Wind round and round until 
the cord is used up, being careful not 
to overlap and to keep the cord tight 
at all times. Experience will determine 
the length of cord to use. If the cord is 

lr This material from Organize a Top Spin- 
ning Contest, a free leaflet published by the 
Jerome Cropper Company, 11 East 22nd 
Street, New York 10. 

too long it will tangle as it will not be 
completely unwound when the top hits 
the ground. If too short, you will not 
get sufficient spin. A button is knotted 
onto the other end of the cord and then 
is slipped between the first and second 
fingers to keep the string attached to 
the hand after the throw. 

There are many ways of holding a top 
and of throwing it, but the basic princi- 
ple is the same. The top must land on the 
ground with the peg down. It can be 
thrown underhand or overhand. The 
peg can be held in many positions and 
the top thrown either straight or with 
a twist of the wrist. One way is shown 
in Figure 2 where the throw is over- 

Figure 2 

Figure 3 



hand and aimed out in front of the play- 
er about three feet (not straight down) . 
The top is held with the forefingers on 
the flat part of the top and the thumb 
on the peg. The string will tend to swing 
the peg in towards the player and in the 
direction it unwinds so the top should 
be inclined enough to compensate for 
this and make the top land peg down. 
Generally speaking, an overhand throw 
gives more force and longer spins. A 
second method of spinning is shown in 
Figure 3. 

Finger Tops 

There are many kinds of tops, of 
course, and a great variety among hand- 
made ones. One of the simplest of the 
latter is that made by whittling a spool 
with a jackknife. 

The secret of worksmanship in top- 

making lies in perfect proportion and 
balance. The length and diameter of 
the spindle must be just right in propor- 
tion, and it must fit snugly. Tops can 
be beautiful if the wood is sanded and 
polished or painted. Bright contrasting 
colors are not lost in the spinning. 


As in other games, top-spinning has 
its own language. The top that is thrown 
is the plugger. Your opponent's top is 
bait when you are trying to strike it out 
of the ring. When a top stands perfectly 
erect and apparently motionless while 
spinning it is asleep or a sleeper 
while a gigler is a top that dances and 
bounces about. A top that ceases to spin 
is a dead top. 


Many games and stunts in which tops 
are used can be invented. Let contest- 
ants use their own ingenuity. The fol- 
lowing are a few old stand-bys to start 
you off: 

Longest Spinning. Top is timed for 
length of spin. All players start at given 

Accuracy Put. Draw five concentric 
circles with the bull's-eye one foot in 
diameter and each ring six inches wide, 
making a target five feet in diameter. 
Circles are numbered from the outside 
to the bull's-eye, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Each 
contestant is allowed five puts and is 
scored according to the circle in which 
his top hits. The top must spin after hit- 

Top Scatter. Six dead tops are ar- 

ranged peg up in the bull's-eye of your 
five concentric circles and each player 
is given three throws at them with no 
rearranging between puts. This time, 
however, the rings are numbered from 
the center out with the outside circle 
number 5. The score is according to the 
circles into which the tops are scattered. 
The spinner's top must remain spinning 
after each throw. A top resting on the 
line counts for the higher score ring. 

Top-Killing. Each player gets three 
tries at a live target top which is kept 
spinning by one of the waiting contest- 
ants. Three points are given for a glanc- 
ing blow, five points for "killing" the 
bait top and ten points for splitting jt. 
Contestants' tops must spin after hit- 

Whip for Distance. Each contestant 
throws a top from a given line. Three 
tries are allowed, the winners being 
scored in accordance with the distance 
farthest from the throwing line at which 
their tops spin. 

Tops and Marbles Game.- A paddle is 
used for picking up the spinning top in 
this game. Whittle paddle from soft 
piece of wood, about two-and-one-half- 
inches wide by twelve-inches long; and 
shape according to sketch. A spinning 
top can easily be picked up and set down 
while it is still spinning with this type 
of paddle. 

Each player puts a number of marbles 
into a common pool to form a pile of 

2 From Games Outdoors, by Ray J. Marran, 
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1940. 

twelve. These pooled marbles are ar- 
ranged close together in the middle of 
a twelve-inch ring drawn with chalk on 
the ground. The first player spins his 
top with a cord in the regular way, then 
picks the top up with the paddle and 
lets it fall, while spinning, into the pile 
of marbles in the ring. The revolving 
top will knock several of the marbles 
from the ring, which then belong to the 
player whose top knocked them from 
the ring. 

The other players follow in turn, pick- 
ing up and setting down their spinning 
tops in the marble ring with their pad- 
dles, trying, of course, to knock some 
marbles from the ring with their revolv- 
ing tops. When a top dies it is picked 
up, spun again, scooped on the paddle 
and placed, in turn, in the marble ring 
so that it will knock out more marbles. 
The game continues until all marbles 
have been knocked from the ring. 

Tricks and Stunts 

Many of these consist of picking up 
a spinning top on the palm of the hand 
and performing a variety of feats with 
it, the contestants taking turns each 
making one spin each turn. These can 
be left somewhat to the ingenuity of the 

Pick-ups. Some of the more usual 
are: tossing spinning top in air and 
catching it on palm of hand, trans- 
ferring it to palm of the other hand, 
transferring it to back of same hand, 
transferring it to back of other hand, 
catching it on index finger, transferring 
it to other fingers, catching it on thigh, 
back, top of head, back of head and 
other variations. 

Fancy Looping. Judges are needed 
here, for the contestant is graded on the 
performance and difficulty of the vari- 
ous loops. Length of time must be con- 
sidered, for some contestants may make 
several misses. A few of the most popu- 
lar loops are : overhead, back, under the 
leg and around the body loop. Many 
others can be developed. All loops are 
snapped from the ground and caught on 
the palm of the hand. 

MARCH 1955 


^> nitty tyotvi Secnefanyi 

Secretaries in public recreation departments are like the 
shoemaker's children who often have to go barefoot! They 
know all that's going on but never see it. They schedule 
games and picnics but never see a game or go to the pic- 
nic. They write up reports, keep records, answer the phone 
and do a thousand and one jobs that the department couldn't 
do without but everything goes on around them, not with 

Last year the Public Recreation Association of New Jersey 
came up with a wonderful idea. When it held its monthly 
meeting in Maplewood, New Jersey, in May, all secretaries 

were invited. More than that, a special workshop for them 
was part of the program. 

Result? They felt as though they were a real part of their 
department. They learned new skills. They met the other 
secretaries and could talk shop to understanding ears. They 
had fun ! 

When you plan training sessions or workshops in or near 
your home base, couldn't you plan a similar program for the 
secretaries? It will pay off in a better understanding of their 
j ob, increased skills, and higher morale. 

The invitation to the Maplewood workshop ran like this: 



Single sheet instructions are available at low 
cost on all oi the articles illustrated above. 
Send the coupon for free samples and com- 
plete catalog. 

And look into Rexlace. You'll find it as new 
and refreshing as the above projects. Give the 
lanyards a back seat this year they are hard 
for both campers and instructors. All of the 

above articles are easier, more fun and more 

Rexlace is made from solid plastic. Its slight 
stretch makes it work easily and smartly. It 
keeps its "just-made" look indefinitely no 
coating to wear off and no cotton core to be- 
come exposed, frayed and soiled. Rexlace can 
be washed with a touch of soap and water 
without losing its gloss. 

Send in the coupon for complete information and samples of instructions, 
also a complimentary copy of "101 Uses for Craftstrip"*by Cy Vaughn. 

THE REX CORPORATION West Acton. Massachusetts 
Please send me without obligation 









MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 







Pat Cavanaugh 

Girl Scouts' Intermediate Day Camp, Oakland, Calif. 

THIS SUMMER some child will see his 
first butterfly. Another will hear the 
hoot of an owl for the first time. Others, 
who didn't think they could make any- 
thing, will find they can build a rope 
bridge or make a woven belt. All over 
this country thousands of children are 
looking forward to the fun and excite- 
ment of camping. No matter what their 
family income, race, or religion, they'll 
gain a sense of belonging, self-respect, 
and achievement and have a whale of 
a good time doing it. This summer may 
bring disappointment, too, of course; 
for some boys and girls who look for- 
ward to camp may not have the opportu- 
nity to go. 

Every group of six to eight children 
in camp should have an adult counselor 
whose understanding and enthusiasm 
can help make the experience of camp- 
ing as wonderful as the anticipation. 
Despite the number of experienced 
counselors who also look forward to 
camp each season, new ones must join 
them to insure a place for every child. 

In every state counselors are needed 
in camps sponsored by national non- 
profit agencies for boys and girls, fami- 
lies, and adults. Staff positions in these 
camps offer opportunities for service 
while earning a salary and gaining ex- 
perience that can come in handy all year 
round. Teachers, students, men and wo- 
men from many fields, find that in seek- 
ing to arouse the curiosity and interest 
of the campers they themselves discover 

PAT CAVANAUGH is director of Profes- 
sional Recruitment Promotion, Girl 
Scouts of the U. S. A., New York City. 

new wonder in the world of animals, 
plants, trees, rocks, clouds, and stars. 

Camp staff members can also prac- 
tice their hobbies and at the same time 
prepare themselves for advancement in 
their own fields. A teacher of an "in- 
door" subject like art, history, or math 
may want to prepare herself to take part 
in the new school-camping program. A 
nurse newly graduated, experienced, 
even retired may like working with 
small groups of children and participat- 
ing in other parts of the camp program. 
A dietitian or home economics major 
may want to broaden her experience in 
managing all parts of a food program, 
including outdoor cooking methods and 
menus. The goals of the waterfront di- 
rector may include improved teaching 
and administrative skills. 

Men and women with recent counsel- 
ing experience know that most camps 
emphasize an understanding of the pro- 
gram as a whole rather than expertness 
in a specific field. Primary aims of all 
camp activities are increased self-reli- 
ance and ability to live and work harmo- 
niously with others. Democratic plan- 
ning is encouraged by dividing large 
groups into small units where counsel- 
ors and campers can work together at a 
tempo to suit everyone. More and more, 
too, camps are replacing the sports and 
games available in town with activities 
based on the resources of the camping 

Though required qualifications in age 
and experience vary for specific coun- 
seling positions, the American Camping 
Association, a professional organization 
of camp administrators and camp di- 

rectors, has recommended certain stand- 
ards. The minimum age is nineteen, 
with two years of college desirable. In 
addition to skill in the specific respon- 
sibilities assigned, the counselor must 
enjoy outdoor living, have maturity, 
good judgment, and sympathy with the 
aims of the sponsoring organization. 
Nurses, dietitians, and some specialists 
should have administrative experience 
as well. Assistants with required quali- 
fications may begin at age eighteen. 
Some camps have a counselor-in-train- 
ing program for sixteen and seventeen 
year olds. 

The camp director must be twenty- 
five years or over and have had at least 
two years staff experience in an organ- 
ized summer camp. In addition, the di- 
rector should have a college degree or 
equivalent educational background and 
experience in administration and super- 
vision of personnel. 

Salaries vary with the individual's ex- 
perience, qualifications, and training, as 
well as the location of the camp and the 
length of the season. (Some positions 
in day camps where the campers return 
home each night are volunteer.) 

Where to Apply for a Position 
as Camp Counselor 

Many of the four hundred affiliates of 
the Boys' Clubs of America maintain 
camping programs as a part of their 
year round work. For information and 
location of Boys' Club Camps, write to 
this organization at 381 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 16, New York. 

Boy Scouts of America operates more 
than eight hundred camps for its mem- 




bers who range in age from eleven 
through seventeen. Applications can be 
made through any local council office 
or through the Personnel Division, Na- 
tional Council, Boy Scouts of America, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Camp Fire Girls operates camps as 
part of their year round program for 
girls seven through seventeen. An ap- 
plicant may apply to any Camp Fire 
Council, or may write to the Camp Staff 
Referral Service, Department of Camp- 
ing, Camp Fire Girls, Inc., 16 East 48th 
Street, New York 17, New York. 

Girl Scouts of the U. S. A. operates 
more than six hundred camps as an out- 
door continuation of their program for 
girls seven through seventeen. Hiring is 
done through local Girl Scout Councils 
but applicants may also write to Fan- 
chon Hamilton, Camp Staff Referral 
Service, Girl Scouts of the U. S. A., 155 
East 44th Street, New York 17, New 

Settlements and Neighborhood Cen- 
ters also use camping to enrich their reg- 
ular program. They serve boys and girls 
from elementary through high school as 
well as young adults and sometimes 

whole families. A special period may 
be set aside for mothers and preschool 
children. Hiring is local but informa- 
tion may be obtained by writing to Na- 
tional Federation of Settlements and 
Neighborhood Centers, Inc., 129 East 
52nd Street, New York 22, New York. 

The National Jewish Welfare Board 
has the addresses of one hundred and 
forty-three Jewish community center 
camps throughout the country. All hir- 
ing is done locally, but information may 
be obtained by writing to the organiza- 
tion at 145 East 32nd Street, New York 

Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion of the U. S. A. operates one hun- 
dred eighty-nine resident and over two 
hundred day camps with program em- 
phasis on waterfront activities, music, 
nature, arts and crafts, and religion. 
New trends are in family and co-ed 
camping. All hiring is done through 
local YWCA's. 

Young Men's Christian Association 
operates over six hundred camps serv- 
ing predominantly boys from nine 
through seventeen. A number of local 
YMCA's conduct camps for girls, young 

adults, and families. Cabin devotions 
and Sunday worship are an integral part 
of the program. All hiring is through 
local, area, or state YMCA's. 


Lucille Borowick, program director, 
Recreation Center for the Handicapped, 
San Francisco, California; Richard L. 
Burch, recreation leader, Veterans Ad- 
ministration Hospital, Marion, Indi- 
ana; Jack Claes, superintendent of rec- 
reation, Vineland, New Jersey; Harry 
Feldman, executive secretary, Recrea- 
tion and Youth Service Council, Coun- 
cil of Social Agencies, Columbus, Ohio ; 
John J. Krasovich, program supervisor, 
Recreation Department, Topeka, Kan- 

Thomas C. Miller, superintendent of 
recreation, Pompano Beach, Florida; 
Jack S. Myles, superintendent of rec- 
reation, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania; 
George G. Pervear, assistant director of 
recreation, Berkshire Farms, Canaan, 
New York; Arnold W . Rinta, director, 
Field House, King County, Washing- 
ton; Martin Rollert, recreation super- 
visor, Recreation Department, Colo- 
rado Springs, Colorado; Robert K. 
Samuel, group worker, Wesley House 
Association, St. Louis, Missouri; Mar- 
vin S. Weiss, superintendent of recrea- 
tion, Morton Grove, Illinois. 


Nothing else to buy. Ruggedly built of prefabricated, 
welded-steel panels-safety engineered-weather proofed 
for minimum maintenance. You need no expensive 
foundations, can easily install this American-Universal 
skid-mounted Bleacher with unskilled help. A complete 
paxrkage-unit at lowest possible cost. 

Basic 5-row unit seats 50. Unlimited combina- 
tions for up to 10 and 15- row installations. 
Wi'/fe for new catalog 




Superior By Every Comparison! 


So sensationally better are they on 

every count design, construction, 

quality, durability and play-ability 

that Rawlings HERCULITE 

Rubber-Covered Athletic Balls 

have established a new high 

standard. They're in a class 

by themselves they're . . 

MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Date Location 

March 6-12 Great Plains Recreation Leaders Laboratory, Nysted 

Folk School, Danneborg, Nebraska 

March 13-19 Kentucky Recreation Workshop, Kentucky Dam 

Village, Kentucky 

March 24-May 19 Courses for nature counselors and youth leaders, 

American Museum of Natural History, New York 

March 31-April 2 Twentieth Annual Mountain Folk Festival, Berea Col- 

lege, Berea, Kentucky 

April 10-16 Wisconsin Recreation Leaders Laboratory, Wausau 

Youth Center, Wausau, Wisconsin 

April 13-16 Twentieth Annual National Folk Festival, Kiel Audi- 

torium, St. Louis, Missouri 

April 13-14 Group Leadership Institute, Indiana University Stu- 

dent Union Building, Bloomington, Indiana 

April 15-17 Spring Workshop of Iowa Section, American Camping 

Association, 4H Camping Center, Madrid, Iowa 

April 17-24 Buckeye Recreation Workshop, Urbana Methodist 

Church, Urbana, Ohio 

April 21-28 Northland Recreation Laboratory, Camp Ihduhapi, 

Loretto, Minnesota 

April 22-23 Kentucky Folk Festival, University of Kentucky, Lex- 

ington, Kentucky 

April 24-30 

June 12-18 Nature Workshops, Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois 

June 19-25 

April 25-30 Presbyterian Recreation Laboratory, Druce Lake 

Camp, Lake Villa, Illinois 

May 1-7 Southwestern Recreation Leaders Laboratory, Moun- 

tain View Ranch, Cowles, New Mexico 

May 2-4 All Florida Folk Festival, Stephen Foster Memorial, 

Outdoor Theatre, White Springs, Florida 

May 15-21 Hoosier Recreation Workshop, Merom Institute, 

Merom, Indiana 

May 28-June 3 Missouri Recreation Workshop, Camp Clover Point, 

Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Kaiser, Missouri 

June 5-10 Middle Atlantic Recreation Laboratory, Pennington 

School, Pennington, New Jersey 

June 5-11 Kansas Summer Recreation Clinic, Sedgwick County, 


June 20-July 8 Outdoor Education Workshop, Clear Lake Camp, 

Dowling, Michigan 

For Further Information 

Mr. Duane Loewenstein, Room 108, Agri. Hall, College of 
Agriculture, Lincoln, Nebraska 

Miss Alda Hennin, Experiment Station, Lexington, Ken- 

Miss Farida A. Wiley, American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York 24, 
New York 

Mr. Frank H. Smith, Box 1826, Berea College, Berea, 

Mr. Bruce L. Cartter, 314 Agricultural Hall, College of 
Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Madison 6, Wis- 

Miss Sarah Gertrude Knott, National Folk Festival, St. 
Louis Globe-Democrat, 1133 Franklin Avenue, St. Louis 
1, Missouri 

Miss Violet Tennant, Division of Social Service, University 
of Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana 

Miss M. Genevieve Clayton, Iowa Section, American Camp- 
ing Association, 618 Flynn Building, Des Moines, Iowa 

Mrs. Frederick F. Smith, Secretary-Treasurer, 131 South 
Wayne Avenue, Cincinnati 15, Ohio 

Mr. Arthur Bell, Northland Recreation Laboratory, 3100 
West Lake, Minneapolis 16, Minnesota 

Mr. James Pheane Ross, Experiment Station, Lexington, 

Mrs. Edgar Myers, Registrar, The Morton Arboretum, 
Lisle, Illinois 

Mr. John W. McCracken, 2330 North Halsted Street, Chi- 
cago 14, Illinois 

Mr. Geronimo Chavez, Box 425, State College, New Mexico 

Mr. Foster Barnes, Stephen Foster Memorial, White 
Springs, Florida 

Mr. F. L. McReynolds, State Club Office, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, Indiana 

Mr. Robert L. Black, Missouri Division of Resources and 
Development, Jefferson Building, Jefferson, Missouri 

Dr. Charles R. Smyth, 500 Morgan Avenue, Palmyra, New 

Mr. Verne Powell, Hutchinson Recreation Commission, 
Hutchinson, Kansas 

Mr. Julian W. Smith, School of Education, Michigan State 
College, East Lansing, Michigan 



I your bookstor 


April 12-14 Southern District Recrea- 
tion Conference, George Vanderbilt 
Hotel, Asheville, North Carolina. 

April 13-16 21st Annual National Folk 
Festival presented by the St. Louis 
Globe-Democrat, St. Louis, Missouri. 

April 17-19 Pacific Northwest District 
Recreation Conference, Boise Hotel, 
Boise, Idaho. 

April 21-23 Fourth Annual National 
Square Dance Convention, Municipal 


Auditorium, Oklahoma City, Okla- 

May 1-8 National Music Week. 

Theme: "Music Making Enriches 

May 10-13 Neto England District Rec- 
reation Conference, Woodstock Inn, 
Woodstock, Vermont. 

June 12-15 Annual Conference of the 
National Industrial Recreation Asso; 
ciation, Dayton-Biltmore Hotel, Day- 
ton, Ohio. 


you pay postage only! 

Four Color Films! 

A Dog-ography! 


Wheels of Steel 
Across the U.S.! 

I I 


The Ice 
Cream Saga! 



By Walt Disney 


Write for Free List! Dept. R 


347 Madison Ave.. New York, N. Y. 
Branch libraries! 


9 & TUT *?. 



if Force Feed 
Instant Shutoff 
50 Ibs. capacity. 

Easy to fill and 

No Brushes or 
Screens to clog. 


Send to Dept. R for booklet on four other models 


Subscription rates for RECREATION 
magazine are: 

1 year $4.00 

2 years 7.25 

Foreign 4.50 

Library subscriptions 3.70 

Club subscriptions 3.50 

(Ten or more individuals subscribing at one time) 

Single issues 50 

National Recreation Association 

8 West Eighth Street 
New York 11, New York 

Ed Our/etcher Presents 

honor your partner 


on pure vinyl ite phonograph records 

SQUARE DANCES: CALLS AND TEACHING AIDS. Albums 1 through 4-Square Dance 
Records with calls and instructions by Ed Durlacher. "Walk-through" directions are 
presented in easy, progressive steps before the music and calls begin. By'far the most 
popular square dance instructional records ever produced. 

SQUARE DANCES: MUSIC ONLY. Album 5- Square Dance music without calls or instruc- 
tion. Zestful, foot-tapping music for those who prefer to do their own calling. 

COUPLE DANCES AND MIXERS. Album 6-Ed Durlacher's famous walk-through instruc- 
tions make learning these dances a pleasure. 

RHYTHMS. Album 7 Specifically designed to aid in the teaching of rhythms and music 
appreciation to the very young. Ed Durlacher teaches with a full orchestral back- 

SQUARE DANCES: WITHOUT INSTRUCTIONS. Album 8-Easy-to-understand, jovial calls. 
Music with a perfect rhythmic beat. Eight of the country's most popular square dances. 

All records are pressed on pure vinylite and are guaranteed against breakage. 




Square Dance Associates Dept. R-5, Freeport, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: I want to learn more about the HONOR YOUR PARTNER albums. Please send me a 
free descriptive folder. 





Canadian Distributors: Thomas Allen, Ltd., 266 King Street West, Toronto 28, Ontario 


Whatever the craft 

you are teaching: woodworking, model 
building, leather, metal, plastics, ceramics 

x-acto knives, 
tools & sets 

designed by craftsmen and precision-made 
for fine craftsmanship 

will help you 
do a better job 

by helping your students get better results 
and more creative satisfaction. 

Try Whittling: send for 40 page Whit- 
tling booklet with detailed instructions and 
plans for 34 projects 254. 
Complete X-acto 28 page catalog- FREE 



48- v-n Dem St.. Long Island City 1, N. Y. 


Write for Free Booklet 

A Top Spinning Contest makes an 
ideal youth activity for Boys' Clubs, 
Veterans' Organizations, Fraternal 
Orders, Industrial Firms, Schools, 
Outing Clubs, Churches, Newspapers. 
Playgrounds, Civic Groups, Business 
Clubs and others. Mail coupon for 
Free Booklet published by the manu- 
facturer of Cropper Official Wood 
Spinning Tops. 


I The Jerome Cropper Co. 
j 11 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 
I Please send FREE copy of "Organizing 
A Top Spinning Contest." 





MARCH 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


its tackholding qualities through re- 
peated use. Armstrong Cork Company, 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 


Paas Easter Egg Decorating Kits 

this year contain interesting new mate- 
rials to make gay and clever eggs and 
they're simple enough to be used easily 
by small fry. The inexpensive kit comes 
in a cardboard box which is converted 
into an Easter basket, complete with 
paper grass. There is a variety of equip- 
ment: dyes and directions for the spe- 
cial Paas process for making multi- 
color eggs; wax crayons for writing or 
drawing on eggs ; cut-outs of heads and 
stands to make Disney character eggs; 
paste-on features for egg faces ; toy cut- 
outs ; and even an Easter coloring book. 
Paas Dye Company, Newark, New Jer- 

Vistacope Lens brings a new dimen- 
sion to home movies, and more depth, 
range, and clarity. This lens provides 
completely natural vision and fifty per 
cent greater horizontal sweep without 
changing normal height. One lens, 
which may be attached to any regular 
8mm. or 16mm. movie camera or pro- 
jector, is used for both shooting the 

scene and projecting it. For a descrip- 
tion of this lens and the special effects 
and trick shots that are obtainable with 
it, request "How to Shoot With Vista- 
cope" from Vistacope Corporation, 100 
Central Park South, New York 19, New 

Floor King Maintenance Machines 

come in a wide selection in size and 
price range and perform all types of 
floor-care jobs. One machine, with at- 
tachments, may be used for waxing, 
scrubbing, buffing, polishing, steel 
wooling, or dry cleaning any floor; disk 
sanding wood floors; grinding concrete 
or terrazzo; and wet or dry rug and 
carpet shampooing, with ease and effi- 
ciency. Illustrated circular on request. 
American Floor Surfacing Machine 
Company, 518 South St. Clair, Toledo, 

Armstrong Tackboard is a resilient 
cork composition made specifically for 
bulletin board use. This decorative ma- 
terial, available in four colors, comes in 
rolls as long as eighty-five feet and in 
forty-eight- and seventy -two-inch widths 
for quick and easy one-piece installa- 
tion; and Armstrong J-1114 Adhesive 
bonds it firmly to any clean, dry wall 
surface. The new tackboard takes tacks 
easily, holds them firmly, and retains 

Eraso Posters and Charts are de- 
signed to simplify publicity for sports 
and other recreation activities. The 
brightly colored fourteen- by twenty- 
two-inch posters have a long-wearing 
finish which permits constant reuse. 
Twenty-one different activities are cov- 
ered with appropriate illustrations. The 
charts are available for activity calen- 
dars, tournaments, and team or individ- 
ual standings. Local information may 
be filled in with special Eraso-Pencils 
(which come in seven different colors) 
and later wiped off, leaving the posters 
and charts ready to be used again. The 
Program Aids Company, 550 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 36, New York. 

Jamison Playground Equipment of 

all types is described and well illustrated 
in a very attractive new catalog which 
is available to RECREATION readers. Pic- 
tures of the equipment in use and 
sketches show a wide variety of items 
such as swings, climbing mazes, back- 
stops, merry-go-rounds, rings, ladders, 
teeters, goals, benches, tables, and so 
on. Jamison Manufacturing Company, 
8781 South Mettler Street, Los Angeles 
3, California. 


Equality, the original cross-number 
game, offers educational fun for players 
of all ages. Equipment consists of a 
colorful board, racks, and plastic play- 
ing tiles. A good addition to the table 
game stock for quiet game time or fam- 
ily night use, Equality may be played 
by one to four people. Noonan Enter- 
prises, 9128-R Park Avenue, Franklin 
Park, Illinois. 


When writing to these manufacturers please mention RECREATION. 


Books & Pamphlets 

WORKSHOP Leaflet FL 315 (Re- 
vised April 1953) United States De- 
partment of the Interior, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Washington 25, D. 
C. Pp. 5. Free. 

TION Indiana University, Indiana 
and Midwest School Building Plan- 
ning Conference Proceedings. Vol. 
XXX, Nos. 5 and 6 September and 
November 1954. School of Educa- 
tion, Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Indiana. Pp.123. $2.00. 

Emma Battis. Chartwell House, Inc., 
280 Madison Avenue, New York 16. 
Pp. 227. $4.50. 

CATION, Charles C. Cowell and Helen 
W. Hazelton. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York 11. Pp. 403. 

FOLK DANCE GUIDE. Fifth Annual Edi- 
tion. Box 342, Cooper Station, New 
York 3. Pp. 20. $.50. 

Madeleine Carabo-Cone and Beatrice 
Royt. Harper & Brothers, 49 East 

33rd Street, New York 16. Pp. 138. 

<&9 cn * 


WORK, Ernest Osborne. Public Af- 
fairs Committee, 22 East 38th Street, 
New York 16. Pg. 28. $.25. 

en. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York 11. Pp.224. $3.95.* 

and Dorathea Crawford. Whiteside 
Press, Inc., 425 Fourth Avenue, New 
York 16. Pp. 190. $3.00.* 

REPORT FOR 1952-1954, A. The Fund 
for the Advancement of Education, 
655 Madison Avenue, New York 20. 
Pp.126. Free. 


Recreation Magazine 

The Book of 


Broadway, N.Y.C. 

SCARNE ON TEEKO, John Scarne. Crown 
Publishers, Inc., 419 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 16. Pp. 256. $2.50. 

Dykema and Hannah M. Cundiff. C. 
C. Birchard & Company, 285 Colum- 
bus Avenue, Boston 16. Pp. 669. 

John Bunn. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York 11. Pp. 306. 

ODS, Margaret Williamson. Woman's 
Press, 425 Fourth Avenue, New York 
16. Pp.170. $3.00. 

and E. Gurney Clark. Public Affairs 
Committee, 22 East 38th Street, New 
York 16. Pp. 28. $.25. 

WHITE GATE, THE, Mary Ellen Chase. 
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 101 
Poplar Street, Scranton 9, Pennsyl- 
vania. Pp. 185. $3.00. 

tificial Ice Rinks (Continued from 
December), George B. Caskey. 

La Roulotte de Montreal. 

Turfgrass for Schools and Play- 
grounds, /. R. Watson, Jr. 

Restoring Turf and Stopping Erosion 
by Mechanical Renovation, Ernest 

Pressure Treated Wood for Cheap 
Construction and Low Mainte- 
nance, Gordon M. Quarnstrom. 

Sitting Around the Table with the 
Turf Researchers. 



25 novel folk parties, outlined 
in every detail: decorations, 
costumes, games, music, dan- 
cing, foods, etc. "Highly rec- 
ommended." Recreat ion. 

Magazine Articles 

53.95 ef 


BEACH AND POOL, December 1954 

Portfolio : Wading Pools. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^= 
Common Errors in Pool Design and MJnCY AC AnifCDTICCDC 

Construction, Part II, Charles W. INUtA Ur AUVtKlldtKd 

Graves. All-Metal Tennis Table Company .... _ 103 

Synchronized Swimming Exhibitions, A $ ja| ^^ Recrujtment 

II, Beulah bundling. Section 104 


J955 American Playground Device 

How Delinquent Are Our Children? Com P an y - 120 ' 121 

Herman G. Stark. Association Films, Inc. .. 141 

JOURNAL OF HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCA- Association Press ... 140-143 

TION AND RECREATION, January 1955 VV. D. Byron & Sons .114 

A Boys Intra-Mural Sports Associa- ^^ Equipment Company ... .. 1 02 

tion, Julian U. stein. ... .. P1 . - n , 

Outdoor Recreational Lighting, ChlM 9 Roller Skate Com P an Y - 

Dewey R. Kruckeberg. Cleveland Crafts Company .. 

Recreation A Needed Hospital The Copper Shop 105 

Service, R. S. Mamocha. Daisy Manufacturing Company.... 103 

Juggling for Fun, Helen Spencer. Dimco-Gray Company ... _ 97 

NURSING OUTLOOK, January 1 955 _ /. < t , 

Volunteer Recreation Workers Help Jerome Gr PP er Com P an Y 141 

the Chronically 111, Marion L. H & R Manutacturing Company.... 

Briggs. Harvard Table Tennis Company.... 97 

PARKS AND RECREATION, January 1955 Hillerich & Bradsby 124 

Aesthetics in Park Design, Mario \\n m6 Crafts 1 1 4 

BufldTng and Operating Outdoor Ar- Josam Manufacturing Company _ 105 

6 McGraw-Hill Book Company 105 

The MacGregor Company ... _ 1 24 

* These publications are available from the j he j f p orter Corporation ... _ 129 

National Recreation Association at list price . _ , - . ^ n 

plus fifteen cents for each book ordered to Rawlm 9 s S P ortm Q Goods Company... 

cover postage and handling. Active Associate Rex Corporation 137 

and Affiliate Members of the Association re- $nijare Dance Associates 141 

ceive a ten per cent discount on list price. . . rt 

Remittances should accompany orders from Universal Manufacturing Corporation 

individuals; organiations and recreation de- Van Horn and Sons 97 

partments will be billed on their official orders. ^ j Voj f Rljhher Corporation ... _ 1 02 

Address orders to Combined Book Service, v A i 1 A\ 

National Recreation Association, 8 West X-ACTO, Inc. 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 

MARCH 1955 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 

Fun with Skits, Stunts and Stories 

Helen and Larry Eisenberg. Associa- 
tion Press, 291 Broadway, New York 
7. Pp. 256. $2.95.* 

The 30,000 purchasers of their last 
book (publisher's figures), will be glad 
to know that the Eisenbergs have done 
it again! Hot off the press (March 14) 
their new book follows the Handbook 
of Skits and Stunts with additional sug- 
gestions for social recreation groups, 
meetings, private parties, camps, school 
groups, chapel programs, and so on. 
The new material includes humorous 
stories as well. The authors say. "For 
many years we have had gratifying suc- 
cess with the use of humorous stories 
to be read aloud, so we recommend 
them to you." Some of these are done 
in Spoonerism style or in German dia- 
lect, such as "Reddish Riden Hood"- 
and are very funny. Others are adapted 
for group participation. 

Suggestions are given for a wide va- 
riety of uses for skits and stunts, such 
as in honoring people, promotion pur- 
poses, celebration of birthdays, illustra- 
tion and solving of group problems, fun 
at the dining table in camp, during 
meeting or conference recesses, to name 
a few. The stunts themselves are full of 
new ideas and materials. 

Recreation leaders of groups should 
not be without this book. 

Publicity in Action 

Herbert M. Baus. Harper & Brothers, 
49 East 33rd Street, New York 1 6. Pp. 
335. $4.50.* 

This is an excellent new handbook 
which belongs in the working library of 
every enterprising public or private 
agency, civic organization, volunteer 
group or charitable agency which must 
tell its story and move people to action. 
The author starts with a clarification of 
terms, makes clear the differentiation 
between publicity and public relations 
and explains promotion, propaganda, 
advertising, and goes on to deal with 
publicity as an essential not only for 
business but for such organizations as 
listed above. He discusses each step in 
the planning and effective placement of 
publicity, and surveys the uses of news- 
papers, magazines, radio, TV motion 


pictures, direct mail campaigns, and 
display materials. The means of de- 
veloping word-of-mouth publicity are 
gone into; and throughout the book 
practical examples are used to illustrate 
the specific application of techniques. 

In his preface, Mr. Baus says, "If 
there is a secret in publicity, it lies in 
having enough energy, organizing abil- 
ity, and powers of self-expression to 
employ in any given situation the de- 
sirable combination of techniques which 
men have devised and tested for com- 
municating, and effectively applying 
them toward the achievement of an ob- 

Committee Common Sense 

Audrey R. and Harleigh B. Trecker. 
William Morrow and Company, Inc., 
425 Fourth Avenue, New York 16. Pp. 
158. $2.50. 

For those who are involved in group 
activity in business, government, 
school, clubs, community organizations 
these well-known authors offer the 
why, who, when, what, and how of 
committee operations, and answer the 
many questions that come up in regard 
to them. How do we appoint a com- 
mittee, get the right people for the right 
job? What are the qualifications of the 
committee chairman? What are his re- 
sponsibilities? How can we guarantee 
good attendance and make every meet- 
ing productive, and so on? The book 
is filled with pointers on how to avoid 
the frustrations of badly organized and 
improperly run committees. 

Through the Magnifying Glass 

Julius Schwartz. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New 
York 36. Pp. 142. $2.50.* 

This little book is brimming with 
fascinating information and drawings 
which can introduce a child to a whole 
new world. It shows how, with an in- 
expensive magnifying glass, you can see 
such things as the fantastic faces of in- 
sects, the flashes of exploding atoms, 
how crystals grow into their perfect 
shapes, why it is hard to counterfeit 
money, and so on. 

The author has taught science in the 
public schools for the last twenty-five 

years. He is senior author of the book- 
let Adventures in Biology, which is used 
by the New York City schools. His first 
book for young readers, It's Fun to 
Know Why, is still popular. 

Developing YMCA Leaders for 
Physical Education Service 

Association Press, 291 Broadway, 
New York 7. Pp. 84. $2.50.* 

This is a manual for the leader of 
leaders, prepared especially for the paid 
physical director who must give lead- 
ership to volunteer leaders. The YMCA 
is a leader among the national move- 
ments in the effective use of volunteers. 
For every employed secretary there are 
seventy-five laymen in volunteer service. 

The manual, although oriented in the 
YMCA, will be a helpful guide to lead- 
ers in other types of agencies. The em- 
phasis is on the responsibility and duty 
of the physical director for selecting, 
training and using lay leaders. There is 
interesting criteria here for analyzing 
and rating one's self as a leader of lead- 
ers. Also, there are helpful suggestions 
on the selection, training and supervi- 
sion of volunteers. Two special plans 
for the development of leaders are out- 
lined: (1) the club organization plan, 
and (2) on the job training. Subjects 
and course content are suggested, and 
samples of how to develop topics, sea- 
son's training program, and suggestions 
for the leader's personal resource book 
are given. 

Many forms of recognition are in- 
cluded and devices for motivation are 
suggested, such as: uniforms, insignia, 
emblems, pins, cards, annual picture, 
certificates, citations, dinners, socials 
and special meetings. Methods of ex- 
pressing appreciation and the presenta- 
tion of awards in recognition of volun- 
teer service are dealt with in considera- 
ble detail. The manual should be helpful 
to students in training and professional 
personnel using volunteer leadership. 
W. C. Sutherland, Director of Recrea- 
tion Personnel Service, NRA. 

Easter Idea Book 

Charlotte Adams. M. Barrows and 
Company, Inc., 425 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 16. Pp. 192. $3.50. 

Just off press in time for holiday 
planning, the Easter Idea Book contains 
some clever tricks for table centerpieces 
and favors and recipes for a variety of 
foods, from main dishes to appropriate 
candies, punches, desserts. Placecards, 
Easter baskets, decorated eggs, gifts to 
make for children and for grown-ups, 
and some brief notes about Easter 
plants, pets, and cards are also included 
in Mrs. Adams' attractive little book. 

* See footnote on page 143. 


Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 

March, April and May, 1955 


Social Recreation 

Phoenix, Arizona 
March 14-17 

Pasadena, California 
March 21-31 

Los Angeles County, California 
April 11-21 

Fontana, California 
April 25-28 

Redding, California 
May 9-12 

Hayward, California 
May 16-19 

Stillwater, Oklahoma 
May 31-June 3 

Henry T. Swan, Superintendent of Recreation, 2700 North 15th 

Edward E. Bignell, Director of Recreation, 1501 East Villa Street 

B. P. Gruendyke, Superintendent, Department of Parks and Recre- 
ation, 834 W. Olympic Boulevard, Los Angeles 

Bart R. McDermott, Director of Recreation 

Merritt A. Nelson, Superintendent of Recreation-Parks, City Hall 

Harold L. Teel, Superintendent, Park, Recreation and Parkway 
District, 1015 E Street 

George E. Hull, Assistant State 4-H Club Leader, Extension Service, 
County Agent Work 


Social Recreation 

Manchester, Georgia 
March 7-10 

Cicero, Illinois 
March 14-17 

Pacific Northwest District 
April 4-May 12 

C. V. Blankenship, Callaway Mills Company 

Alan B. Domer, Executive Director, Cicero Youth Commission, 
5341 W. Cermak Road 

W. H. Shumard, NRA District Representative, 2864 30th Avenue, 
W., Seattle, Washington 


Social Recreation 

Tampa, Florida 
March 7-10 

Dade County, Florida 
March 14-17 

Hollywood, Florida 
March 21-24 

White Plains, New York 
March 29-April 1 

Fayette County, Kentucky 
May 2-5 

Wichita, Kansas 
May 16-19 

Missouri Recreation Workshop 
May 28-June 3 

Dr. Robert L. Fairing, Head, Department of Citizenship Training, 
General Extension Division of Florida, University of Florida, 

Carl Waite, Commissioner of Recreation, Administration Building 

John F. Gettler, Director, Fayette County Playground and Recrea- 
tion Board, 400 Lafayette Drive, Lexington 

Pat Haggerty, Superintendent of Recreation, Board of Park Com- 

Robert L. Black, Community Recreation Assistant, Missouri Divi- 
sion of Resources and Development, Jefferson Bldg., Jefferson City 


Arts and Crafts 

Topeka, Kansas 
March 28-April 7 

Midland, Michigan 
May 23-26 

R. Foster Blaisdell, Superintendent, Topeka Recreation Commission, 
Municipal Building 

David Russell, Director, Midland Community Center, 127 Townsend 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsor 
of the course listed above. 


West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter 


ENGINE 93 streaked through Arizona, its 
eight steel wheels flailing the track. 
And when the young lady at the controls 
thought the engineer wasn't looking, she 
opened up the throttle another notch. 

She was Nellie Bly. reporter for the New 
York World. And she was in a big hurry 
to reach Jersey City and beat a fictional 
man in a trip around the globe. The man's 
name was Phileas Fogg, phlegmatic Eng- 
lish hero of a popular novel by M. Jules 
Verne: Around The World In 80 Days. 

And beat him she did in just over 72 
days with only one dangerous incident. 
A "titled cad" tried to flirt with her in the 
middle of the Indian Ocean, but even he 
subsided when she threatened to signal 
the nearest U. S. man-of-war. 

M. Verne cried "bravo ! " when he heard 
her triumph. And all 1890 America 
cheered. For hers was the authentic Ameri- 
can spirit that translates dreams into prac- 
tical realities. 

It's the same spirit that lives in today's 
160 million Americans, who far from 
incidentally are the real assets making 
U. S. Series E Savings Bonds one of the 
world's finest investments. 

Why not profit by your faith in your 
fellow Americans and yourself? Guard 
your future, and your country's, by buying 
Bonds regularly ! 

It's actually easy to save money when you 
buy United States Series E Savings Bonds 
through the automatic Payroll Savings Plan 
where you work! You just sign an application 
at your pay office; after that your saving is 
done for you. And the Bonds you receive will 
pay you interest at the rate of 3% per year, com- 
pounded semiannually, for as long as 19 years 
and 8 months if you wish! Sign up today! Or, 
if you're self-employed, invest in Bonds regu- 
larly where you bank. For your own security, 
and your country's too, save with United States 
Savings Bonds! 


The U.S. Government dots mil />ar jar this atifrrtixrmmt. It is danntrd IIY this publication in cooperation with the 
Advertising Council and the Magaiinr Publishers of America. 


Looking ahead to summer programs? Need materials . . . for play- 
ground leadership training courses . . . for volunteer leaders . . . for 
new personnel . . . for experienced personnel in search of new 
ideas? These publications are geared to your needs. Order now! 


A guide for all who employ, train, or supervise playground leaders for 
everyone concerned with better playground programs. Prepared by Raymond 
T. Forsberg for the Committee on In-Service Training of the NRA National 
Advisory Committee on Recruitment, Training, and Placement of Recreation 



A set of twelve idea-packed bulletins for playground activities every play- 
ground and every play leader needs it. Order now out May 1. ($2.00 for 
NRA members) 


Arts and Crafts Book List (P 42) 

Extensive listing of references classified by types of 

Craft Projects for Camp and Playground (P 173)... 

Finger Puppets (P 112) 

Flying High Kites and Kite Tournaments (P 65), 

Make Your Own Games (P 124) 

Make Your Own Puzzles (P 126) 

Masks Fun to Make and Wear (P 107) 

Nature Crafts for Camp and Playground (P 177)... 

Nature Prints (P 180) 

Simple Frames For Weaving (P 178) 

Simple Puppetry (P 96) 

Directions for making and leadership techniques. 

Nature Games for Various Situations (P 187) 

Informal Dramatics; Playground Series: No. 2 (P 100). 

Inexpensive Costumes for Plays, Festivals and Pageants 
(P 203) 

A detailed discussion of inexpensive costumes how to 
make them, materials to use, how to costume a play, etc. 





Joseph Lee Memorial Pageant (P 58) 25 

Pageants and Programs for School. Church and 
Playground (P 206) 

Active Games for the Live Wires (P 98). 

88 Successful Play Activities 

Rules for many special events, including kite contests, 
doll shows, pushmobile contests, marble tournaments 
and many others. 


For the Storyteller 75 

How to select stories and tell them effectively; bibli- 

Games for Boys and Men 50 

He-man activities! Active and quiet games, stunts, con- 
tests and other fun-filled ideas. 

A Playground Fair (P 138) 25 

A playground show featuring music, dancing and nov- 
elty acts. 

Singing Games (P 21) 50 

Well-known and not-so-well-known singing games for 
the five-to-seven age group. 

Suggestions for an Amateur Circus (P 130) 35 

Treasure Hunts (MP 212) 35 

Excitement, adventure and loads of fun in these hints 
for hunts. 

Action Songs (P 89) 35 

Songs which provide fun and exercise for large groups 
where space is limited. 

Annotated Bibliography for Music Leaders in Camp, Play- 
ground, Recreation Center (MP 303) 15 

Community and Assembly Singing 75 

A 64-page guide for those conducting community sing- 

The Playground Leader His Place in the Program (P 103) 50 

A discussion of the importance of leadership and ways 
of developing the qualities of good leadership. 

Some Leadership "Do's" (MP 389) 25 

Personnel qualifications, preparation for recreation lead- 
ership and leadership techniques. 

Youth Out of Doors (P 216) 15 

Suggestions for various kinds of outings, sports and out- 
door social activities and service projects. 

8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 


Call Blankville 6-3251 for information 


19 % ''wide 
11 3/ 8 "high 


10-24 $.20 ea. 
25-49 .18ea. 
50-100. 15 ea. 

on larger 
on request 

This space 
left blank 
for you to 
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APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 

National Advisory Committee on State Recreation 

The National Advisory Committee on State Recreation is composed of state officials con- 
cerned with recreation services and programs. The Committee will function in the following ways : 
to help the National Recreation Association to be a clearing house on the subject of state sponsored 
recreation services ; as a study group to help the Association determine problems and to help in the 
solution of these problems; to assist the Association in the dissemination of information on state 
recreation matters; to help coordinate the work of the Association in this phase of the recreation 
field with the activities of other national, professional and service organizations concerned with 
this aspect of recreation. 


Director of Recreation, California Recreation 

Sacramento, California 

HAROLD K. JACK Vice-Chairman 
Supervisor of Health and Physical Education, 
Safety and Recreation, State Board of Edu- 
Richmond, Virginia 


Recreation Consultant, State Planning Board 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 


Director, North Carolina Recreation Commission 

Raleigh, North Carolina 


Community Recreation Assistant, Missouri Division of 

Resources and Development 
Jefferson City, Missouri 


Executive Secretary, Inter-Agency Council for Recrea- 
Lansing, Michigan 

Vermont Director of Recreation 
Montpelier, Vermont 


Recreation Specialist, Agricultural Extension Service 

Fort Collins, Colorado 


Chief, Division of Parks, Department of National Re- 
Columbus, Ohio 


Director, Division of Health and Physical Education, 

State Education Department 
Albany, New York 


State Recreation Consultant, University of Kansas 

Lawrence, Kansas 


Supervisor, Health, Physical Education, Recreation 

and Safety, Department of Education 
Columbus, Ohio 

Assistant Director, Field Department, Nation- 
al Recreation Association 
New York, New York 


Extension Specialist in Recreation, University of Mas- 
Amherst, Massachusetts 


Consultant on Community Recreation, State Depart- 
ment of Public Welfare 
Austin, Texas 


Supervisor, Health, Physical Education, Recreation 

and Safety, Department of Education 
St. Paul, Minnesota 


Extension Rural Recreationist, University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 


Associate Professor of Outdoor Education, Michigan 

State College 
East Lansing, Michigan 


Director of Recreation, New York State Youth Com- 
Albany, New York 


Recreation Consultant, Department of Conservation 
Nashville, Tennessee 


Director, State Parks and Recreation Commission 

Seattle, Washington 


Director, State Parks and Recreation Commission 

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 



APRIL 1955 




Editorial Assistant, AMELIA HENLY 

Business Manager, ALFRED H. WILSON 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 


Price 50 Cents 

No. 4 

On the Cover 

On the playgrounds all over America this spring and 
summer, children will have the opportunity to 
realize the meaning of this line from Robert Louis 
Stevenson's Child's Garden of Verses. Photo cour- 
tesy of Long Beach Recreation Commission, Long 
Beach, California. 

Next Month 

Several May articles will emphasize the impor- 
tance of family recreation and what recreation 
leaders can do about it. Tying in with Music Week, 
May 1 to 8, and with the National Recreation Con- 
gress, "Music as Recreation" gives the story of Den- 
ver's fine city-wide music program. "Recreation in 
Correctional Institutions" interprets the purposes 
and aims behind prison recreation. Program articles 
carry how-to-do information on a variety of 

Photo Credits 

Page 154 (top), 185, Department of Recreation, 
Los Angeles; 155 (left), 156, Charles Daugherty, 
New York City; 164, 165, 168 (bottom left), Winne- 
bago Newspapers, Inc.; 168 (bottom right), Recrea- 
tion Department, Charleston, W. Va.; 169 (top cen- 
ter), Public Schools, Madison, Wis., (top right), 
Harold Winder, Oakland, Calif., (center right), 
Recreation Commission, Tacoma, Wash., (bottom 
right), William Z. Harmon, Sarasota, Fla.; 181, De- 
partment of Parks, New York City; 182, 190, Depart- 
ment of Public Recreation, Sioux City, Iowa. 

RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a 
service organization supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, at 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
York; is on file in public libraries and is indexed in 
the Readers' Guide, Subscriptions $4.00 a year. 
Canadian and foreign subscription rate $4.50. Re- 
entered as second-class matter April 25, 1950, at the 
Post Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879- Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. Microfilms of cur- 
rent issues available University Microfilms, 313 N. First 
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Space Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 East 
44th Street, New York 17, New York; Mark Minahan, 
168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; Keith 
H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, and 
593 Market Street, Suite 304, San Francisco 5, 

Copyright, 1955, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. X==? 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



Getting at the Fundamentals of Group Discipline (Editorial) 

Rudolph M. Whittenberg 148 

Howdy Pardner (1955 National Recreation Congress) 152 

New Concepts Behind Designs for Modern Playgrounds 

Robert B. Nichols 154 

How We Plan Joseph Lee Day Nathan L. M alii son 158 

Organization for Children's Fiesta Parade . . . George H. Adams 161 

Crafts That Show Imagination 163 

Playground Experimentation Pays Off. . .D. James Brademas 164 

Recipe for Playgrounds 168 

People in The News 17Q 


Outdoor Swimming Pools Part IV George D. Butler 181 

Playground Equipment Boxes 188 

Sixteen Rural Playgrounds Within a Year. . . William P. Seirup 192 


Two Playground Plans Patrick J. Ryan 166 

Games and Status Experience 

Brian Sutton-Smith and Paul Gump 172 

Carving Projects 

Relief Carving Clark Heiple 175 

Exploring Crayon Carving Clyde C. Clack 175 

Practical Techniques for Leadership of Games. .Frank H. Geri 176 

What the Playground Can Do for the Handicapped Child 

John A. Turner 178 

A New Trend in Playground Training Courses 

(Idea of the Month) Leonard Naab 179 

Egg Decorations (How To Do It) Frank A. Staples 180 


Things You Should Know 150 

Letters 151 

Personnel Tools for Effective Learning 

Theodore R. Deppe 194 

Market News 196 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Periodicals, 

Magazine Articles 198 

Index of Advertisers 199 

New Publications 200 

How To Do It ! Idea of the Month See Program 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses Inside Back Cover 

APRIL 1955 


Rudolph M. Wittenberg 


Getting at the Fundamentals 

of Group Discipline 

WHEN WE use the word discipline 
here, we take it to mean a process 
of change that comes about through the 
group of which the individual is a part. 
Because each of us has belonged to 
many groups since early childhood - 
from family and nursery school on to 
clubs and churches, schools and play- 
grounds this process of change has 
gone through many stages. All of them 
together help us to understand just what 
discipline really is. 

When I can take part in a group and 
feel free when others agree or disagree 
with me, when I can be myself and still 
accept many other people with all their 
differences, I have developed a measure 
of discipline. 

Once I have really recognized and ac- 
knowledged what is necessary for me 
and others, I can think of myself as a 
free person and at the same time a dis- 
ciplined person. In this sense discipline 
is freedom. It is not compulsion. Dis- 
cipline in a democracy is freedom. In 
a police state discipline is compulsion. 
The two kinds of discipline are com- 
pletely different. 

Just as it goes through a process of 
development in the individual, so dis- 
cipline goes through several phases of 
development in groups and in society 
as a whole. 

Most people probably would agree 
that discipline has something to do with 
control. To be sure, it would be difficult 
to find an audience that could readily 
agree on just how we get control; 
whether it should be imposed or come 

DR. WITTENBERG, for four years has 
served as psychiatric consultant for the 
Hudson Guild in New York as well as 
in a number of other agencies, and has 
taught at the New School of Social Re- 
search, New York City. 

from within. There would be differences 
on how much control is needed in indi- 
viduals, in groups, and in our society. 
It seems clear, however, that, in spite of 
all the differences, most people think of 
discipline in connection with control. 

A father of some young children said 
that control is like the brakes in his car. 
If he didn't use control once in a while, 
the kids would run wild just like his car. 

A group leader said that she wanted 
to control her children because she had 
much to give them in the way of arts 
and crafts, which would develop their 
free creative abilities. "If I don't have 
any control," she said, "I can't give 
them anything, because they would 
spend their time in destructive activity. 
For example, in woodwork the boys 
used to take the saw and bang down on 
the table with the teeth, ruining the tool 
and making it impossible for any other 
child who wanted to make something to 
use the saw." She went to the cabinet in 
her craft shop and took out some inter- 
esting objects. "With control I have 
been able to direct the children's ener- 
gies into something creative," she ex- 
plained. "Now, instead of ruining a set 
of saw teeth, they have been making 
these nice birdhouses and boats, and 
boxes of furniture for their dollhouses." 

But the matter of control is not quite 
as simple as it sounds at first. 

A dramatic group in a small town 
was told that the idea was for the play- 
ers to have a lot of fun and not to be 
worried about the performance. Maybe 
the youngsters did have fun, but on the 
night of the performance nobody knew 
his lines, every other minute one of 
them peeped through the curtain, the 
lights didn't go on or off on time, the 
papier-mache tree fell down and hit one 
of the children, the parents were upset. 
Did the group have too little control? 

Was it wrong to tell them to have fun, 
or just what was the matter here? 

One way in which we can answer 
these and many other questions about 
discipline and control is to think back 
to when we first learned to control some 
of our feelings. Of course, some group 
leaders, teachers, and ministers do not 
need to do this; they just seem to have 
a "natural" knack for discipline. 

A great many things can be learned, 
however, particularly if we understand 
what we are after and how to go about 
getting the results we want. Certainly 
the development of control is not magic. 
Much is known today about how habits 
and attitudes are developed and the way 
in which control is learned. 

Some basic principles that help us to 
understand how control develops in all 
of us are based both on practical experi- 
ence and on a number of scientific stud- 
ies. We know, for instance, that destruc- 
tive or "undisciplined" behavior can be 
very satisfying. In our old photo album 
there is a picture that my mother used to 
show me. Against the background of the 
ocean and sea-grass stand my brother 
and I, close together, looking into the 
camera. I have my arm around my 
brother's shoulder and smile quite mali- 
ciously, while my poor younger brother 
is near tears. I distinctly remember that 
the hand around his shoulder was not 
within view of my father's camera but 
was where I could pinch him without 
being seen. This unbrotherly behavior 
was very satisfying to me. 

All of us can remember episodes in 
our childhood and adolescence when we 

Quoted from Chapter I, The Art of Group 
Discipline by Rudolph M. Wittenberg, pub- 
lished by the Association Press, 291 Broad- 
way, New York 17. $3.00. In his book Dr. 
Wittenberg goes on to present further basic 
principles which help the leader, and con- 
-inn-live ways of using control in groups. 

did wrong things, destructive things, 
and enjoyed doing them very much. 

Also, we know that we give up a satis- 
faction only for something that is more 
satisfying. "Look, Mister," said one of 
the children playing on the empty lot, 
among broken bottles and rusty cans, 
"we don't want to come to your place." 
The settlement worker was telling them 
about the fine swimming pool, the gym, 
and the floodlight out on the diamond, 
but the gang preferred the empty lot 
and the street. They had been told for 
so long that they were "bad kids," that 
by now they believed it and got some 
satisfaction out of it. 

These boys would not give up their 
destructive behavior for a swimming 
pool or gym, but they would give it up 
if the worker took the trouble to make 
them feel that they were respected and 
were really very decent boys. To be ac- 
cepted for what one is is more satisfy- 
ing than to take pride in being bad. 

For a long time fourteen-year-old 
Barbara's only satisfaction in dramatics 
was to have the main part. When she 
did not get it she was very unhappy, 
and all her parents' consoling did not 
help. Then the time came when it was 
more important for her to be accepted 
by her group of boys and girls than to 
have the limelight all to herself. It was 
then that she was perfectly satisfied with 
any part, or even no part, as long as she 
was accepted by her group and knew 
that there would be a good production. 
This meant more than the original satis- 
faction of being a prima donna. 

To be completely accepted by indivi- 
duals, and later on by groups, is more 
satisfying than almost anything else in 
the world. This unconditional accept- 
ance makes it possible for people to give 
up some of their original destructive, 
uncontrolled drives. 

Although a group leader very often 
cannot accept certain actions of his 
group, he will have to learn to accept 
the persons involved if he hopes to de- 
velop more control. An undisciplined 
child or group needs more love and 
more acceptance, not more speeches. 
Some people find it difficult or impossi- 
ble to give up certain kinds of behavior, 
no matter how useless or harmful they 
know them to be. They do not really 
understand why they are acting this 
way because they are not aware of the 

unconscious satisfactions that cause 
them to persist in this type of behavior. 

Another of these principles tells us 
that constructive and destructive behav- 
ior are relative terms; therefore disci- 
pline and control are not static but dy- 
namic concepts. Another way of stating 
this is by saying: It all depends on what 
we call "destructive" and what "con- 
structive." For example, if a youngster 
plays with a ball in the house, it may be 
considered all right until the ball hits 
a vase; then it becomes destructive. 

Take the small child two or three 
years old who loves to have his father 
make a high tower with building blocks. 
When the tower is finished, he runs 
against it and knocks the whole thing 
down. He laughs when the blocks tum- 
ble to the floor with a great racket. Since 
this is the age at which children investi- 
gate things by breaking them up, this 
is really a constructive activity for him. 
But if a ten-year-old did the same thing 
we would call it destructive, because it 
would be an indication of a strong urge 
to destroy, and maybe to hurt others. 

This is a most important principle in 
understanding the concept of discipline, 
because it makes clear that the develop- 
ment of control is a process, something 
that takes place over a long period of 
time and that goes through a number of 
phases. If we look at a youngster at 
a given moment only and see him re- 
sisting or being cooperative, we don't 
really know whether or not he is devel- 
oping discipline, because we have to 
relate his behavior to his total develop- 
ment. We have to understand what is 
good behavior for him and in what way 
the group can help him to develop it 

Thus we see that whether behavior is 
to be considered destructive or con- 
structive depends both on the particular 
phase in which we observe the indivi- 
dual and on the mores of the group. 
It is helpful to remember this when we 
become discouraged because our efforts 
to attain more discipline in a group do 
not seem to yield immediate results. 
This important field is a broad one 
and cannot, of course, be covered in a 
brief magazine article. It merits read- 
ing and study by all group leaders in- 
terested in improving their own under- 
standing of people and their own 
leadership techniques. Ed. 


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It's a healthful exercise and the popular 
way to build strong bodies. A favorite 
with boys and girls and budget planners, 
too . . . roller skating makes a grand co- 
recreational activity. Handles the largest 
groups quickly and easily. Halls, gyms, 
or any large floor area make fine roller 
rinks. Invest in health and fun this season. 

r Rubber Tire Skates 


Gyms, Ballrooms or Halls 


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floors or any highly waxed surface. 
Will not harm or mark. 

Write Now to Hie Leader in Rink 
Skates on How to Start 


The Choice of Champions ... for over 45 Years 
4490 West Lake Street Chicago 24, Illinois 

APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


barred, as being as unconstitutional as 
segregation in the public schools, by 
the United States Fourth Circuit Court 
of Appeals. This court reversed a de- 
cision of the Federal District Court at 
Baltimore which had held that segrega- 
tion in public recreational facilities was 
permissible if both races were given 
equal facilities. 

This separate but equal doctrine as 
applied to public schools was scrapped 
by the Supreme Court last May. Ac- 
cording to the Circuit Court, the May 
decision also swept away any basis for 
keeping the races separated in public 
parks or playgrounds. This ruling sends 
the case back to the Baltimore District 
Court. It is reported that the city and 
state can ask that the Circuit Court's 
mandate be stayed if they appeal to the 
Supreme Court within thirty days, or 
ask the Circuit Court for a rehearing. 

CISION on desegregation in the public 
schools, and the need for increasing the 
availability of the knowledge and tech- 
niques of human relations for teachers 
and others interested in intergroup 
problems, American University will 
offer the Sixth Institute on Human Re- 


MAY 1-7 

lations and Intergroup Understanding 
from June 20 through July 11, 1955. 
Write to the university, Washington 6, 
D. C., for details. 


in the field of social work, to be known 
as the National Association of Social 
Workers, will come into being October 
1, 1955, with an initial membership of 
20,000 professional social workers. 
Seven national organizations have 
agreed upon the formation of a single 
professional association, after six years 
of negotiation and planning. These are 
the American Association of Group 
Workers, American Association of 
Medical Social Workers, American As- 
sociation of Psychiatric Social Work- 
ers, Association for the Study of Com- 
munity Organization, National Associa- 
tion of School Social Workers, Ameri- 
can Association of Social Workers, and 
the Social W r ork Research Group. 

LORS, TEACHERS, and others concerned 
with planning youth programs will find 
ideas for exciting indoor and outdoor 
activities in a kit prepared by the United 
States Committee for UNICEF, Under- 
standing Our Neighbors. This is avail- 
able, for $1.00, from United States 
Committee for UNICEF, Room 1860, 
United Nations, New York. 

WORKERS the NRA executive director, 
Joseph Prendergast, has been invited to 
serve on the Health and Welfare Advis- 
ory Council to the National CIO Com- 
munity Service Committee which helps 
with individual community welfare 

Adult Education Association, following 
publication of the February editorial by 
Malcolm Knowles, the association's ad- 
ministrative coordinator, the full title 
of that association is the Adult Educa- 
tion Association of the U.S.A. In other 
words, the AEA is a national organiza- 
tion with offices in Chicago. Incidental- 
ly, it publishes, among other things, the 
excellent magazine, Adult Leadership. 

Address: 743 N. Wabash Avenue, Chi- 
cago 11, Illinois. 


Taking Hold of TV by Roger S. Hall, 
which was reviewed on our New Publi- 
cations page in February, was publish- 
ed by the National Publicity Council. 
Price $2.00. 

New Insurance Plan 

The new 1955 group accident insur- 
ance plan established for the National 
Recreation Association by the Ameri- 
can Casualty Company of Reading, 
Pennsylvania, is now available for base- 
ball and softball teams. Coverage can 
be secured for teams in the eight-to- 
twelve-year-old group, thirteen-to-eight- 
een, and over eighteen, in both baseball 
and softball for NRA Affiliate Mem- 

The basic policy provides up to a 
maximum of $1,000 for medical ex- 
penses plus an additional $1,000 in the 
event of death or dismemberment. An 
optional $10 deductible feature permits 
extremely low rates. Premiums begin 
at $15 per team for the eight-to-twelve- 
year-olds $11.50 with the deductible 
and go up to $73.50 for baseball for 
the over-eighteen-year-olds. Coverage 
begins on the date application and check 
reach NRA headquarters and continues 
through until October 1, 1955. Write 
the Association for full information. 

Don't sit back 



Give to 


Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
may be exchanged with others on the wide range of 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree with the authors of our articles. 

The Editors. 

Quick Action 


Our thanks to you for including our 
article, "From Courtroom to Class- 
room" in your February issue of REC- 
REATION magazine. Already one of the 
local branch libraries has called and of- 
fered their basement for a craft class 
and we are starting use of this. 

HELEN COOVER, Assistant Director, 
Department of Recreation, Kalama- 
zoo, Michigan. 

Proposing a National Inventory 


I have spent several hours reading 
and reflecting upon the very recent pub- 
lication of the National Recreation As- 
sociation entitled Recreation As a Pro- 
fession in the Southern Region. In my 
opinion, this is an excellent study, and 
for it the NRA and the Southern Re- 
gional Education Board deserve the ac- 
claim of the entire profession. 

For the first time we now have a criti- 
cal analysis of the status of the profes- 
sion, albeit on a regional basis. The 
facts revealed in the study are not such 
as to make us extremely proud of our 
professional status, but they should 
serve to indicate some of the areas in 
which we need to accelerate efforts to 
achieve progress. 

I believe that the book will be widely 
read and reflected upon. A knowledge 
of present status is the point of depar- 
ture toward improvement, and there- 
fore it is my sincere hope that the NRA 
will complete a splendid beginning by 
undertaking, in cooperation with na- 
tional professional societies, a national 
inventory of the recreation profession. 

Please accept my sincere congratula- 
tions for this valuable study, with spe- 


Now, for first time, you can buy full sides of 
top grain cowhide at our special, amazingly 
low "Tannery-to-you" prices. For details, 
write Dept. 6, W. D. Byron & Sons, Williams- 
port, Md. Fine cowhide tanners since 1832. 

cial praise to Mr. W. C. Sutherland and 

Mr. Alfred Jensen. 

G. B. FITZGERALD, Director of Rec- 
reation Training, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Recreation and Adult Education 

Sirs : 

I was most interested in Mr. Knowles' 
editorial, "Recreation and Adult Edu- 
cation," in your February issue. I could 
not agree more thoroughly with his 
statement, "The marraige of these two 
approaches to human welfare will not 
occur so much as the result of abstract 
philosophizing as through the artistry 
of our workers." Is it not time that we 
all concentrate on what we are doing 
and how well we can do it, rather than 
what we call what we're doing? Here's 
an analagous situation: Is it therapy 
when the polio victim exercises his 
hands through crafts or is it recreation? 
Why battle with terms? It's the things 
that are accomplished that are vital. 

Purposes involved? Outcomes? I 
would take issue with Mr. Knowles on the 
basic differences in outcomes between 
adult education and recreation as he took 
issue with himself as to the differences in 
purposes and aims of the two profes- 
sions. There is ample evidence of per- 
sonal growth and learning in recreation 
situations. Watch a group of eight- 
year-olds in a game of Kickball, or ob- 
serve the local teen center's photogra- 
phy club in action. On the other side, 
the adult education course which 
teaches me the art of hooking rugs may 
have its greatest outcome in the pleas- 
urable social experiences involved. 

Let's get back to that "artistry of our 

workers" idea. A qualified leader, be 

he in adult education, recreation, or any 

other comparable profession, combines 

appreciations and satisfactions with 

learning. Let's spend more time and 

energy on cooperation between the two 

fields and less time on drawing sharp 

lines of professional "no trespassing." 

JANET R. MACLEAN, Instructor of 

Recreation, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana. 


I especially enjoyed reading Mr. 
Knowles' editorial on the relationship 
of adult education to recreation, and I 
consider this one of the finest state- 
ments I have ever read concerning the 
close interrelationships between these 
two important approaches to human 

Mr. Knowles has pointed out that, 
ideally, there should be no difference be- 
tween adult education and adult recre- 
ation. I am in complete agreement with 
this point of view. I feel that if adult 
education activities are to be really ef- 
fective, the participant must have the 
right to choose those activities in which 
he engages. At the same time, these ac- 
tivities should be pleasurable and 
should result in self-improvement. If 
the activities can satisfy these criteria, 
then they may also be properly classi- 
fied as recreation activities. 

As early as 1917, the National Recre- 
ation Association set forth as one of the 
seven basic objectives of education "the 
worthy use of leisure time." Since then, 
the schools have increasingly concerned 
themselves with teaching boys and girls 
the fundamental skills and attitudes 
which will enable them to enjoy for the 
rest of their lives a variety of interest- 
ing and worthwhile activities during 
their leisure time. There is also a grow- 
ing trend toward schools providing 
adult education and recreation pro- 
grams, or contributing leadership, fa- 
cilities, and funds to make such pro- 
grams possible. Thus the marriage of 
education and recreation has resulted 
in increased leisure-time opportunities 
for people of all ages. 

in Recreation and Outdoor Educa- 
cation, American Association for 
Health, Physical Education and Rec- 
reation, Washington, D. C. 

Other letters of comment about the 
February guest editorial by Malcolm 
Knowles, administrative coordinator of 
the Adult Education Association of the 
U.S.A., have been received and will 
appear in our May issue. Ed. 

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APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Raise Your Sights 
For Denver ! 

LOT OF folks certainly have been busy, and the result 
is that the Congress preliminary program outline is 
scheduled for mailing this month. It contains full informa- 
tion about plans for section meetings, plans for some of the 
special events that are in store for delegates, and it tries to 
answer many questions about the 1955 Congress. 

Congress headquarters will be at the Hotel Shirley-Savoy, 
but meetings will be held in the Brown Palace Hotel and the 
Cosmopolitan Hotel as well. These three hotels are located in 
the same vicinity. All hotel reservations are being handled 
by the Denver Convention and Visitors Bureau. Please 
address your requests for reservations to the bureau at 225 
West Colfax, indicating your preference. The hotel will 
send you confirmation. Rates in the three hotels: 

Shirley-Savoy Brown Palace Cosmopolitan 

Twins and 

Connecting Rooms 

(one bath) 12.00 to 14.00 

Suites 16.00 18.00 up 18.00 to 30.00 

Meetings of the American Recreation Society will convene 
before the National Recreation Congress and will be held 
at the Albany Hotel. Members of the Society will receive 
further information directly from the Society about plans 
for those meetings, including hotel reservation information. 

$ 4.00 to $ 6.00 $ 7.50 to $15.00 $ 6.00 to $ 9.00 
7.00 to 10.00 12.00 to 18.00 10.00 to 16.00 


In addition to the committees listed in RECREATION a 
month ago, several others have been appointed. They are: 

Local Arrangements Committee J. Earl (Curley) Schlupp, 
chairman. David M. Abbott, assistant manager, Denver De- 
partment of Improvements and Parks; James Bible, super- 
intendent, Denver City Parks; Mrs. John Gorsuch, vice- 
president, Colorado State Conference of Social Welfare ; El- 
mer Hager, Colorado District VFW; John N. Perryman, 
Denver Convention and Visitors Bureau; Mrs. Louis A. Pol- 
lock, Denver Area Welfare Council; Stuart Richter, Colo- 
rado Springs, president, Colorado Recreation Society; Gar- 
net Stone, supervisor of recreation, Denver Public Schools. 

Town-Country Advisory Committee Donald Clayton, rural 

The big round-up is startin for the 
1955 Congress, that is. Out here Denver 
way a lot of folks are hard at work al- 
ready. And from the looks of Curley' s 
mail there's a lot goin on back east in 
New York. Jot down the dates Septem- 
ber 27 to October 1 and start makin' 
yore plans to discuss recreation at the 
top of the nation. 

sociologist in charge of recreation, South Dakota Extension 
Service; Richard Ferguson, director of recreation, Lake 
County, Colorado; Mrs. Esther Harbo, Rocky Mountain 
Fanners Union; Warren Newberry, American Farm Bureau 
Federation; Arden Peterson, Michigan State College; T. W. 
Thompson, director, National Committee for Boys and Girls 
Club Work, Chicago. 

Supervisors' Advisory Committee Miss Mora Grossman, 
supervisor of playgrounds and community centers, Balti- 
more ; Miss Stella E. Hartman, Community Welfare Council 
of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin ; Ralph B. McClintock, su- 
perintendent of parks and recreation, Omaha; Mrs. Frances 
Parrish, executive assistant, Department of Parks and Rec- 
reation, Louisville ; Miss Annabelle Story, American Nation- 
al Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 

Advisory Committee on Board Problems David Brace, 
Austin, Texas; Waldo J. Dahl, Seattle; Ed Haislett, Minne- 
apolis; Dr. Charles B. Hershey, Colorado Springs; David 
Kadane, Freeport, New York; Hall Nichols, Wellesley Hills, 
Massachusetts; Dr. C. M. Sarratt, Nashville; Fred Shoaf, 
Fort Wayne; Mrs. Frances Veeder, Lakewood, California. 

Denver Staff Committee The following members of the 
Denver recreation staff have been organized into a special 
committee to work with the Local Arrangements Committee 
listed above: Miss Theresa Chiesa, John Drake, Edward 
A. Haynes, George Kelly, G. W. Lutz, Miss Evelyn Runnette, 
Robert Smith, Ed Wallace, Miss Ida Mae Williams. 

In addition, the several national advisory committees to 
the National Recreation Association are assisting in the 
planning of certain Congress sessions. 

Special Train? 

Delegates who took the special train to the Seattle 
Congress will never forget the friends of that trip and 
the fun en route. Their annual reunions have become 
a regular feature of every Congress. 

It has been suggested that delegates from various 
parts of the country would enjoy going by special 
trains to Denver. If you are interested, please send 
a post card to T. E. Rivers, Secretary, National Rec- 
reation Congress, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, 
New York. If enough are interested, efforts will be 
made to organize trips and tours. 


tennis, badmin- 
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APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Designs for Modern Playgrounds 

Robert B. Nichols 

In Teddy Roosevelt's day playgrounds were outdoor gyms for 
body building. A Los Angeles playground a few years later. 

The early battle cry was "Get them off the streets!" Below, 
a tenement court with a few pieces of stereotype equipment. 

JUST AS PARKS have reflected social and cultural changes 
in their design, so, on a smaller scale, has the playground. 
This design is an expression of the social concept behind it, 
and this concept appears to be changing. The park of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth century was a hunting preserve laid 
out for kings, later to become by royal behest or revolu- 
tion in some cases the pleasure ground of their subjects. 
In the 1840's in England a new kind of park appeared the 
"picturesque" or "romantic" park, which, in America, was 
evolved by Olmstead. It arose to meet the challenge of the 
industrialized city and was designed to create or re-create 
a part of original nature in the midst of urban concentra- 
tion and ugliness. This park, in turn, has been modified by 
other pressures and today reflects in its recreation areas and 
other active facilities a new concept of present social need. 

Do we think of the playground as having a history? 
Properly speaking its history is a short one. It originated 
as part of the child welfare movement in the late nineteenth 
century and has been said to date in this country from the 
Children's Mission in Boston with its "three piles of yellow 
sand." In Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1870, the first mu- 
nicipal action was taken to acquire a playground site. By 
the turn of the century, activity on behalf of playgrounds 
was recorded in several cities. Following the organization 
in 1906 of the Playground Association of America 1 , the 
"playground movement" spread rapidly throughout the 

What kind of playgrounds were they? What were the 
social ideas behind them which were reflected in their de- 
signs? The accompanying photographs may give us some 
clue. The Los Angeles playground picture of long ago, with 
slides and swings, is that of an outdoor gymnasium. 

The problem was, of course, health, in an increasingly 
congested and debilitating city. In the solution the empha- 
sis, as we can see, was on body-building and physical equip- 

1 Now the National Recreation Association. 

ROBERT B. NICHOLS, a landscape architect, is the director of 
Playground Associates, Inc., New York City. 



ment for this purpose. Another problem was safety. The 
other picture, of a giant stride, was taken somewhat later 
on a guarded playground in a tenement court. It could be 
captioned: "Playgrounds reduce the number of accidents." 
Much heard at that time was the rallying cry : "Get them off 
the streets." The traffic menace was recognized even then. 

Safety then, and health, to be achieved through fenced 
areas and open-air gymnastic equipment: this was the plan- 
ning ideal of these early playground builders, linked pos- 
sibly with a philosophy popular at the time, that of the 
"energetic and strenuous life" of President Teddy Roose- 
velt. The two ideals of health and safety continue today, so 
strongly, in fact, that they may be said to represent the 
almost exclusive concern of one type of contemporary play- 
ground. But there are other types as well. 

For a moment let us follow the outdoor gymnasium, 
briefly, in its development. The basic factor here was tech- 
nical : the working out and perfecting of materials and con- 
struction methods. It is generally forgotten that even such 
standard materials as concrete and asphalt were a compara- 
tive innovation at that time, and their use as surfacing for 
the playground "floor" was an original achievement. Tech- 
nical advance also characterized the equipment proper. The 
emphasis on physical development and body-building pro- 
duced its appropriate design. Manufacturing skills, largely 
in steel pipe, were developed and elaborated with an inge- 
nuity and a mechanical exuberance that is typically Ameri- 
can. Some of the old steel slides are bizarre in the extreme. 
They are now as extinct as the woolly mammoth. Nonethe- 
less, they are the prototype of the equipment we see around 
us generally today. 

There was a development also towards standardization. 
As the playground movement expanded under municipal 
sponsorship, lack of supervision was a problem. As these 
new public areas multiplied, it was essential that their fur- 
nishings should be safe, well-built, and simplified. Some of 
the ancient humanitarian projects of the early playground 

builders were dropped (basket-making, raffia-weaving for 
the girls, and so on). Certain types of the more adventur- 
ous equipment were also eliminated traveling rings and, 
even to a large extent, the teeter-totter. Other types were of- 
ficially sanctioned. There evolved what we have come to 
think of today as the standard municipal playground, with 
its paved surface and fence, its classic equipment the slide, 
the sandpit, a bank of swings, and jungle gym. Even the 
new name of the latter has a municipal ring; it is called in 
some quarters the "pipe frame exercise unit." 

In the thirties came the housing authority projects with 
their own distinctive playgrounds. The essential problem 
for them, also, was lack of supervision and the necessity for 
health and safety. They, too, tended rapidly towards stand- 
ardization. The materials used, however, were refreshing 
often concrete and cinder block and their original designs 
were striking. Creative social influences were at work. We 
shall return to these later. 

Another and even more radical development in its impli- 
cations was the amusement park. This originated somewhat 
earlier, and has become for the younger children the "kid- 
dieland." Though usually not considered so by designers, 
the kiddieland is of genuine interest as a recreation type. 
Commercialized and vulgarized in this country to the ex- 
treme, it is, nevertheless, a form capable of great distinc- 
tion, as in the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. It represents 
in any case a distinctive social idea : that of amusement for 
amusement's sake achieved through color and excitement. 
In a society increasingly occupied with leisure and leisure's 
fruits, we can see this ferment at work already. It is bound 
to have an important influence on recreation design gener- 
ally and playgrounds in particular, such as the use of candy- 
striped swings and rocking horses in Philadelphia, 2 and 
elsewhere. 3 

There have been two further developments. One comes 

2 See Life magazine, September 13, 1954. 

3 See "Color and Playground Safety," RECREATION, May 1954. 

Equipment later grew more social in feeling with free swing- 
ing and climbing in every direction. Apparatus now in use. 

The commercial stereotype, standard equipment for today's 
"kiddie land." Non-creative in concept, it ends in boredom. 

APRIL 1955 



Stalking Big Gai 

Bucking Broncho 

Locomotive Engi 

Air Pilot 


From the Porthole 

Polar Bears 

Camel Drivers 

The spirit of modern education is to offer a variety of choices, 
opportunities for drama, improvisation, make-believe. An exam- 
ple of the new apparatus being used increasingly by public rec- 
reation departments is the "saddle slide" at Sarah Lawrence nur- 
sery school. Philadelphia has installed one at Connell Park and 
has purchased five others in its drive to modernize playgrounds. 
Abstract designs in this new sculptural equipment stimulate the 
imaginations of children to use them for countless adventures. 


to us from the kindergarten or pre-school, and has origi- 
nated in changing concepts of education, which are most 
clearly expressed in contemporary school architecture. If 
we are looking for the social idea behind the design of equip- 
ment and apparatus, however, no places are more interesting 
than the small nursery play areas, with their building blocks 
and other constructive toys, their painting sets, their music 
and children's books, their packing-box houses, boats, forts, 
and climbers. There is about these things first of all a sense 
of relationship to the size of the child, a vitally important 
element and one neglected until recently. Other ideas are 
versatility, spontaneity, a freedom and openness of physical 
plan and programming, the encouragement of dramatic and 
imaginative play. Surely this last idea had its effect on the 
public housing playgrounds. Would the concrete "air- 
planes," "tunnels," and "foxholes" have been even possible 
in the early nineteen hundreds? They represent in a very 
real sense a rediscovery of the child and of the child's own 
imaginative capabilities. 

A final playground type conies to us from the artist and 
sculptor. True, this is mostly in the future. In its most ad- 
vanced expression, the "terrain sculpture" of Giacometti 
and Noguchi, these playgrounds have as yet actually to be 
built. The idea behind them is a rejection of the flat paved 
surface with equipment superimposed above it. These art- 
ists see the entire space as a whole, both vertical and hori- 
zontal, with the ground forms and equipment designed to- 
gether as part of the same sculptural unity. This implies a 
teamwork among artists. Within the recreation framework, 
sculptor, mural painter, and landscape architect contribute 
equally to the design. To a great extent this has been 
achieved in Stockholm, Sweden, in the collaboration of Hol- 
ger Blom, chief park designer, with the sculptor Moller- 
Nielsen. In the Swedish parks, Nielsen's legeskulptur or play 
sculpture, is already a proven success. It has just begun to 
influence native design in this country (see photo of "saddle 
slide" at Sarah Lawrence College on page 156) . Often mis- 
called an "aesthetic" approach, this is on the contrary a 
very practical one. It represents a deep faith in the inspira- 
tion and imaginative resources of the child and the use of 
abstract sculpture to serve them. 

We have, then, four playground "types" if we can gen- 
eralize among them so broadly: the municipal, the amuse- 
ment park, the nursery play yard, the sculptural. Each dif- 
fers radically from the others, both in design and in the 
social ideal behind it. 

The social concepts behind recreation design are chang- 
ing. What has long been thought of as the "standard" play- 
ground appears to be in the process of changing also. What 
the future pattern will be is as yet impossible to determine. 
In any case, the main stream continues: an ever-evolving 
attempt on the part of designers and recreation specialists 
to meet the needs of the child. These are needs both of mind 
and body; they are social needs to prepare for adult life 
tomorrow and to provide creative leisure today. To this 
main stream, all four of the above mentioned playground 
types contribute, and elements of each are incorporated. 




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APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Our Mid-Summer High Spot 

Nathan L. Mallison 

"Jl/TY RECREATION bringing-up was in 
^*- the Joseph Lee tradition. I heard 
about him from Miss Fonde, first super- 
intendent of the Houston, Texas, recre- 
ation department, and read about him 
in RECREATION magazine. Three years 
of work in the recreation department 
passed before I met him. That was the 
same year I became Houston's first 
supervisor of playgrounds. I met Vic 
Brown that year, too. It was a pleasant 
triumvirate of events. 

The handlebar mustache and metal- 
rimmed eyeglasses made me think 
Joseph Lee might be conservative and 
dignified. As I attended the National 
Recreation Congress each year and saw 
the twinkle in his eye as he and Dr. 
John Findley batted witty remarks 
back and forth like a shuttlecock, I be- 
came more aware of the great interest 
he had in people in general, and in rec- 
reation workers specifically. I even for- 
got that New Englanders, Bostonians in 
particular, are supposed to be laconic, 
self-sufficient, independent. Since I was 
born and brought up in the Green 
Mountains of Vermont, it was easy to 
regard such opinions lightly. 

When Joseph Lee left us, it was nat- 
ural that his memory should stimulate 
an observance quite different from con- 
ventional memorial programs. REC- 
REATION magazine gave the impetus in a 
number of human interest stories about 
him. I told many of them to my present 
staff and they received, indirectly, some 
of the "lift" I received from him as a 
personality. Their enthusiasm each sum- 
mer, as they approach Joseph Lee Day 
on the last Friday in July, is similar to 
the spirit that pervades our nation at 
Christmastime. Everybody is in on the 
act. Morale skyrockets as the plans ma- 

MR. MALLISON is the superintendent of 
recreation in Jacksonville, Florida. 


How We Plan 


Lee Day 

July 29, 1955 

terialize and preparation gets under 
way. The result is a glorious day, with 
almost as many varieties of activities 
as Heinz has pickles. Such an observ- 
ance requires considerable attention to 
trifling details. While trifles don't make 
perfection, perfection is no trifle. 

First, we make a tentative list of 
events at a meeting of supervisors, using 
the previous year as a guide. Many ac- 
tivities have become traditional; the 
program must touch all age groups: 
there must be team games as well as in- 
dividual events for all; there must be 
the zest of competition, but not at the 
expense of a large participation. And 
there must be a good publicity stunt. 

The list is then discussed at the 
weekly staff meeting with the directors 
and, once accepted by all, it is mimeo- 
graphed as a timetable and schedule for 
activities. This is later incorporated into 
the four-page program which has a 
cover similar to a poster; second page, 
which carries a description of the ob- 
servance and the man who inspired it; 
third page, which has the schedule of 
activities ; and last page, which has gen- 
eral rules for participation. This pro- 
gram is distributed to schools, play- 
grounds, and all others concerned. 

Other preliminary steps taken are as 
follows : 

1. Preparing a list showing all serv- 
ices and equipment required, such as 
marking of courts, placing halyard on 
the flagpole, PA set, buses for the band, 

tables for craft exhibit, permission to 
use school auditorium across the street 
from the playground, portable stage for 
the talent show, soft drinks for the band, 
trash cans, permit to close a street for 
the pushmobile race, and so on. This is 
followed by making out the requisitions 
or requests for the services desired. 

2. Listing of all props and small 
items needed. This includes such things 
as softballs, bases, clipboards, type- 
writer, stop watches, paddles, tether 
balls, and so on. These are assembled 
in large canvas bags for transportation 
to the event. 

3. Assigning of staff personnel and 
volunteers to conduct the various events. 
This is a real Chinese puzzle which re- 
quires careful charting to utilize all 
workers to best advantage. The sched- 
ule for the program and the number of 
events running at one time depend upon 
available personnel. 

4. Practicing, by all playgrounds, of 
the events on an intramural basis, so 
that very little instruction is required 
on the day of the event. 

5. Handling of publicity, which in- 
cludes bulletins, radio, TV, newspaper 
articles and, best of all, word-of-mouth. 

After all the preparation, which takes 
the first part of the summer, is com- 
pleted only one thing remains a fer- 
vent prayer that it won't rain. 

The day arrives and youngsters con- 
verge on the two playgrounds where the 
(Continued on Page 160) 


What goes up must come 
down ! This very agile 
young lad, contestant in a 
rope-climb competition, 
pauses on his way down 
after successfully tapping 
the cowbell at top of climb. 

The rope jumping event on Joseph Lee Day includes 
ten to fifteen feats of varying difficulty created by the 
contestants. This active young lady was the winner. 

A section of the annual craft exhibit is reserved for 
adults. A perennial favorite is the series of miniature 
stage settings for the story of "The Three Bears." 

Speed demon made his pushmobile from a board, a 
basket, unmatched wheels of two express wagons. 

Noon talent show often includes hillbilly combinations, 
like this one, who imitate the popular singing cowboys. 

APRIL 1955 



(Continued from PagelSS) 

celebrations will be held. Some come in 
buses, others on bicycles, afoot, and in 
groups in cars driven by mothers. Di- 
rectors arrive in immaculate, starched 
whites, carrying clipboards with essen- 
tial information. The band forms near 
the flagpole. Lunches and extra gar- 
ments are checked. Equipment is ar- 
ranged in orderly fashion within a 
roped enclosure under the supervision 
of the "props" clerk. (After each con- 
test or event the director in charge turns 
in the equipment used and draws the 
equipment for his next activity.) Craft 
articles are taken to the school audi- 
torium where tables await their arrange- 
ment. Complete bulletins are posted on 
a large board. Nine-thirty arrives and 
the first announcement to gather at the 
flagpole conies over the loudspeaker. 
The program is under way ! 

What makes up the program? There 
is an opening ceremony and a special 
stunt at noontime which makes good 
copy for the press, radio, and television. 
The opening exercise is simple. One of 
our 125-piece high school bands plays 
while the boys and girls are gathering. 
Then there is "The Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner" and the Marine Corps color guard 
hoists Old Glory. All repeat "The 
Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag"; a 
local minister offers an invocation; a 

playground youngster delivers a short 
address about Joseph Lee; and one hun- 
dred helium-filled balloons in the shape 
of a gigantic L are released. Each car- 
ries a card, addressed to the depart- 
ment, with a place to write the name of 
the finder and where it was found. The 
balloons rise to the stratosphere, burst 
from expansion, and the cards fall. 

The exhibition events include the 
opening ceremony, an arts and crafts 
exhibition lasting all day, loop tennis, 
a talent show at noon, four gas-powered 
model planes in a dogfight and a num- 
ber of picnic stunts and contests. 

Midget boys (up to thirteen) have a 
softball tournament, paddle tennis 
doubles, rope climb, chinning, corkball 
tournament, pushmobile races and a 
tetherball tournament. 

Midget girls (up to thirteen) go in 
for the balance beam walk, kickball 
tournament, short rope contest, dodge- 
ball tournament, paddle tennis doubles 
and cootie tournament. 

Boys over thirteen have a rope climb, 
horseshoe tournament, chinning, soft- 
ball tournament, paddle tennis doubles, 
pushmobile races (as pushers), bad- 
minton singles, corkball tournament, 
mixed volleyball and mixed checker 

Girls over thirteen participate in a 
tetherball tournament, badminton sin- 
gles, paddle tennis doubles, mixed vol- 
leyball, a softball tournament, bound- 

ball tournament, balance beam. 

At noon, or at a convenient stopping 
place near noon, all stop to eat their 
"nosebag" lunches and watch the special 
events which may be talent numbers, 
singing, gymnastics, homemade musi- 
cal instrument renditions, model air- 
plane acrobatics, and so on. Some stroll 
across the street to see the craft exhibit. 
Free soft drinks are served to all by a 
park concessionaire. 

As the afternoon wears on, tourna- 
ments and contests are finished. Results 
are announced on the PA set and posted 
on the bulletin board. Special Joseph 
Lee Day ribbons are awarded to win- 
ners and runner-ups in each event. The 
playgrounders who have finished usu- 
ally take a dip in the pool. 

By this time the press steward has 
typed a summary of all events and writ- 
ten a lead for the papers ; the photogra- 
pher is heading for the darkroom; and 
the white uniforms of the directors are 
a bit dingy. Finally, the sun dips low; 
Old Glory is hauled down and folded. 
Youngsters are heading home for a 
hearty supper. Another Joseph Lee Day 
has passed into history. 

The story should end here, but there 
is a final chapter which takes place in 
staff meeting where the event is rehash- 
ed and notes for changes and improve- 
ment entered in the files as reminders 
for a "bigger and better Joseph Lee Day 
next year." 

Have You Heard About 



Drawn along sound recreational lines 

Realizes potential of backyard as play area 
Any number or any age group can play 
No substitutes everyone plays 
Can be played year 'round 
Honor system increases "carry-over" value 
Relieves over-crowded recreation facilities 
Easy to administer without close supervision 
Inexpensive to equip 

For Additional Information Write To: 

130 WEST 42nd STREET, ROOM 812 
NEW YORK 36, N. Y. 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Organization for Children's Fiesta Parade 

George H. Adams 

THE OLD saying that "everyone loves a parade" proves true 
in Santa Barbara, California, when the annual children's 
parade, "El Desfile de los Ninos," is held. This colorful 
event, staged by the city recreation department, is one of 

Small fry depict early history of Santa Barbara with floats 
which they make as part of playground creative activities. 

the highlights of the Old Spanish Days celebration, which 
attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors to the community 
during the full-of-the-moon each August. 

Under the direction of Miss Joyce Gardiner, recreation 
supervisor of special activities, this has grown each year 
until last August when 1,178 children participated and 150 
adult volunteers assisted in the assembly area. Of course, 
this does not include all the fond parents who spent numer- 
ous hours preparing costumes, carts, wagons, and floats for 
weeks in advance of the big day. 

The parade gives local small fry a chance to depict, and 

MR. ADAMS is the director of recreation in Santa Barbara. 
APRIL 1955 

A small Spanish don surveys the world from a wheelbarrow. 
All floats are handpowered or drawn by donkeys or ponies. 

to learn more about, the early history of their hometown; 
and they never miss a bet. There is nary a dull moment 
from the time the Bennett Boys' Band strikes up the first 
note until the last tiny senorita or Spanish don has reached 
the disbanding area. 

Last August twenty-one groups participated as units and 
entered large floats portraying every phase of the city's early 
life from the missions to such street names as Indio Muerto 
(Dead Indian) . There were 163 small floats and 29 head of 
livestock among the participants who marched along the 
six-block parade route which was jammed with an estimated 
50,000 persons. 

In planning the event, the first organizational meeting is 
called in July seven weeks prior to the event's actual date, 
which varies yearly depending upon the time of the full 
moon in August. At this meeting the minutes of the evalua- 
tion meeting held after the previous year's parade are -read 
and discussed. Suggested changes are considered, and those 
of value are accepted for the coming event. Chairmen for 
traffic, safety and first aid, narrators, assembly area, dis- 
banding area, tally committee, as well as parade marshal 
and assistants, are named. Publicity is handled through the 
recreation department. 

About four weeks prior to the parade, registration forms 
are made available at the recreation center; and each par- 
ticipant must be registered and the card signed by an adult. 
At this time all groups entering large floats are called to- 
gether, and each adopts an idea or event as a theme. (This 
prevents too much duplication.) From that day forward, 
playgrounds, each of which enters a float, together with the 


Series in 

Health Education, 
Physical Education., 
and Recreation 





1. The first complete book on the subject 


A Guide to Its Organization and Administration 


American Association for Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation 

310 pages $5.00 

It is intended as a practical guide to industrial recreation 
directors in administering employee recreation programs 
and also for those studying the organization and adminis- 
tration of such a program. It is, in addition, an analysis of 
the employee recreation program with relation to the vari- 
ous social problems faced by modern industry and to the 
total community recreation program. Specific recommen- 
dations principles, methods, and techniques on plan- 
ning and initiating a program are thoroughly discussed. 
Program activities, program leadership, financing the pro- 
gram, facilities and equipment, publicity and public rela- 
tions, etc., are soundly treated in this practical and compre- 
hensive report on industrial recreation. In addition, there 
is a thorough discussion of the history of employee recrea- 
tion and its benefits to industrial relations. 

A distinctive text emphasizing 
leadership skills in social recreation . . . 



Teachers College, Columbia University 

312 pages $4.75 

This outstanding work provides a practical, down-to-earth 
discussion of social leadership objectives and techniques 
applied to the recreation needs of various types of groups 
of all sizes and all ages. 

It covers the background of social recreation in this coun- 
try, the role of recreation in everyday life, leadership ob- 
jectives and techniques in working with recreation groups, 
and a wide variety of time-tested, accepted materials: 

active and inactive games and mixers 
social dance icebreakers community singing materials 
folk and square dances informal dramatic activities 

Caution against harmful games and stunts; recent recrea- 
tional dance history; and some original dramatic activities 
are also considered. Lists of periodicals, record albums, 
and other useful materials in the field are included. There 
is an extensive treatment of program planning to meet the 
needs of different types of groups. 

Send for copies on approval 

330 West 42nd Street 


New York 36, N.Y. 

YMCA, the Boys' Club, and the other local organizations, 
start planning and building their floats. 

Most float materials are donated. There is a raid on 
orange crates, scrap lumber, chicken wire, cardboard boxes, 
wire, nails, and, above all, wheels. No motorized equipment 
is allowed ; every float must be pulled by hand or drawn by 
pets or ponies. No pony, donkey or burro may be over 
fourteen-hands-two-inches high and must be accompanied 
by an adult. Along the same line of reasoning, no bicycles 
are allowed. The cadence of the parade must be geared to 
meet the pace of walking two-year-old senoritas. The pho- 
tographers must be considered because they have a field day 
and no one is reluctant to pose. In fact, before the parade 
has moved a block, many of the participants stop and pose 
automatically when they see a camera. 

The parade forms in one of our parks in the center of 
town. There, information tables have been set up and are 
in operation by 9:00 A.M. The youngsters have worked 
long and hard for this day and they are eager. The streets 
have been barricaded by the park and street departments, 
and traffic officers are on hand to give necessary assistance. 
The fire department and Red Cross stand by, to be ready in 
event first aid is needed. 

The parade marshal and his assistants are stationed at 
a street intersection at the corner of the park, and all entrants 
are formed in the street, in the four blocks nearest the in- 
tersection. The street for one block north of the marshal 
contains all the large floats; the block to the east, the small 
floats and individuals; the block to the south, all pets and 
livestock; and the block to the west, walking groups, the 
lead band, Miss Santa Barbara, Jr., float, flower girls, and 
other units that will lead off. 

At ten-thirty, sharp, the signal is given and another chil- 
dren's fiesta parade is off to the sound of applause and cheers. 
Back at the intersection the marshal and his assistants are 
moving the various individuals and floats into their places 
behind the moving units. This allows one block in which 
to correct faulty wheels, be sure the balky burros are mov- 
ing, and everything running smoothly before turning down 
the line of march. 

Meanwhile, preparations have been under way at the rec- 
reation center, which is the headquarters of the disbanding 
area. Volunteers have set up tables in the auditorium, in 
alphabetical order, where each child who has participated 
will be given a certificate. The names have been typed from 
the registration cards and are ready for everyone except 
those who were registered the morning of the parade. These 
are few in number and the names are typed while the child 

The ice-cream truck is on hand and each child is given 
an ice-cream bar. The parents hustle them off to their car 
and both parent and child have experienced a thrill they 
will never forget. 

There is plenty of follow-up work to be done. Over one 
hundred "thank you" letters are written; and, within a week 
after the parade, an evaluation meeting is called, and the 
chairmen of all phases of the event point out the strong and 
weak points and offer their suggestions for an even better 
parade next year. 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Knight made of bottle corks, needles, wire. 

Musical instruments are useful creative projects. Drum is half a cocoanut. 

Crafts That Show Imagination 

These excellent pictures, sent to us by Gudrun Lischke of Berlin, who has just re- 
turned to Germany after a period of observation and work in the United States as a 
participant in an exchange program for social workers, beautifully illustrate the fact 
that, with care and good leadership, crafts objects created from scrap materials can be 
in good taste and quality. 

The objects in these photographs are the result of the after-school program where 
students from the Padagogische Hochschule (Teachers' College) work as volunteers. 
The program is conducted two afternoons a week, with from 250 to 300 children in 
attendance. Crafts and sports are preferred activities. 

Says Miss Lischke, "In Berlin there is no money, no material to work with, but there 
is a great need for recreation activities. Recreation programs are in their infancy and 
are carried on and very often financed too by idealists rather than by an organiza- 
tion. These pictures show the poorness of the materials which must be used, but also 
show the imagination of children. The children who did these works are so interested 
in them that they bring everything from home that is not needed there: nails, wire, 
corks, scraps of material, old newspapers ; and it happens very often that a father who 
is also interested sends in an old chair, an old cupboard. Everything can be used, and 
the children plan their work with the group leaders. 

"The children of Berlin are very fond of arts and crafts. There are today several 
programs at the schools in the afternoons, and the children use the school's facilities, 
led by a teacher who spends his leisure time not seldom his money, too to do this 
work because he is one of those who are aware of human needs and who are strong 
enough to face the problems." 

We think these pictures give an impression of what can be done, as Miss Lischke 
says, "... with a little bit of money, but a great deal of love, idealism and good will." 
(The photographs were taken by Burkhard Lischke, her sixteen-year-old brother, and 
developed during one of the after-school photography classes at Hermann-Ehlers Schule.) 

This grotesque figure, carved 
with a pocketknife, is made of 
foam-concrete that was the do- 
nation of a construction firm. 

Fantastic animal was cut from tin can and bent into shape. Model of the "Kon-Tiki" made of twigs, raffia and straw. 



Pays Off 


The potato race. Enthusiasm of leaders encourages children. 

D. James Brademas 

is no organized public recrea- 
tion system in Rockford, Illinois, 
a community of 105,000 people, al- 
though it boasts of excellent school and 
park systems. Recent action by the park 
district has added two hundred more 
acres of land to the park system as part 
of a $600,000 program to provide new 
playgrounds and park-playground facil- 
ities. This purchase brings the total 
area of park property to approximately 
1,686 acres, or 81 separate parcels of 
land, covering 92 square miles. 

These areas include playgrounds, 
neighborhood parks, large city parks, 
golf courses, and swimming pools. The 
park and playground areas are used 
mostly by industrial and other softball 
and baseball leagues and organized club 
groups, while the golf courses and swim- 
ming pools draw large numbers of in- 
dividual participants. 

Local industrial leaders and park offi- 
cials have therefore become concerned 
about the lack of public recreation, and 
a new ten-member board, designated as 
the Rockford Boys Club Playground 
Association, was created to look into 
the matter. The possibilities for coop- 
eration between industry and park of- 
ficials were good, and the board of di- 

D. JAMES BRADEMAS is director of the 
Boys Club Playground Recreation As- 
sociation in Rockford, and is studying 
for his masters degree in recreation at 
the University of Illinois. 


rectors of the new association and spon- 
soring industrial organizations launch- 
ed an experiment stating: "It is hoped 
that other organizations, industries, and 
individuals will join this group of spon- 
sors to continue and expand the pro- 
gram in future years." 

The board decided to consult experts 
in the field of recreation planning be- 
fore setting up the experiment and sub- 
sequently wrote to the staff members of 
the recreation leadership training pro- 
gram at the University of Illinois. Pro- 
fessors Charles K. Brightbill and Allen 
V. Sapora of the recreation staff were 
asked to come to Rockford for a confer- 
ence with the board. 

Two playgrounds on the east side of 
the river and two on the west were 
chosen for the experiment, and a trained 
man and woman were to be employed 
for each. 

The budget for the eight-week experi- 
ment was $7,500. No capital expendi- 
tures or purchase of costly equipment 
was necessary. The park district pro- 
vided facilities, maintenance, and. sports 
and athletic equipment. 

The bulk of the budget went for sal- 
aries, crafts, and general game supplies. 
The university representatives had con- 
vinced the board that good leadership 
should be the primary factor and that 
substantial salaries would attract top 
leadership. Salaries, which amounted 
to seventy-one per cent of the total 
budget, were set at $75 per week for 

playground leaders and $60 per week 
for assistant playground leaders. 

Among staff members selected: five 
are at present recreation students; one 
is in the department of physical educa- 
tion; two are graduates in physical ed- 
ucation, one with a minor in recreation ; 
and the other is a graduate in sociology 
with a minor in physical education. The 
non-academic backgrounds of these 
students were varied. Several had been 
playground leaders in previous sum- 
mers, and others had gained practical 
experience through college field work 

These leaders worked cooperatively 
and with contagious enthusiasm in 
Rockford. For instance, in planning for 
a city-wide play day, one leader wanted 
to bring his group of playground "In- 
dians" from East Rockford across the 
Rockford River in canoes and then hike 
to the playground where the event was 
to be held. He maintained that since 
the river ran right through the center 
of the city, the canoe crossing would 
stimulate interest among the children 
and create publicity for the program. 
The proposal was modified, but it was 
this kind of imagination that kindled 
the fires in Rockford. 

Many midnight planning sessions 
were held among the several staff mem- 
bers. Playground leaders were assigned 
to instruct at seven of fourteen evening 
square dances on an alternating basis; 
however, some of them were on hand 


to instruct at all fourteen dances. Two 
playgrounds, privately operated and 
outside of the jurisdiction of the asso- 
ciation, were invited to participate in 
two all-playground special events. Lead- 
ers from these playgrounds also attend- 
ed all of the association staff meetings. 
The responsibility for setting up and in- 
structing at three additional evening 
square dances for a privately operated 
playground outside the city limits was 
taken on late in the program. 

Out of professional interest, substan- 
tial financial aid was given to a needy 
playground outside of the experimental 
program. Four playground leaders re- 
turned to two playgrounds in the mid- 
dle of August, two weeks after the pro- 
gram had officially ended, to supervise 
family nights and to talk with parents 

Sampling the stew is part of the fun on 
city-wide Play Day. Seven hundred chil- 
dren were brought together in one park. 

about adult recreation clubs and future 
recreation programs. 

There were many reasons why the ex- 
periment was successful but none more 
important than the professional com- 
petency of the recreation staff. These 
were people who had recreation educa- 
tion, who were not afraid of hard work, 
and had some practical experience. 
They were leaders who knew how to 
have fun while they worked, who knew 
the meaning of human relations, and 
who were so vitally interested in the 
fundamental philosophy of public rec- 
reation that they did their utmost to 
translate their belief into recreation 

service for the people. 

Another reason for success was the 
cooperation of the children, park dis- 
trict officials, businessmen, board mem- 
bers, and parents. The children of Rock- 
ford are like the children of many 
communities across the country, eager 
and responsive to able leadership and 
action-laden programs. For the first 
week of operation, they came to the 
playgrounds with curious looks of dis- 
belief written on their faces. One child 
asked, "You mean we can play here and 
do all this stuff free for nothin'?" 

Disciplinary problems were at a min- 
imum and were handled quietly. Loyal- 
ty to the playground name and to the 
leaders ran unusually high and was ex- 
pressed by clean, spirited competition 
among playgrounds and by actions of 
sincere friendship among youngsters 
and leaders. Playground safety patrols 
were formed and children carried out 
their new-found responsibilities well 
and with a sense of pride. There was 
not one playground accident of any con- 
sequence during the eight weeks of op- 

At the first all-playground special 
event, seven hundred children were 
brought together at one park. Their 
willingness to cooperate made what 
might have been a trying day a success- 
ful venture in group fun. The entire 
eight weeks were filled with happy chil- 
dren fulfilling a desire to have fun and 
wanting to help at the same time. At- 
tendance at the four centers totaled 
59,000 for the season. 

The park district offered the use of 
the four playgrounds under its jurisdic- 
tion and gave wholehearted coopera- 
tion at all times. A telephone call about 
a clogged spray-pool drain would bring 
a maintenance man immediately to the 
trouble spot. Trucks and drivers were 
always available on request, and park 
maintenance men cooperated with play- 
ground leaders at all times. Members 
of the association board were active 
during the summer viewing various 
parts of the program and offering as- 
sistance when it was needed. 

Many businessmen and organizations 
helped greatly by delivering supplies 
promptly, by allowing discounts, and 
by contributing materials which added 
much to the content of the program. 
Newspaper editors realized the import- 

ance of recreation in the life of the com- 
munity and gave solid support. Dozens 
of stories, editorials, and pictures were 
printed on daily and special activities. 
A local television station offered the 
services of its studios in presenting six 
half-hour child-participation programs. 
Each show brought to the public a pres- 
entation of one of the major areas of 
the recreation program. 

One company offered the use of one 
of its large windows in a well located 
downtown building for a crafts exhibit 
showing types of raw material used and 
finished crafts items from the four play- 
grounds. Many parents were active in 
the program and two neighborhood 
groups have laid groundwork for the 
formation of adult recreation clubs in 
order to keep the interest alive until 
next summer. 

What should be the ultimate goal of 
experimentation programs such as the 
one in Rockford? The final objective 
should be a year-round recreation pro- 
gram serving the needs of all people on 
a secure, sustained basis. One of the 
most important factors in a secure pro- 
gram is a permanent staff of full-time, 
experienced personnel at all levels. 
Rockford is faced with the problem of 
not having a permanent staff because 
many of the students who worked there 
last summer will be looking for per- 
manent jobs rather than returning to 
summer positions. 

Rockford, and other carefully 
planned community playgrounds as 
well, could serve as a recreation train- 
ing ground for young recreation and 
physical education students. The bene- 
fits would be high both to the students 
and to the community. Young students 
have many new ideas and are willing to 
work hard and to learn. If a properly 
planned and administered playground 
program blossoms in Rockford in the 
years to come, it could attract top stu- 
dents from many colleges and universi- 
ties for summer work. 

Rockford is now planning an expand- 
ed program for next summer, with long- 
range plans in mind for a much needed 
permanent year-round program serving 
the needs of all people. Its striking de- 
ficiency in public recreation is being 
eliminated by forward looking citizens 
who realize the necessity of the worthy 
use of leisure time. 

APRIL 1955 


Try New Ideas This Year 

, . . fat t6e 


That Are Successful in Boston 

Patrick J. Ryan 


in developing a playground 
to experiment with a new phase of 
public recreation a program for men- 
tally retarded youngsters took form 
in the Boston Parks and Recreation 
Department in the summer of 1952. 

All directors of recreation are famil- 
iar with the problems involving young- 
sters of this type in their programs 
the usual story of youngsters so af- 
flicted they are not physically able to 
take part in the daily program of the 
local playground. Then, of course, there 
is the concern of the parent that the 
youngster is not capable of withstand- 
ing usual kidding and fooling that nor- 
mal youngsters generate in their activi- 
ties. An additional concern is that many 
parents with such a child are not too 
anxious to publicize his condition. 
Nevertheless, the interest of the parents 
and the enthusiasm of the youngsters 
becomes so great that the opportunity to 
try such a program should not be over- 

When the commissioner of parks and 
recreation, Frank R. Kelley, presented 
the idea for this new phase of the pro- 
gram to Mayor John B. Hynes, the 
mayor was most enthusiastic and in- 
structed the commissioner to go all the 

In going into action, the first consid- 
eration became that of a location which 
would be public, yet not conspicuous 
enough to attract spectators. Castle 
Island, in Boston Harbor, with its old 

PATRICK J. RYAN is the director of rec- 
reation in Boston, Massachusetts. 


fort and drill grounds dating back into 
history, was ideal in many ways. It is 
located right on the edge of the harbor, 
with a large grassy area and nearby 
housing facilities. The construction of 
its Fort Independence, one of the strong- 
holds of our liberty, was a series of 
giant blocks cemented to form walls 
twenty-feet thick not too unlike most 
of the early forts. The area inside the 
blockhouse was used as a parade and 
drill ground. This area, then, was set 
aside and appropriately titled "Pleas- 
ure Island." 

The problem of personnel was solved 
when one of the most interested persons 
in this area turned out to be a school 
teacher with over twenty years of ex- 
perience in teaching retarded children. 
Miss Helen Freeman was appointed as 
director of the program, and we were 
under way. 

Parents, brothers, and sisters, were 
encouraged to come to Pleasure Island 
for the day. The parents developed into 
excellent volunteer leaders, and the 

brothers and sisters supplied normal 
healthy playmates who did have a de- 
sire to play with, but still keep in mind 
the limitations of, their less fortunate 
brother or sister. 

The daily program does not vary 
much from that of the average well-or- 
ganized public playground, with flag 
raising, singing, marching, sports and 
games, arts and crafts, story telling. An 
important part of the day is the period 
set aside for a formal physical educa- 
tion program. We have also success- 
fully included a "learn to swim" pro- 
gram among the activities. 

Some of the items listed by observers 
of this program are interesting: 

The parents are the key to the situation. 
Their cooperation and willingness to bring 
their problem out into the open has helped to 
furnish the encouragement and interest neces- 
sary in such a specialized program. 

The impressive therapeutic value for the 
youngsters in being able to play together with 
children who have an appreciation of their 
problems and limitations. 

The great confidence developed in so many 
youngsters from the accomplishment of climb- 
ing up to the six foot slide and going down on 

Pleasure Island children 
play with discarded tires 
to improve coordination. 
The program varies Mule 
from that of the average 
well-run city playground. 


their own, the participation in running which 
helps to supplant the slow shuffle. 

The youngsters who never left home alone 
and who now travel the subway to Pleasure 

We treat these youngsters as normal 
youngsters, and as we progress we try 
to measure their deficiencies and apply 
corrections. It is amazing how many 
things they can accomplish if they only 
have the chance, and, most of all, patient 

The day camp is open daily Monday 

through Friday, from May 15 until 
August 30, and a single day's program 
has yet to be cancelled because of in- 
clement weather. It is almost impossi- 
ble to believe that on one of the real 
New England wet days, we checked 
forty -two youngsters in attendance. 

The accomplishments of this experi- 
mental program have been so great that 
the program has been brought indoors 
to one of our recreation centers during 
the winter. It is limited to Saturdays, 

because of school, and operates on the 
same basis as the outdoor program, in- 
cluding the swimming classes. 

Parents and youngsters alike are most 
grateful for the wonderful accomplish- 
ments, and, most of all, happy to better 
enjoy life through the medium of rec- 
reation. The program is best summed 
up in the words of the Mayor Hynes, 
who said, "Never has so little been done 
for so few that has been appreciated 
by so many." 

, . . jo* 

7 HE CURRENT trend in handling juve- 
nile problems has caused the spot- 
light of public opinion to be focused on 
recreation and its contribution to a so- 
lution of these problems. Too often, an 
appraisal terminates in the net total of 
the competitive sports programs and 
their opportunities for curing moral ills. 
Most modern recreation programs ad- 
here to a "character before skill" policy. 
This solid fact came to light in Boston 
last year, when, in an effort to present 
the better side of present day youth, the 
"Citizen of the Week" was made an im- 
portant part of the summer playground 

During the Recreation Leaders' In- 
stitute, a session was devoted to the de- 
tails of operating this plan. Its impor- 
tance was emphasized when it was 
endorsed as being coordinated with the 
mayor's civic improvement committee. 
The monitor, or junior volunteer effort, 
was adapted to this idea. A simple, yet 
inclusive, set of regulations to be used 
to determine the selection of the young- 
ster on a ten-point-total basis was al- 
lowed for each of the following : 

1. Interest. (Attendance, participation in 
activities.) To be part of a community, a citi- 
zen must participate in its activities. 

2. Cooperation, Helpfulness. A citizen has 
a relation to those in authority. 

3. Kindness, Consideration. A citizen has a 
personal relation to other citizens. 

4. Sportsmanship, Sense of Fair Play. A 
citizen has a relation to others in activities. 

5. Genuine Sense of Responsibility and 
Loyalty. A citizen has a relation to the state 
as a whole. 

Each week during the summer season, 
the youngsters on each playground se- 

APRIL 1955 

lected the boy and girl who scored the 
highest points. It certainly meant more 
paper work, but the immediate interest 
more than compensated. The selection 
was recorded on the weekly activities 
report, and a master record was main- 
tained at headquarters. The program 
was not under way too long when the 
local district papers began to feature 
the youngsters selected in their districts. 

The reaction of the youngsters to the 
program was very good. Can one 
imagine the "Citizen of the Week" com- 
mitting some act to lessen his dignity 
during the ensuing weeks? The inter- 
est of the parents, too, was aroused, and 
not too infrequently parents inquired, 
"How are you doing down at the play- 
ground, Billy?" or perhaps, "I see 
where Bob has been selected as 'Citi- 
zen of the Week'." 

The wide variety of selections was 
indicative of the value of the program. 
Naturally, some outstanding young ath- 
letes were selected, but so also was the 
youngster who assisted in the arts and 
crafts program, along with the young 
girl who was the talented lead in the 
dance act, and the youngster who never 
missed a day in guiding his two young 
sisters to the playground. Needless to 
say, such a program encompassed all 
races, creeds, and colors ; the only quali- 
fication required was that the young- 
ster be a "good citizen." 

There were no promotion gimmicks 
or political angles. It was just a very 
sincere effort on the part of each play- 
ground director to make a specific 
effort to emphasize the great goodness 

which we know is the major portion of 
an American recreation program. The 
reaction of the press was wonderful, 
and the reporters had a field day in 
writing about "plain American kids." 

To the Massachusetts Committee for 
Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, this 
was too good an effort to be allowed to 
fade out; and, in order to assure its 
continuance, the committee proposed 
to the mayor of Boston that it would 
like to honor a selected group of these 
youngsters at a luncheon. 

The head table invited was worthy by 
comparison with any important func- 
tion held in the city. Its guests were: 
the mayor, who served as toastmaster; 
representatives of the various faiths; 
the superintendent of schools ; the chair- 
man of the Mayor's Civic Committee; 
the chairman of the Massachusetts Com- 
mittee for Catholics, Protestants and 
Jews; the chairman of the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce; the commis- 
sioner of the parks and recreation de- 
partment; and the commissioner of the 
police department. The list of invited 
guests included the managing editor of 
every Boston newspaper, the president 
of the United Community Services, as 
well as many people prominent and ac- 
tive in the field of civic improvement 
and human relations. Each youngster 
was awarded a framed certificate by the 
mayor and also a notation on the school 
record of his accomplishment. 

Needless to say, the "Citizen of the 
Week" has been established as a very 
definite part of Boston's recreation 


GOOD LEADERSHIP a most impor- 
tant ingredient. Here, a leader outlines 
the rules. Upon his shoulders devolve, 
to a great extent, the success of the play- 
ground program and the happiness and 
attitude of the youngsters in his charge. 

CRAFTS. Crafts belong in every pro- 
gram and can contribute some of child- 
hood's most satisfying experiences. For 
supplies use inexpensive materials, in- 
genuity and good taste. (See page 163.) 

SPORTS. The learning of sports skills and games is important 
and one of the most popular of the functions of the playground. 


play area and equipment for crafts, games, sports. 
It should be as attractive as possible with trees, an 
indoor shelter, and apparatus for imaginative play. 

CER. Children love and mix 
it in great glee. A regular fea- 
i of summer fun should be cool- 
off in a well-supervised wading 
, if available, or by means of a 
or sprinkler system otherwise. 

ALL AGES. Playgrounds should of- 
fer something for the whole family: 
activities for big brother or sister, as 
well as games areas and facilities 
that mother, father, grandmother, 
grandfather everyone can enjoy. 

SPECIAL EVENTS. Might include a doll show, fair, 
arts and crafts exhibit, pet show, circus, carnival, 
festival, fiesta, or parade. (See pages 158 and 161.) 

IES. Many have come down to us through the centuries. Children have 
ys loved them. Active or quiet, they build character and personality. 

DAY CAMPING. A regular feature in many areas, 
this offers valuable experiences and adventures in 
camping and nature activities, a new life for many. 

APRIL 1955 




built info this 




vacuum design 


freedom from 
Mi repair costs 
makes Type 
M series 
in Us field 
50 to 300 Ib. 
Vacuum design 

No springs on 
diaphrajns or 
small delicate 
parts to cormcte 
eat up or 
wear out 

VacoM/rr design 


25 years old 
are still in 
Caff bust em. 
A// models can 
vacuum design 



P. 0. Box 3098 Terminal Annex 
Los Angeles 54, Calif 


70S W. Wocker Drive Chicago 6, III 



MILDRED SCANLON, for more than five 
years a member of the leadership train- 
ing staff of the National Recreation As- 
sociation, became associate director of 
the USO at Ayer, Massachusetts, the 
end of March. Through her work with 
the Association, Miss Scanlon visited 
every section of the United States, and 
the courses she conducted in social rec- 
reation and playground leadership skills 
were attended by more than 15,000 rec- 
reation leaders. Before joining the NRA 
staff, Miss Scanlon was an American 
Red Cross worker in the China-Burma- 
India theater and an Army Special 
Services club director in Europe. 

DR. LYNN S. RODNEY, Pacific South- 
west district representative of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, was re- 
cently given a Fellowship Award by the 
California Recreation Society for out- 
standing service to the recreation pro- 
fession. Dr. Rodney received his doc- 
torate in philosophy from the University 
of Michigan during 1954. 

STERLING S. WINANS, California state 
recreation director and chairman of the 
NRA National Advisory Committee on 
State Recreation, was also a recipient 
of the Fellowship Award of the Cali- 
fornia Recreation Society. 

ROBERT W. CRAWFORD, former deputy 
commissioner and superintendent of 
recreation, recently became the new 
commissioner of the Philadelphia De- 
partment of Recreation upon the resig- 
nation of Frederic R. Mann. At the 
same time Charles B. Cranford and 
Walter L. Bendon were appointed 
deputy commissioners of the depart- 
ment. Under Mr. Mann's and Mr. Craw- 
ford's leadership recreation in Phila- 
delphia has taken great strides from its 
early days as a stepchild bureau under 
the welfare department. Created by 
charter reform in January 1952, Phila- 
delphia's recreation department is now 
one of the leading municipal recreation 
agencies in the United States, and its 

development and modernization pro- 
gram has aroused great national inter- 
est and attention. 

BERT and Lou EVANS, two veteran rec- 
reation workers of Seattle, Washington, 
were paid a fine tribute when the city 
named its new quarter-million-dollar 
indoor swim center at Green Lake the 
Evans Pool. Ben is recreation director 
and Lou assistant recreation director of 
of the Seattle Park Department. The 
brothers were honored for their untir- 
ing efforts in behalf of Seattle children 
since 1917. Waldo J. Dahl, park board 
president, said, "Oftentimes we pay 
tribute to people too late. This is a liv- 
ing memorial to Ben and Lou Evans." 

MYRON HENDRICK, director of recrea- 
tion in Niagara Falls, New York, re- 
cently received the Sportsman Award 
presented by the city's Athletic Club. 
Mr. Hendrick has been actively associ- 
ated with sports for forty years and has 
been active in local, state, and national 
groups affiliated with sports and recre- 
ation. He is a past president of the New 
York State Public Recreation Society. 

BOB ROBERTSON, assistant director of 
recreation in Albany, Oregon, has been 
named the city's Junior Citizen for 1954 
in honor of his many activities, beyond 
the requirements of his official position, 
which have benefited Albany's youth. 
He initiated the formation of the state 

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junior baseball league and personally 
financed several baseball teams to en- 
able them to participate in Albany's 
recreation program. 

Recent Appointments 

Donald D. Gary, recreation leader for 
children of military personnel, Mitchell 
Air Force Base, New York; Robert 
Dombro, recreation therapist, Balti- 
more Hearing Society, Baltimore, Mary- 
land; Stanley E. Francis, superintend- 
ent of recreation, Newark, Delaware; 
Mary E. Frisk, Service Club, Ft. Riley, 
Kansas; Marjorie Matsushita, super- 
visor of girls' and women's activities, 
Recreation Department, Santa Rosa, 

Orlo B. McGeath, director, Youth and 
Community Center, Decatur, Indiana; 
Patricia Morris, Recreation Depart- 
ment, Lima, Ohio; H. R. Phillips, Jr., 
director of recreation, Logan County, 
Colorado; Jay Schwartzman, Recrea- 
tion Department, Pensacola, Florida; 
Clara S. Simon, social recreation di- 
rector, Lewistown Hospital School of 
Nursing, Lewistown, Pennsylvania. 

In Memoriam 


Professor Lawrence V. Loy, exten- 
sion specialist in community organiza- 
tion and recreation at the University of 
Massachusetts, died suddenly March 11 
at the age of forty-seven. Professor Loy 
was widely known throughout New Eng- 
land for his leadership in recreation ac- 
tivities and his work developing state 
and community recreation programs. 
During World War II, Professor Loy 
organized recreation programs for serv- 
icemen at Army and Navy bases. For 
several years he conducted training 
classes for European and American 
youth hostels. He was active in church 
recreation programs and, an expert 
square dance caller, he taught square 
dancing to thousands. 


Elizabeth Rogers, one of the leaders 
in hospital recreation, died on Febru- 
ary 25. Miss Rogers was employed as 
recreation consultant for the American 
Red Cross Service in Military Hospi- 
tals, Midwestern Area. She had been 
an active participant in the National 
Recreation Congresses. 

It's A Date 

April 11-15 Association for Child- 
hood International Study Conference, 
Kansas City, Missouri. 

April 12-14 Southern District Recrea- 
tion Conference, George Vanderbilt 
Hotel, Asheville, North Carolina. 

April 13-20 Southeastern Methodist 
Recreation Workshop, Leesburg, 

April 17-19 Pacific Northwest Dis- 
trict Recreation Conference, Boise 
Hotel, Boise, Idaho. 

April 18-23 Pacific Methodist Recre- 
ation Workshop, Asilomar Camp 
Grounds, Pacific Grove, California. 

April 23-29 South Central Methodist 
Recreation Workshop, North Cam- 
pus, Norman, Oklahoma. 

April 25-30 Illinois 1955 Leisure- 

craft and Counseling Camp, State 
4-H Memorial Camp, near Monti- 
cello, Illinois. 

April 29-May 1 -- Spring Institute, 
American Camping Association, Col- 
lege Camp, Wisconsin. 

May 7 Conference for Playground 
Supervision, Bradford Woods, Mar- 
tinsville, Indiana. 

May 9-13 Presbyterian U. S. Recrea- 
tion Workshop, Camp Nacome, Cen- 
terville, Tennessee. 

May 10-13 New England Recreation 
Conference, Woodstock Inn, Wood- 
stock, Vermont. 

May 13-15 Indiana Section, Ameri- 
can Camping Association Counsel- 
or's Training Institute, Bradford 
Woods, Martinsville, Indiana. 




A Practical On-the-Job Training Course 
for Recreation Administrators 

You can take this training program without sacrificing valuable time 
from your work because it becomes part of your work in the day-to-day 
operations in the recreation field. This course is especially suited for 
group study, from four or five to as many as twelve in one group all 
under one enrollment. Groups presently enrolled in this course include 
such cities as Austin, Texas; Evanston, Illinois; and Greensboro, N. C. 

The first edition of the textbook, 1940, was prepared by George D. 
Butler, of the National Recreation Association. The current revised edi- 
tion, 1948, was largely edited by Mr. Butler, with the assistance of other 
leaders in the recreation profession. The 516-page volume is a handy 
and wholly authentic reference source long after the course is completed. 


Institute for Training in Municipal Administration Date 

Conducted by 

The International City Managers' Association 
1313 East 60th Street, Chicago 37, Illinois 

Q Send me application blank for enrollment in Municipal Recreation 

Q Send me free booklet giving full details regarding in-service training 

Q Send me information on group training 

Q Send me postpaid copy of the textbook used in Recreation course, $7.50 

Q Remittance enclosed Q Bill me Q Bill city 

Name Position 



APRIL 1955 



Status Experience 1 

Brian Sutton-Smith and Paul Gump 

IT IS GENERALLY recognized that the rule games of children 
play a part in their social development. In games, chil- 
dren experience a variety of action-based social relation- 
ships; they are given the opportunity and the necessity 
to assume a variety of game-provided roles and status posi- 
tions. Such status positions within games may be those of 
the leader, the follower, the attacker, the defender, the 
taunter, the taunted, and so on. In general, a game position 
of high status grants to its occupant a special game function, 
a larger share of the game action, important control over 
game play, and special strategic powers. Low status posi- 
tions tend to have opposite qualities. Besides status posi- 
tions within a game, as a result of game play, there may be 
established the status of winner or loser. 

This paper will be mainly concerned with a classification 
and description of games in terms of the kinds of status 
positions they contain and their controls over allocation of 
these positions. Such a classification may make it more 
possible to select and manage games so that the participants 
experience a variety of status roles. Such experiences en- 
able participants to achieve some of the gratifications and 
the psychological releases which often come when real life 
themes are acted out in play and fantasy. Although focus 
here will be upon high status positions, positions of low 
status also have beneficial experience potentials. To "play 
at" being in the dominated, derided, or defeated position 
can relieve tensions about actually being in such positions. 
Furthermore, the process of going from a low to a high game 
status position of changing from the "passive endurer" 
to the "active master" can be a personality-strengthening 

Since the kind of status positions which exist in games 
can often be surmised by the sensitive worker for himself, 
major emphasis will be directed to the factors influencing 
allocation of these positions. The allocation of positions 
in a game may be affected by three types of variables : 

1. Social power, the extent to which individuals can suc- 
cessfully influence others. Thus, if two little girls vie for 

BRIAN SUTTON-SMITH is research associate and PAUL GUMP 
5 principal investigator for the School of Social Work Re- 
search Project at Wayne University, Detroit, Michigan. 


the first leadership position in Mother, May I?, the more 
influential child will be accepted by her peers for that po- 
sition. Also, high game status positions often go to children 
who are best liked by the children originally holding the 
high status game position. 

2. Playing competence, or the skill with which individuals 
can carry out the essential game performances. Thus, if two 
boys strive for the king position in King of the Mountain, 
the stronger and more agile child is most likely to win that 

3. Game controls over position assignment, or the kind 
and extent of game rules regarding allocation of the status 
position. Some game structures permit social power rather 
full scope in the achievement of status positions, others 
make playing competence, and resultant competitive suc- 
cess, determine who achieves a given status; other games 
have arrangements which tend to assure some sharing of 
status positions among participants regardless of their so- 
cial power or playing competence. 

Game Classification 

The classification suggested below attempts to classify 
games in terms of the types of status positions which they 
contain and the methods of allocation of these status posi- 
tions which they employ. It will be noted that the presented 
games classes tend to progress from games which are sim- 
ple and most often played by younger children and girls to 
games which are complex and more frequently played by 
older boys. 

1 This is a condensed analysis of a larger research paper which was 
based upon extensive observations of play in games in New Zealand 
and the United States. The efforts of the senior author were supported 
in part by a U. S. Government Smith-Mundt Research Fellowship at 
the Institute of Child Welfare, University of California. Research 
grant M-550 from the National Institute of Mental Health of the Na- 
tional Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, supported further 
work by both authors. 

2 Games labeled (B) and used as examples may be found in Games, 
J. Bancroft. The MacMillan Company, New York; 1952. 

* Games labeled (R) are in Games for the Elementary School 
Grades, H. Richardsen. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis; 



Dramatic Games : Ritual Dramatic Games 
Skill Dramatic Games 

Skill Games: It Games 

Pack Team Games 
Individual Skill Games 
Team Sports 

Dramatic Games 

These games have in common their emphasis upon form 
and ceremony as opposed to the focus upon competition 
success in skill games. Allocations of status roles such as 
the witch, the mother, or the leader is relatively open to the 
influence of social power, relatively less determined by game 

Ritual Dramatic Games. Examples of these games are 
Farmer in the Dell (B) 2 and Mother, Mother, the Pot Boils 
Over (R). 3 The high status positions are those of the game 
director who calls or chants signals and who may choose 
others to join him. Allocation of such high status positions 
is left up to the decision of the playing group ; furthermore, 
the achievement of "next-best" status positions (that of be- 
ing chosen first) is easily affected by one's position in the 
group hierarchy. Players who are leaders tend to choose 
their friends first. Thus, social power and popularity in- 
fluence the decision as to what child will enjoy the high 
status roles. Playing competence, resulting in competitive 
success, is not primary. 

It must be remembered that players other than the leader 
have a status, too, albeit a less prominent one. Furthermore, 
in these status positions, the player is protected from whim- 
sical or "unfair" domination and interference from players 
in the higher roles. In contrast, lower status positions in 
make-believe play are not protected by controls which pre- 
vent the socially powerful child in a leadership position 
from deciding the roles others shall take and determining 
the content of these roles. 

Skill Dramatic Games. Examples are Red Light (R) and 
Mother, May I? (R). The high status position in these 
games is that of a mother or leader who "calls the turn." 
The first leader is likely to be a child of high social power. 
After the game begins other children compete for the po- 
sition, but they are under considerable control by this leader 
who may select the person to attempt the game challenge 
and who may determine the extent of the other players' 
progress. (For example, the leader in Mother, May I? 
grants one player three giant steps forward.) Insofar as 
competition determines who shall become next leader, allo- 
cation of status position is based on competence; however, 
the leader's control makes it possible for him to favor his 
friends and thus allocation can be determined to a greater 
extent by social power and popularity than by game skill. 

The game-given power of the child in the high status po- 
sition to dominate others in the skill dramatic games is 
impressive. It should be added, however, that observations 
showed that the small groups of mutual friends who usually 
play these games often tacitly agree to manipulate the game 
so that each player has some opportunity to occupy the dom- 
inant status position. 

Skill Games 

Skill games differ from dramatic games in several ways. 
When the skill game begins, status positions are often allo- 
cated by appeals to chance which employ counting-out 
rhymes or guessing contests. This itself is evidence of the 
greater control that the game exercises over social power. 
Insistence on game-equality is further emphasized by the 
fact that, once the game begins, reallocation of status po- 
sitions is governed by laws respecting competitive success 
and failure. Skill games make competence in play the de- 
termining factor in assignment of status positions. 

It Games 

In It games, a group or pack works in opposition to one 
person who provides the action focus. The It always has 
a special status position in such games; however, game 
structures vary on whether It is given a high or an inferior 
game status. There are Its who have control over others, 
as the It in Pom Pom Pullaway (R) ; other Its are at the 
mercy of the taunts and actions of the pack, as the It in 
Lame Fox (R). There are Its who lead allies against the 
opposing pack and there are those who face, alone, the in- 
terlocking and antagonistic efforts of the whole pack. In 
assessing the degree of game-given status of It in any par- 

If you are interested in the further development of 
this subject, be sure to read "The 'It' Role in Children's 
Games," by Brian Sutton-Smith and Paul V. Gump, in 
the February 1955 issue of The Group, official publi- 
cation of the American Association of Group Workers, 
129 East 52nd Street, New York 22. Seventy-five cents 
per copy. 

ticular game, such possibilities must be kept in mind. Of 
the possible classifications of It games, a dichotomy based 
on the method of allocation of the It position can be em- 
ployed; this dichotomy, which applies to most, but not all, 
It games, is one of the It-by-defeat versus It-by-triumph. 

It-by-Defeat. One becomes It when he losses a competitive 
encounter with a previous It. Examples are simple Tag and 
Hide and Seek. Furthermore, one leaves the It position only 
when he wins one or more competitive encounters with mem- 
bers of the pack. Most commonly the It in such games is 
supposed to be an undesirable position; however, certain 
games grant enough strategic advantages to the It so that 
he may be perceived as occupying a relatively high status 
position. One danger in those It-by-defeat games which 
do not grant strategic advantages to the It is that incom- 
petent players easily become It and may have extreme dif- 
ficulty in winning their way out of the position. Then events 
in the game are likely to make painfully acute the low status 
quality of the It position. 4 

It-by -Triumph. In games like King of the Mountain and 
Commando (R) , the It wins his position by success in a com- 

4 Research on the problem of the unskilled player in the low-power 
It position is reported by P. Gump and B. Sutton-Smith in The Group, 
February, 1955. 

APRIL 1955 


petitive encounter with a previous It and he holds the posi- 
tion until he loses an encounter with another pack member. 
Although the group works against him the It position is 
potentially one of very high status. It is a respected accom- 
plishment to win the position and then successfully to stand 
off the efforts of a total group. Our observations indicate 
that such games are more popular with older children (ages 
nine to twelve) while the It-by-defeat games are mostly 
played by younger children. Perhaps these latter games 
which generally do not have an elevated It position appeal 
to the equalitarian needs of the younger children while the 
It-by-triumph games appeal to the needs of the older chil- 
dren to play the "beleaguered hero." 

Pack Team Games 

Crows and Cranes (R), Prisoner's Base (B), and various 
team relays are examples of games which are unique in 
their general lack of marked high and low status positions ; 
the games have an equalitarian flavor. In such games, com- 
petition among equals is the dominant social theme. Any 
status to be gained or lost must come from particular skill 
displays or from being on the winning or losing team. Game- 
given special functions and powers are either absent or un- 
important. Since half or more of the players in pack games 
will be on the winning side, this much distribution of high 
status positions is assured in these games. Thus, relatively 
incompetent players frequently share a winning status a 
status they sometimes gain in team sports (if they are per- 
mitted on the team) but rarely gain in individual skill games. 


announces its forthcoming publication * . . . 



Part I The Foundations of Group Work 
Selected Articles from 
The Group 1939-1954 

Part II The Frontiers of Group Work 

The Social Scene 
Backdrop for Our Efforts 

Coming April 20, 1955 $4.75 

*Note: All royalties accrued from the sale of this book will be 
paid to AAGW. 


Write to: 

WHITESIDE, Inc., Publishers, W4 

425 Fourth Avenue 
New York 16, New York 

Individual Skill Games 

Marbles, Mumblety-Peg (B) , Freezeout (R) , and golf are 
only a few of the many games that share the principle that 
there is no important game-provided high status position 
save that of winner a position which is achieved by play- 
ing skill rather than by social power or popularity. The 
only exception to this principle appears when handicaps are 
added to the game so that differences in general playing 
competence do not determine who shall have the status of 
winner. When handicaps are accurately assigned, the status 
of winner may go to the player who extends himself the 
most or who "gets the breaks." In these cases, as in many 
table games of chance, there is some guarantee of rotations 
of a high status role regardless of participants' social power 
or playing competence. 

Team Sports 

Games like baseball or football contain many game-func- 
tion differentiations which are often accompanied by status 
differentiations. The pitcher has a greater share of game 
action and control than the left-fielder; the position is gen- 
erally perceived as one of high status. Among younger play- 
ers, these higher status positions are usually obtained by 
the most generally competent players, but not during a par- 
ticular game. Performance over a period of time has usu- 
ally determined a group consensus as to who is most 
competent and deserves the high status position. Our obser- 
vations indicate that high game status positions often go to 
boys of high social power and popularity. This does not 
mean that game status is determined by social power as 
it often is in the younger dramatic games rather, it ap- 
pears, that among boys who play these games, social power 
and popularity is partially based on ability to perform com- 
petently in sports. 

Although there are often real status differences in team 
sports, a certain "being on the team" status is enjoyed by 
all. Furthermore, in some sports all players share some of 
the potentially status-giving positions as all share in the 
batting in baseball. 


Children's games have characteristics which are quite 
relevant to psychological issues. One of these issues is that 
of experience in various roles or status positions. It is sug- 
gested that knowledge of the kinds of status positions con- 
tained in various games and of the variables which deter- 
mine who will be placed in these positions can assist the 
adult game leader or supervisor. Allocation of status posi- 
tions is usually based upon the personal characteristics of 
the players such as social power or playing competence. In 
some games, however, the basic structure includes devices 
which assure a variety of status experiences regardless of 
social power and competence. When games are selected and 
managed by a sensitive worker, his knowledge of these fac- 
tors may better enable him to provide game opportunities 
which meet the particular needs of his group to "play out" 
various status roles. 


When writing to niir advertisers nlease mention RECREATION. 


Relief Carving 

Materials Needed: plaster of Paris; water; cardboard boxes 
(oatmeal containers are excellent) ; carbon paper; nail; 
knives or other cutting tool; watercolors, brushes, shellac. 


Preparing the plaster plaque. Mix the plaster of Paris by 
pouring the plaster into the water until it forms a good size 
island. With a spoon or with hands stir the plaster into the 
water until it is a smooth paste. When the mixture begins 
to stiffen, it is ready to be poured. Pour the plaster into 
the cardboard box to make a flat shape about one-inch thick. 
Insert a paper clip into the plaster for hanging the finished 

Planning and transferring the design. Plan the form to be 
carved on paper. Transfer the design to the plaster by means 
of carbon paper. 

Carving. Take a nail and press the lines deeply into the 
plaster. Round off the edges of the design being carved. 
With the knife remove the background so that it is about a 

Clark Heiple 

quarter of an inch below the level of the carved form. A 

raised edge of frame should be left standing around the 


Finishing. Smooth carefully and add details. Paint with 

transparent water color or thin show-card paint. Apply a 

coat of clear shellac. 

Exploring Crayon Carving 

Clyde C. Clack 

There are interesting possibil- 
ities in the large size pressed 
crayons as a carving medium. 
Simple tools may be used to pro- 
duce a variety of effects. A leath- 
er modeling tool and the pointed 
tip of a plastic handled brush 
were used to carve the form il- 
lustrated. A penknife, triangular 
file, orange-stick and block- 
printing tools will be found use- 
ful, too, in carving the forms. 

The crayons may be carved 
full length or broken into short- 
er pieces. In either case, plan 
your sculptured forms to reflect 
the original shape of the crayon. 
The nature of the crayons sug- 
gests that designs be kept sim- 
ple. Also study the tools which 
you choose for carving the cray- 
ons. Each will present certain 
possibilities and limitations. Try 
them out and discover what they 

will do for you. You will find that certain effects seem to 
be "natural" for each tool. Explore these natural possibili- 
ties and make the most of them. The whole experience will 
become more interesting, intriguing, easier, and satisfying 
if one will. 

A study of primitive sculpture will afford an excellent 
approach to exploring the possibilities of carving the cray- 
ons because so much of primitive sculpture was carved from 
the cylindrical trunks and limbs of trees, tusks, bones, and 
so on. 

As a further suggestion, try carving the large size Crayola 
and the large chalk crayons. You will find these crayons a 
bit more fragile than the pressed type crayons but it will 
be fun experimenting and exploring them as media for small 
simplified sculpture forms. 

There will be a number of students from the fifth or sixth 
grades through junior and senior high school who will find 
this type of carving interesting. [It might be used in making 
totem poles as a part of your American Indian projects. 

Reprinted with permission from the January-February 1955 number 
of The Art Educationist, a bimonthly publication by Binney & Smith 

APRIL 1955 


Frank H. Geri 

PLAY must be kept snappy and vigorous. A good 
supervisor kills a game before it goes "dead." Per- 
haps one of the worst techniques on the playground is the 
carrying on of a game that has lost all interest to the players. 
The weather, disposition of the group and the leader, the 
nature of the game itself, all contribute to the variances af- 
fecting the length of the game. But much can be done for a 
game by the attitude and enthusiasm of the instructor. One 
must first have confidence in the game and consider it worth 

It should be selected for the ability of the group, for a 
child feels belittled if he thinks that the game is too young 
for him. On the other hand, a game that is beyond a child's 
ability is discouraging, and he soon tires of it. Even though 
it is a really good game, it may be that he will never enjoy it 
because of this unsatisfactory introduction. 

The supervisor must know a game thoroughly before 
teaching it. For nearly every game there is a variation or a 
different set of rules. Teach rules first and insist that all 
players know them that way ; then, if variations are in order, 
they can be given after the game has been established and 

Introducing the Game. To introduce a game, contest, or 
race, call the group together, name the game and arrange the 
players in formation. Explain it briefly, putting the players 
through demonstrations of various positions. Ask for ques- 
tions, then start the play as quickly as possible. Don't let 
the explanation be too lengthy. If the game has been played 
before, naming it reminds them of details of rules. Putting 
the group in formation before teaching the game makes it 
more intelligible to the players. In so doing, however, 
always be sure that everyone can see and hear; i.e., if you 
have a circle formation, keep on the outside of the circle 
and have everyone drop hands while the explanations are 
given. Ask for questions to be sure that everyone under- 
stands all points. 

It isn't always necessary to explain all the rules at once. 
If a game is complicated, leave out some of the unessential 
rules at first and add them as the group gets ready for them. 
For example, in baseball, when a group has poor motor co- 
ordination, the three strikes for a poor batter or four balls 
for an unskilled pitcher makes a pretty poor game. Leave 

MR. GERI is the director oj recreation for Bellingham Play- 
fields, Bellingham, Washington. 

that rule out and let them pitch and bat until a ball is struck 
and claimed fair. 

Use lead-ups to different games. For example, baseball 
is a complicated game that requires both skill and mental 
alertness. The skills of wielding a baseball bat and of pitch- 
ing are difficult to master. Begin with Long Ball. Only one 
base is used and more than one can be on base at a time. 
Even this can be taught in successive steps. In small chil- 
dren, since the large muscles develop first, the legs have 
better coordination than the arms. Hence, starting with a 
soccer ball rolled to a kicker stimulates eventual reaction 
to the baseball and makes for a more successful game. Next 
a large rubber ball may be pitched with the batter striking 
with full hand or fist. Lastly, the game is approximated 
with a bat and an extra large soft ball. 

Hit-Pin-Baseball is a good preliminary game to baseball 
also, but more advanced than Long Ball. These games are 
not merely successive steps to the ultimate "baseball," but 
each game is run in its own right. They are especially fun 
to the small child because they require less coordination, 
and he can excel in them. As he advances in ability he will 
enjoy the game that requires more skill. Discourage all 
horseplay from the start. Demand strict attention when a 
new game is introduced, and then explain it quickly and 
briefly. It may be the supervisor's fault if a class is not 
showing good attention. Use a whistle to capture attention 
and in starting and stopping the game. It allows freedom 
of laughter and excited voices, yet one can guide the game 
so that it is clean-cut and smooth. If interest and enthusiasm 
are maintained, any distraction will be taken care of by the 
members of the group. If the disturbers can take hold, a 
leader is failing to do a good job. Control of disturbers is 
an indication of good leadership. 

Insist on Fair Play. Rules must be enforced. Decisions 
must be fair. Standard rules should be followed explicitly. 
The written rules should be available so that they may be 
checked before the group if there is room for argument. 
Participants may be invited to check the rules, as it makes 
for more accurate playing and a better interest. This also 
establishes the leader as a fair person whose decisions are 
just. Children will give their confidence if they see that 
decisions are always justified. 

Resting. Usually the time taken for re-forming new games 
and making new explanations allows ample time for resting. 
When enthusiasm is high, stopping too frequently or too 
long kills the spirit of the play. The game should be modi- 
fied if it is too strenuous. If the group is getting tired, even 
though members want to keep playing, the game should be 
changed to a more quiet type so they can rest and resume 
the first again after they are rested. The games will stay 
fresh that way. 

Choosing People. Sometimes it is better for the instructor 
to select the teams. In this way, if he posts the list, there are 
no hard feelings by the person who was chosen last. If de- 
sired, however, two team captains can be selected who will 
choose the players away from the group, coming back with 

* From Illustrated Game Manual, by Frank Geri, published by 
Ernie Rose, 215 Seneca, Seattle, Washington. 1950. 



lists so that the order of selection is not known. 

Ordinarily players will be lined up in a straight line and 
numbered off by twos, threes, fours, or whatever number 
will be necessary. Sometimes they may number from the 
far end first to change the order. They should be made to 
stay in the position first chosen to better mix up the groups 
friends tend to stick together each time and make the 
teams always the same. The instructor must always be alert 
to be sure the teams are equal. It makes for a much better 
game, competitively as well as psychologically. 

New leaders should be chosen for every game, and cap- 
tains should be so alternated as to give some of the poorer 
players a chance to be leaders, too. 1 It takes courage to con- 
tinue playing a game when one is obviously a poor player 
and never leads the group. Therefore, it is not always wise 
to let the best players organize and run the games. If there 
be a special occasion, like a birthday, the person celebrating 
may be It, or choose the game. 

If a game doesn't sell well, the instructor should note what 
modifications can improve it. He must be aware of the 
size of the area in relation to the size of the group. If the 
tagged are caught too easily, he should widen the area. If 
the runner runs endlessly, he should shorten the spaces. An 
alteration may save a good game. 

Voice. The instructor should speak slowly and distinctly. 
Those in the group should stand so that his voice need be 
carried in only one direction. He must be sure to talk to 
everyone, not only those directly in front of him. Everyone 
should face the leader. The children who cause the most 
distraction are usually the ones who can't see or hear what 
is going on. 

Minor Faults. Small errors in play may be corrected while 
the game is in session. Mistakes will often be made in the 
beginning. These should be caught during play. 

Preparations. No equipment should be given out until all 
directions have been given and the group is ready for action. 
However, all equipment should be ready. Boundary lines 
can be established in the morning before the playfield is 
officially opened, and bats and balls can be at hand. Nets 
should be up before the group is called together. The in- 
structor should never gather a group, explain the game, and 
then rush into the shed for the equipment. That is a sure 
way to kill enthusiasm. 

Participation. Everyone should participate in some way. 
Frequently there will be a guest who is for some reason 
incapacitated for active participation. This member may be 
used for judging, timing, markings, scoring, or whatever 
capacity can be found for him. He will be found eager for 
some sort of responsibility. 

Discipline. If a child is apparently in need of discipline, 
the first place to look is at the supervisor and the program 
to see the reason for this behavior. One can be too severe 
in the management of children. It must be remembered that 
a sharp word inspires sharp actions. Friendliness and a 
soft voice and quiet manner are far more effective and will 
promote confidence. Every effort should be made to prevent 
gaining the ill will of a child, and to make him see that any 

necessary punishment is just. This will build up a spirit of 
respect and loyalty. 

Occasionally there is a stubborn case which is more than 
the supervisor can cope with. The director should be noti- 
fied of these discipline problems and should be asked to take 
care of them. Disciplinary measures must be just. A super- 
visor must always think of the possible results of any pun- 
ishment. Upon sending a child from the playground, all 
contact with the youngster is lost and he may get into more 
difficulty. The supervisor's friendship and the playground 
may be needed by the child. The supervisor, therefore, must 
allow as much freedom as possible unless it infringes upon 
the rights and safety of other children, or damages the 

Too many warnings are not a good policy. He must be 
sure that all commands can be accomplished, and then fol- 
low them through. He should try first to make all repri- 
mands or instructions without the knowledge of the group. 
It is best never to make the child conspicuous, or an ex- 
ample ; he will appreciate discreetness, and respect the leader 
for it. The supervisor must avoid any suggestion that trouble 
is expected, for to know that trouble is expected is an in- 
centive to give it. 

A whistle, discreetly used, is one of the best devices for 
checking anyone at a distance. It avoids the necessity of 
calling out a name, and it is best to avoid yelling across a 
playground, whether for disciplinary action or not. Yelling 
gives a bad impression. 

A respected supervisor will keep his hands off children 
for either discipline or display of affection. He will be ami- 
able but not too friendly and give no reason for any suspi- 
cion of "favorites," nor will he hold a "grudge." Any pun- 
ishment will be brief. If a child must be excluded from a 
game, it should be for a short time, not for the whole game ; 
his trouble may be that he needs to expel some energy. 
When the player is restored to the game, it will be with the 
friendly attitude that all is well. 

1 See article, "Games and Status Experience," page 172. 


1. Get players into formation for the game. 

2. Name it. 

3. Explain the object of the game. 

4. Describe and demonstrate the method of play. 

5. Describe the technical features. 

a. rules 

b. fouls 

c. scoring, and so on. 

6. Give opportunity for questions. 

7. Get going! 


1. Was it well chosen for the group did the players 
enjoy it and have a good time playing? 

2. Did everyone have a chance to participate? 

3. Was it safe? 

4. Did it teach basic skills? 

5. Did the players have a chance to make suggestions? 

Helen Dauncey, NRA Staff 

APRIL 1955 


What the Playground Can Do 
for the Handicapped Child 

John A. Turner 

The above title might also be, "What 
the Recreation Leader Can Do for the 
Handicapped Child," because in this as- 
pect of recreation work, as well as in 
all other aspects, the ability of the lead- 
er is the focal point upon which the suc- 
cess of the program hinges. 

In dealing with handicapped children 
on the playground, we have found that 
an enlightened leader is essential in 
order to prevent the other children from 
doing more harm than good for the 
handicapped child; for it is well rec- 
ognized that children, in their naivete, 
can be unbearably cruel. Only through 
the guidance and control of an alert rec- 
reation leader can the playground be 
prevented from being a detrimental in- 
fluence for the handicapped child. 

However, when the recreation leader 
is well trained and capable of recogniz- 
ing the limitations of the various types 
of handicapped children, the play- 
ground can do much to contribute to 
their enjoyment of life. As a matter of 
fact, it can accomplish gains in the de- 
velopment of handicapped children that 
no other environment can give. 

These gains are so widespread and 
so numerous that it is extremely diffi- 
cult to compile a comprehensive list. 
However, if we approach the contribu- 
tion which recreation can make to the 
handicapped child in terms of basic 
needs, a number o f points can be 
brought out. 

One of our leading psychologists, 
Louis P. Thorpe, lists as universal basic 
needs, the need for: physical well-be- 
ing; personal recognition ; security, 
love and affection. 

With regard to satisfaction of the 
first, the playground can provide for 
the development of balance and coordi- 
nation through apparatus play and 
games suitable to the degree of activity 

JOHN A. TURNER is superintendent of 
recreation in St. Louis, Missouri. 

possible to the individual child. In ad- 
dition, manual dexterity can be devel- 
oped in many through elementary craft 

Fitting the activity to the individual's 
capacity has been emphasized. The im- 
portance of this cannot be over-rated 
because the child, after all, has to be 
able to experience some degree of suc- 
cess in the activity if he is to continue it. 

One classic example of this contribu- 
tion is found in St. Louis in the case 
of a young boy who had lost his right 
leg as a result of an early childhood ac- 
cident. For some strange reason, the 
boy selected weight-lifting as a sport 
which he enjoyed more than anything 
else. The neighborhood playground di- 
rector encouraged him to come to the 
playground to help teach other boys 
weight-lifting. Needless to say, it was 
an extremely difficult task to convince 
the handicapped boy that he had some- 
thing to offer, but once he began exhib- 
iting the tremendous strength and skill 
in his shoulders and arms, he not only 
won a great deal of admiration from the 
other children, but he began to feel that 
he was important as an individual. 

With regard to the second basic need, 
that of personal recognition, Thorpe 
feels that it is extremely important for 
an individual to feel that he is regarded 
as a person of worth and importance. 
This need was satisfied in the case of the 
one-legged weight-lifter. 

Another outstanding example of the 
satisfaction of this need is the work 
which has been done with retarded chil- 
dren on the playgrounds of St. Louis. 
The children have been taught to do 
some very simple crafts such as weav- 
ing with looper clips or other projects 
within the limits of their abilities. When 
such a child views his completed pro- 
ject which, because of the very nature 
of its construction, is as good as anyone 
else can do, the smile that lights his face 
makes the recreation leaders feel that 

they have accomplished something 
worthwhile. Further, the child not only 
experiences a great sense of accomplish- 
ment but feels that he is a person of 
worth and importance. 

In selecting a project to fill this par- 
ticular basic need for personal recog- 
nition, again, the guarantee of success 
in the activity for the handicapped child 
is essential. If the child attempts a pro- 
ject in which he has no opportunity to 
succeed, the failure will do a great deal 
of harm to a personality that already 
is under strain. 

With regard to the third basic need, 
that for security, love and affection, it 
is on the playground that the child often 
has his first contact with people other 
than those in his immediate family. He, 
very naturally, receives love and affec- 
tion from his immediate family, but in 
many cases is unable to find the type 
of attention that he needs in any place 
other than the home. The very fact that 
a playground leader takes the time and 
effort to help the handicapped child 
gives the child this feeling of being 
liked by someone, a feeling of security. 
When a playground director gives him 
affection, the child reacts appreciatively. 

For instance, one of the city swim- 
ming pools was made available to a 
group of blind children in St. Louis at 
a special time when no other children 
were in the pool. Supervision, of 
course, was provided and the blind chil- 
dren enjoyed their swimming to such 
an extent that their eagerness to get into 
the pool was wonderful to see. [See 
"Swimming for Handicapped Chil- 
dren," RECREATION, February 1955.] 

Thus, with proper supervision, with 
a program geared not only to the in- 
terests but also to the abilities of the 
handicapped individual, the playground 
can help the handicapped to make a sat- 
isfactory adjustment, to satisfy basic 
needs in a way that contributes to phy- 
sical, emotional, and social growth. 



A New Trend 
in Playground Training Courses 

Mr. Naab advocates a concentrated pre-season training program that is fun 
for the leaders (and their families!) as well as instructive. Several communities 
Lexington, Kentucky, for example have used a similar plan successfully. Why 
not vary your usual training program this year, and try something like this? 

FOR SEVERAL years we have heard com- 
ments concerning the inadequate 
training given to playground leaders. 
There has also been a great deal of con- 
fusion as to whether or not leaders 
should be paid during the training pe- 
riod. A recent poll revealed that most 
communities pay their leaders during 
the training sessions, but do so only 
because many of them will not attend 
if they are not paid. Many communi- 
ties, however, lack funds to pay for 
training; consequently, their leaders 
are starting without adequate knowl- 
edge of what is required of them, what 
to do, and where to begin. 

Most communities must rely upon 
college students and teachers for their 
leadership and, in many cases, these 
leaders are not skilled in the normal 
playground activities. Many of them 
are good teachers, but, unless they have 
the ability to teach recreation skills, the 
program may die. The taxpayer is con- 
stantly watching these leaders and, if 
they fail to produce a constructive pro- 
gram, the blame will ultimately fall 
upon the administrators of that pro- 

The recreation leader must have the 
spirit of recreation in his heart to make 
a playground program successful. He 
can be your best means of advertising 
and your most staunch supporter, but 
an inadequately trained leader can also 
hinder your program. Many of us are 
familiar with the older leaders' alibis 
for not attending summer training in- 
stitutes, but isn't it because there is no 
incentive for them to attend? Much of 
the material used in the training course 

LEONARD NAAB is the superintendent of 
recreation in Hutchinson, Kansas. 

APRIL 1955 

must be repeated for the new leaders, 
but our training programs are essen- 
tially the same year after year. We can 
hardly justify paying these older lead- 
ers just to "sit through" this training 
period, so our problem is to make them 
want to attend and to share in the train- 
ing of the new leaders. 

If you and your family were offered 
an opportunity for a week's vacation 
with all expenses paid, you would prob- 
ably be eager to accept, especially if 
there was an opportunity for excellent 
recreation activities. However, you 
wouldn't really expect to be paid for 
taking this vacation, and we are sure 
your leaders will feel the same way. 

Our recreation commission in Hutch- 
inson, Kansas, does not pay its leaders 
during the training institute, which is 
held at camp, but does pay all of the 
expenses. By so doing, the commission 
saves at least one third the amount 
spent to train its playground leaders 
and at the same time develops a lead- 
ership spirit that could not be duplicat- 
ed in the conventional training course. 

The institute is open to anyone who 
wishes to attend, but out-of-town lead- 
ers must pay the basic cost for camp 
fee, food, and materials. The institute 
is usually held at a private or public 
camp which offers many natural recre- 
ation opportunities. Married leaders 
are invited to bring their families and 
are given cabin facilities for lodging. 
Cots and mattresses are furnished by 
the camp. It is at this camp that lead- 
ers eat, sleep, talk, and practice recrea- 
tion activities for one week. 

The leaders are required to stay in 
camp and attend all lectures, demon- 
strations, and other phases of the train- 
ing program. The institute is based on 

Leonard Naab 

learning by doing, so they are kept 
busy with a variety of activities. They 
must: complete sample projects in all 
arts and crafts that are to be used dur- 
ing the summer program; learn the 
rules of all activities, enter each ac- 
tivity that can be run on a tournament 
basis, and draw up and conduct one of 
the tournaments; teach simple play- 
ground games; and participate in ac- 
tivities involving music, drama, art and 

It is vitally important that a sched- 
ule be maintained throughout a train- 
ing institute, although some changes 
may be made because of the weather. 
Promptness by the entire group is a 
must at meals and demonstrations. It 
is a good public-relation policy to in- 
vite local specialists to talk to your 
leaders. We usually hold these infor- 
mal lectures near the lake where every- 
one can be relaxed and comfortable. 

You are no doubt wondering what 
happens to the wives and children dur- 
ing the camp period. In many cases the 
family works with the group activity 
and the children serve as "guinea pigs" 
for the playground instructors. All 
those attending are assigned daily 
chores necessary to camp operation. 

Outside groups sending leaders usu- 
ally hold their own lectures on play- 
ground policies and procedures, al- 
though experts are brought in to assist 
communities with specific problems. 

The surest way to know your leaders 
is to live with them for a week in camp. 
You can't hide or fake personality and 
ability in such a situation. You can 
immediately spot your weak links and 
can take necessary steps to strengthen 
the chain. 

Your leaders leave the camp tired but 
refreshed, and have a feeling of assur- 
ance that they are fully trained and 
ready to go. This small investment pays 
off bigger dividends in better programs 
through better leaders. 


How To Do IT / bu 5&l Gj 

* / 



ELqqs- Dye -Bou;l- 
India Ink or Water Color- 
Larqe Needle -Glue- 
Paper-Cloth -MeMhread- 
Yarn- Felt- Feathers - 
Sequins-Pipe Cleaners. 


I.Blouv egg~~ 
Warm eqg^fhen punch 
small hole tui-Hn needle in 
one end and little larqer hole 
in the other end . blotu throuqh 

Kangaroo's head and 
-fai/ made of 

Birds u/inqs 
made u/ith fe/f 
or feathers. 


small hole. 
2. Color tuHh di^e or abater color. 
3.Glue on fins, bills, leqs,u)inqs,ete 
4.Druou faces and deteils u/ith 
India, ink or water color. 

Pipe cleaners used for ieyj of birds 
ancf kanga_roo . 

Ears are 
Tie. /s cloth. 
Hair, -face 
are painted. 

All pa/nfeof 
except' the. 
cloth bovu hat. 

-Fee-Fare -fel-r 
matj be Set on Clo+h bcus. Head small rubber ball. 

base made from sma.\l paper cup or glued -to heavcj cardboard -f \a*C 
base or hunq bt| a black thread . Decorate the base appropriately. 




POOLS -Part 4 

Pool Construction Factors 

(Continued from March issue) 

George D. Butler 

Pool Markings. Markings are essential for safety and to 
facilitate pool activities. Depth markings are commonly 
placed on the top of the pool coping or on the deck, where 
they may be seen by persons approaching the pool, and on 
the pool wall above the overflow gutters, where swimmers 
may see them. If set in colored tile or other material they 
are relatively permanent; otherwise they must be repainted 
periodically. Three-, five-, and ten-foot depths should al- 
ways be indicated, but markings showing one-foot intervals 
are often desirable. Letters should be large enough to be 
read easily and in contrasting color to the pool coping or 
side wall. The words "shallow" and "deep" should also ap- 
pear at the respective ends of the pool. The outlet should 
be plainly marked by a dark circle unless the grating is of 
a conspicuous coloring. 

Every pool in which races are likely to be held should 
have swimming lanes marked on the bottom, preferably in 
a contrasting color, either set in tile or of the same material 
as the pool lining. The lines, ten inches wide, indicate the 
center of the lanes, which should be seven feet in width. 
They should start four feet from one end of the pool and 
terminate four feet from the other end, with a one-foot cross- 
mark seven feet from each end of the pool. 

Anchor Eyelets. Safety lines to separate the shallow and 
deep areas are needed at almost every pool, and racing lane 
markers at pools used for competitive swimming. Anchor 
eyelets for these lines should be installed when the pool is 
built, set flush with its wall so as not to obstruct the swim- 
ming area, and have a noncorrosive metal finish. 

Fencing. All outdoor public pools should be completely en- 
closed so that only bathers have access to the pool. Galvan- 
ized woven-wire fencing is commonly used. One of its ad- 
vantages is that it does not seriously obstruct the view of 
people passing by or of spectators at pool events. In case 
prevailing cool winds would interfere with bathers' com- 
fort and thus affect attendance, a fence of solid material is 
desirable, at least around part of the pool area. Materials 
used, in addition to masonry or board fencing, include rein- 
forced glass, canvas, or vines on woven wire, a dense hedge, 

MR. BUTLER is director of the NRA Research Department 
and is currently chairman of the Swimming Pool Study 
Committee of the Conference for National Cooperation in 

APRIL 1955 

Popularity of Astoria Park Pool, New York City, is clearly 
indicated. Note separate diving, swimming, and wading units 
and the ample space provided for spectators and sunbathers. 

or rustic wooden fence. As previously mentioned, fencing 
should be used to separate the pool area from a section set 
aside for spectators or a turf or sand sunning area for bath- 
ers. Adequate gates must be provided in the pool fence so 
as to permit the entry of trucks and large equipment. 

Water Recirculation and Purification 

As water is the most important element in the operation 
and use of a swimming pool, provision and maintenance 
in the pool of an adequate supply of pure water is therefore 
most important. The requirements of the state department 
of health are among the many factors which determine the 
specific equipment to be installed at any particular pool in 
order that the water may be kept in a satisfactory condition 
at all times. Because of the many technical problems in- 
volved in the selection and installation of this equipment, 
employment of an experienced pool designer is recom- 
mended highly. Opinions differ with respect to water re- 
circulation and purification methods, but a few widely ac- 
cepted principles are mentioned below. Much printed mate- 
rial containing detailed information on technical aspects of 
this subject is available and merits careful study. (Some are 
listed at end of this article.) 

The bathing capacity of a pool is limited riot only by the 
surface area but by the water volume and amount of clean 
water added, both fresh and recirculated. Many states and 
the Joint Committee on Bathing Places* specify that the total 

* Of the American Public Health Association and the State Sani- 
tary Engineers. 


This fan-shaped pool, 75 feet long with a separate wading 
pool, adjoins building serving as both bathhouse and commu- 
nity recreation center. Pool designed by Charles M. Graves. 

number of bathers using a pool during any period shall not 
exceed twenty persons for each one thousand gallons of 
clean water added during that period. Where disinfection 
is not continuous, the number of persons using the pool be- 
tween disinfections should not exceed seven for each one 
thousand gallons. These conditions are usually met in pools 
with a complete water turnover period of eight to twelve 
hours; in such cases the surface area rather than the water 
supply limits the bathing load. As a rule, all new pools de- 
signed for public or community use should be provided with 
a recirculation system. 

The Recirculation System. This is the system of piping 
which brings the water supply to the pool, including the 
equipment necessary to purify or heat the water before it 
enters the pool; also the piping that carries the water from 
the pool to the sewer or back to the equipment that purifies 
it again before it is returned to the pool. It commonly con- 
sists of the pumps, filters, water heater, hair catcher, chlor- 
inator, suction cleaner, and the pipe connections to the wa- 
ter supply, the pool inlets and outlets. With this system, 
water is continuously drawn from the pool, passed through 
filters and other purification equipment and then returned 
to the pool. Fresh water must be added only to replace that 
lost through evaporation or through overflows which drain 
to the sewer. In many, a "closed system" is used in which 
water splashed into the overflow gutters is returned to the 
filters. Because little fresh water must be added, a minimum 
of heat is needed to keep the water at the proper temperature 
in fact, difficulty is sometimes experienced, especially in 
large shallow pools, in keeping the water cool enough. 

Inlets and Outlets. The objectives to be achieved in locating 
the inlets through which clean water is brought into the 
pool are (1) to provide a uniform circulation of water and 
distribution of chlorine or other chemicals throughout the 
pool so as to avoid "dead spots" in the pool and (2) to facil- 
itate the removal of dirt, foreign, and suspended matter 
in the pool by causing it to move toward the outlet. The 
pool outlet, on the other hand, located at the deepest point 
in the pool, should be designed to drain the pool promptly, 
carry off sediment effectively and yet avoid the creation of 
hazardous suction currents. 

The Joint Committee on Bathing Places has made recom- 
mendations as to the location and spacing of both inlets 

and outlets at pools of various types and sizes. Orifices with 
individual gate valves have been designed specifically for 
pool inlets; they can be adjusted so as to vary the quantity 
and direction of the flow at different parts of the pool. In- 
lets should be submerged so that as the chlorine rises to 
the surface the water is sterilized. Except in small pools, 
inlets should be placed at intervals around the entire per- 
imeter. In several instances where they have been placed 
at the shallow end only, the results have not been satisfac- 
tory. The installation of self -cleaning injection jets in some 
pools has eliminated the need for any vacuum system. 

Outlets should be sufficiently large to drain the pool com- 
pletely in four hours or less. To accomplish this satisfac- 
torily multiple outlets are often required. The area of the 
outlet is usually four times that of the discharge pipe, in 
order to reduce suction currents. The outlet cover should 
be non-removable by bathers; the anti -vortex type facili- 
tates removal of sediment from the pool floor and prevents 
the formation of hazardous water currents. The color of the 
outlets should be in contrast to that of the pool bottom. 

Filters. The average water supply does not have sufficient 
clarity to make it suitable for swimming pool use until it 
has been filtered. Pool water that is recirculated before 
being returned to the pool must also pass through a filter 
which removes the suspended matter and a portion of the 
bacteria. Filtration, unlike chlorination, is a mechanical 
process. Filters and pumps should be large enough to re- 
circulate the entire contents of the pool in eight hours or 
less, according to most authorities. 

Two types of filters are in common use : the pressure sand 
filter and the diatomaceous earth filter. In the former the 
water passes through a filter bed of sand under pressure; 
in the latter, through a cake of diatomaceous earth (the 
skelatal remains of tiny organisms in geological deposits) 
supported on filter elements. As compared to sand filters, 
the diatomite filters are a comparatively new development 
as far as swimming pools are concerned, but they have been 
installed at a large number of pools in the last few years. 
Many pool designers and operators enthusiastically recom- 
mend this type. 

Advantages claimed for the diatomite filters are: 

1. They are compact units, requiring only a fraction of 
the space needed by a sand filter. 

2. The initial installation cost is comparatively low. 

3. Clarity of the effluent is high and is not affected by 
marked variation in filtration rates. 

4. Quality of water is not affected by excessive head 

On the other hand, some claim that the sand filter is 
simpler to operate, whereas the diatomite filter requires 
the services of a skilled operator. The sand filter gives de- 
pendable service and is reported to be especially effective 
in treating water high in turbidity. Super-chlorination is 
easier, one authority claims, with a sand filter than with the 
other type. Studies have revealed that inadequate back- 
washing was evident with diatomaceous earth filters and that 
they seemed liable to corrosion because of galvanic action. 

In summarizing a review of research on swimming pool 



filters in Public Health Reports for August, 1954, Eugene L. 
Lehr and Charles C. Johnson of the U. S. Public Health 
Service stated: "Though diatomite filters are gaining in 
popularity, there are those who feel these filters still need to 
pass the test of time before they can be given full acceptance 
on a par with other proved types of swimming pool filters." 

Disinfection. Pool water must be continuously treated with 
chemicals in order that it be kept free from bacteria and 
safe for use. Chlorine is generally considered to come near- 
est to having the qualities considered ideal for a disinfecting 
agent for swimming pool waters. It is also the only disin- 
fectant which has been approved by all state health depart- 
ments for use in treating bathing waters. The addition of 
chlorine by means of suitable apparatus is therefore the 
most widely used and satisfactory method of disinfecting 
pool water, although other materials are sometimes used, 
such as bromine, HTH, and others. 

Chlorine makes possible not only the disinfection of the 
entire body of water in the pool, but also maintenance at all 
times of a chlorine residual that counteracts contamination 
introduced by persons using the pool. The dosage can be 
varied by the use of proper chlorinating apparatus to com- 
pensate for changes in the bathing load. Chlorine can be 
applied in different forms, which require different types of 
equipment and which may necessitate the application of ad- 
ditional chemicals. Experience seems to indicate that better 
results are obtained when chlorine is added ahead of pool 
filters. As previously stated, chlorine and chlorine equip- 
ment should be placed in a separate room which is reason- 
ably gas-tight and if the room is below ground level it should 
have mechanical ventilation, since chlorine gas is heavier 
than air. 

Other Equipment 

Space permits only a brief discussion of several impor- 
tant types of pool equipment. 

Diving Boards. Since diving is one of the most popular pool 
activities boards should be installed at all except shallow 
neighborhood pools. One-meter boards are most widely 
used, but most pools also have a three-meter board. Higher 
diving platforms are usually installed only at Olympic-size 
pools or at pools intended especially for official competi- 
tion. Installation of boards which comply with A.A.U. or 
N.C.A.A. specifications (fourteen feet long and twenty 
inches wide) is desirable and assures safe, tested equipment. 
Laminated wooden boards have long been used, but alumi- 
num boards are gaining in popularity because of their dura- 
bility and performance. At pools where competitive swim- 
ming events are likely to be held, it is suggested that boards 
be installed so they may be swung up out of the way in case 
they are located where they would interfere with contest- 
ants or officials. 

Accidents are caused at some pools because diving boards 
are too close to one another or to the sides of the pool. It is 
proposed that wherever possible one-meter boards should 
be at least fourteen feet from another board or a parallel 
pool wall, and that at least sixteen feet be allowed in the 
case of three-meter boards. 

What NOT to do ! Features of this pool to be avoided include 
irregular slope, narrow decks, lights strung up over the pool, 
too close proximity to a dusty road, and apparatus in pool. 

Lighting. The installation of lights at a pool makes pos- 
sible a longer period of operation and enables it to serve a 
larger number of people. Lights are of three types: under- 
water, overhead, and spot; and each type serves a different 

Underwater lighting is primarily to enable people to par- 
ticipate in activities in the pool with safety after dark. It 
also affords better vision under water for the lifeguards and 
enables spectators to see and enjoy evening activities. Un- 
derwater lights should be adequate in number and intensity 
to illuminate the entire interior of the pool and eliminate 
dark areas which become potential danger spots, even in 
shallow water. Overlapping of lighted areas may be accom- 
plished by placing the lights in staggered positions along 
the pool wall. Lights, even though flush with the wall, should 
be far enough below the water surface so swimmers do not 
come in forceful contact with them. "Wet niche" type of 
installation is preferred by many. Provision should be made 
for turning off the lights at the pool ends during swimming 
meets. Maintenance of underwater lighting equipment is 
facilitated by construction of a tunnel under the deck around 
the pool wall, which also affords access to the pool plumbing. 

Overhead lighting is needed at all pools to be used after 
dark. It is primarily for the safety of the people on the pool 
decks and the adjoining areas, but it does not always assure 
proper illumination of the pool itself. At pools to be used 
for competition, the lights must be adequate so that officials 
can read their watches and record the results. Floodlights 
are usually attached to high poles erected at intervals around 
the pool outside the deck. Lights should not overhang the 
pool as bulbs might fall into it and insects attracted to the 
light would drop into the water. 

Unlike underwater and overhead floodlights, which are 
designed to afford general illumination, spotlights are spe- 
cial equipment and are installed at comparatively few pools. 
They are effective, however, when used in connection' with 
water pageants or other special pool events. If electric out- 
lets are provided at suitable locations, spots may be installed 
temporarily on special occasions. Outlets are also useful for 
a public address system, radio, reading lights, and other 

Others. Many other types of equipment and supplies are re- 
quired in order to operate a pool successfully. Some, like the 
drinking fountain, clock, public address system, and bul- 

APRIL 1955 


Equipment shown in this view of Hollywoodland Girls Camp 
Pool, 82y% by 42 feet, includes niters, lights, diving boards 
and platforms, lifeguard chair and clearly seen line markers. 

letin board, are for the comfort or convenience of the bath- 
ers. Lifeguard chairs or towers, ring buoys, safety poles, 
and first aid kit contribute to bathers' safety. Kickboards, 
starting platform, float lane markers, Scoreboard, and water 
polo goals are used for pool activities. Vacuum cleaner, 
brushes, water testing set, thermometer, and office supplies 
and equipment are important maintenance items. The spe- 
cific needs of a pool depend upon its size, type, and program. 

Most communities considering the construction of a pool 
are interested in knowing whether or not it is likely to yield 
sufficient revenue to meet the cost of operating and main- 
taining it. Experience indicates that a pool of good design, 
well located, and efficiently operated can be expected to 
produce income enough to pay the current costs, if rates are 
properly adjusted to accomplish this. In many cities, how- 
ever, no attempt is made to break even; children are given 
free use of the pools during certain periods, no charge is 
made for swimming classes, and the admission fees are nom- 
inal only. In such cases the city absorbs the net cost in its 
recreation or park budget. 

The 1954 study of outdoor swimming pools conducted by 
the Conference for National Cooperation in Aquatics show- 
ed that for a group of ninety-one pools of different types, 
sizes, and locations, fifty-six were operated at a loss, four 
broke even, and thirty-one yielded a profit. At only two 
pools out of twenty-one with less than 6,000 square feet of 
water area did income exceed operating costs. There was 
very little difference, however, between the average annual 
cost and the average income for all pool groups above 6.000 
square feet except for the oversize pools. For the group as 
a whole, the ratio between cost and income did not differ 
greatly from that revealed in a 1940 study when the average 
cost of operating 555 pools exceeded by about twenty per 
cent the average income per pool. 

Admission fees for children are usually ten or fifteen 
cents, although a few pools may require a fee as high as 
twenty-five cents. Fees for adults generally vary from 
twenty-five to fifty cents, with an average nearer the lower 


figure. An intermediate fee is charged in many cities for 
juniors usually boys and girls of secondary school age. At 
some pools season tickets for an individual or for a family 
are sold at a rate that greatly reduces the cost per swim if 
the pool is used frequently. 

Important Considerations 

A few final suggestions as to procedure for any commu- 
nity or group considering the construction of a pool are : 

1. Visit several communities with pools, preferably while 
they are in operation, and learn about their good features 
and the errors in design and construction by talking with 
the people who operate and use them. 

2. Secure and study thoroughly the best available printed 
material with reference to pool design, construction, opera- 
tion, and use. 

3. Get in touch with your local and state health depart- 
ments to learn of any regulations relating to swimming pools. 

4. Enlist the advice of individuals experienced as partici- 
pants or teachers of aquatic activities in determining the 
major and secondary uses the proposed pool should serve 
and the type and size of pool that will best serve them. 

5. Secure the services of a competent, experienced pool 
designer to plan your pool and review his plans in the light 
of the best material relating to pool standards before ap- 
proving them. Preparation of a check list of items that need 
to be considered and equipment that needs to be provided 
facilitates this procedure. 

6. Develop and secure approval for a plan for financing, 
operating and maintaining the pool before your contract to 
build one. 

7. Make certain that proper specifications are prepared 
for construction and equipment and that workmanship and 
materials are guaranteed. 

8. Provide for continuous inspection of all work as con- 
struction progresses to make sure that it meets specifications 
and will be satisfactory when completed. 

9. Arrange for a program of public information which 
will assure the people you are preparing a pool where they 
can swim for fun, health, and safety. 


Concrete Swimming Pools. Financing, design, construction, 
and operation. Profusely illustrated. Portland Cement As- 
sociation, Chicago, Illinois. 28 pages. 1952. Free. 
Guide for Planning Facilities for Athletics, Recreation, 
Health and Physical Education. Contains a 17-page section 
dealing with the design and construction of indoor and out- 
door swimming pools and bathhouses and suggested plans. 
The Athletic Institute, Chicago, Illinois. 1947. $1.50. 

How to Plan and Build a Family Club Swimming Pool. 
Step-by-step procedures for organizing members, selecting 
and buying property, and planning and managing the pool. 
Family Circle, Newark, New Jersey. 24 pages. 1954. $1.00. 



Modern Stvimming Pool Data and Design. A guide for con- 
sulting engineers on the design and operation of swimming 
pools and pool equipment. Profusely illustrated. Elgin-Re- 
finite, Elgin, Illinois. 98 pages. 1954. $1.00. 
Municipal Swimming Pools by C. P. L. Nicholls. Factors 
affecting pool design and construction. Reprinted from 
Parks and Recreation, March 1948, Aurora, Illinois. 10 

Operating Manual for Swimming Pools. Technical informa- 
tion in equipment, chemicals, filtration, sterilization, water 
testing, algae, insects, and the like. Elgin-Refinite, Elgin, 
Illinois. 124 pages. 1954. $1.00. 

Recommended Practice for Design, Equipment and Opera- 
tion of Swimming Pools and Other Public Bathing Places. 
Report of the Joint Committee on Bathing Places of the 
American Public Health Association and the Conference of 
State Sanitary Engineers on the standards of design, con- 
struction, equipment, and operation of swimming pools and 
other public bathing places. An authoritative statement on 
standards. American Public Health Association, New York, 
New York. 56 pages. 1949. $.55. 

Swimming Pool Data and Reference Annual. A compilation 
of articles on the construction, sanitation, and management 
of swimming pools and beaches. A summary of state regula- 
tions, a list of pool designers, and a classified list of equip- 
ment companies and manufacturers are generally included. 
Hoffman-Harris, New York, New York. $3.00. 
Swimming Pool Operation Manual by C. P. L. Nicholls. In- 
formation, rules, and regulations for the operation and 
maintenance of swimming pools at Los Angeles municipal 
playgrounds and camps. Los Angeles Department of Recre- 
ation and Parks. Mimeographed. 70 pages. 1952. $2.25. 
Swimming Pool Standards by Frederick W. Luehring. A 
comprehensive analysis of standards, presented for the guid- 
ance of those responsible for the planning, construction, and 
administration of swimming pools in educational institu- 
tions. A. S. Barnes and Company. (Out of print consult in 

Swimming Pools and Bathing Beaches. Proceedings of the 
Sixth Florida Public Health Engineering Conference, March 
24 and 25, 1953. Discussions of pool design, operation, and 

sanitation. College of Engineering, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida. 55 pages. 1953. 

Swimming Pools for Schools. (Educational Administration 
Monograph No. 3, School of Education, Stanford Uni- 
versity.) Deals primarily with recommended design and 
specifications for indoor and outdoor pools. Illustrated. 
Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 44 pages. 
1954. $2.00. 

Take the Guess Work Out of Pool Planning. Fifteen articles, 
reprinted from Beach and Pool, designed to serve as back- 
ground material for the planning and construction of a pool 
project. Illustrated. Hoffman-Harris, New York, New York. 
64 pages. 1953. $5.00. 

Trends in Swimming Pool Design. Basic considerations in 
the design, construction, and equipment of outdoor pools. 
Illustrated. Elgin-Refinite, Elgin, Illinois. 20 pages. 1954. 

Valuable information on pool standards and water purifi- 
cation methods may be secured from the health departments 
in a number of states, such as Illinois, Ohio, New York and 

Catalogues of pool equipment and information on pool 
construction are obtainable from a number of companies 
manufacturing pool material and equipment, a list of which 
appears in Swimming Pool Data and Reference Annual. The 
same publication includes a list of pool designers, several of 
whom have issued valuable literature relating to pool de- 
sign and construction. 

Articles on the design, construction, and operation of 
swimming pools appear from time to time in such magazines 
as Beach and Pool (New York) , RECREATION (New York) , 
Parks and Recreation (Aurora, Illinois) and occasionally 
in Park Maintenance (Appleton, Wisconsin) , The American 
City (New York), Architectural Record (New York), and 
the Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation 
(Washington, D. C.). 

Prevention of Water Accidents 

The drowning rate per population in 
the United States has been cut in half 
in the past forty years, despite the fact 
that the number of people using aquatic 
facilities has multiplied many times. 

This remarkable accomplishment can 
be attributed to many factors the pri- 
mary one is doubtless the efforts made 
by the many organizations concerned 
with health, safety, and recreation. 

Following the war, interest in swim- 
ming increased steadily, as it has to the 
present day. Many new pools are being 
added, not only by the YMCA and the 
YWCA, but also by boys' clubs, com- 
munity centers, service clubs, schools 
and colleges, recreation departments, 
and other community groups. 

While initially the efforts of the Red 

Cross, and to some extent that of other 
organizations, had been primarily in 
lifesaving, it soon became apparent that 
a more basic need existed: to teach 
more people how to swim so aquatic ac- 
cidents could be prevented. As a result, 
many organizations increased their ed- 
ucational efforts in this field. 

Pools operated by municipal recrea- 
tion and park departments are utilized 
not only for learn-to-swim programs 
but for training of lifeguards, instruc- 
tors, and others. 

The need for water safety education 
exists in every community. Many per- 
sons who may not have an opportunity 
to participate in aquatics in their own 
community spend some time each year 
at beaches, pools, lakes, or streams 
and are exposed to possible hazards. 

Although the rate has been cut in 
half, drowning is still a major cause of 
accidental deaths. More than six thou- 
sand persons die from drowning each 
year about half in swimming acci- 
dents and about half in other types, in- 
cluding a large percentage involving 
small craft. 

Obviously, there is still much to be 
done. While formal teaching programs 
may not always be possible because of 
lack of facilities, much can be accom- 
plished through widespread public edu- 
cation. Many organizations already car- 
ry on effective programs using demon- 
strations, posters, pamphlets, movies, 
and various other publicity media. 

From "Prevention of Water Acci- 
dents" by Richard L. Brown, Public 
Health Reports, June 1954. 

APRIL 1955 


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The graceful lines and glis- 
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Eliminates the broken div- 
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Will pay for itself within just a few seasons. 

M M i \ flVJ =1 M ! \ i Weighs less than conven- 
tional wood or coated-wood diving board, 
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requirements. Its spring-leaf design gives 
added strength in the fulcrum area where 
it is most needed, and lightness at the tip. 

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BR-UCE HARLAN, 1948 Olympic Diving Champion 





APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 





Answers to the request in our 
December 1954 issue, for 
information on this subject. 

Pottstown, Pennsylvania 

In this community, the recreation 
commission operates several play- 
grounds which do not have enclosed 
shelters. Consequently, we have had to 
devise some means of safe storage for 
equipment and supplies. 

Two types of boxes have been used. 
The first is made of wood, and is actu- 
ally a surplus Army Signal Corps field 
desk with compartments removed. 
These boxes are sturdy and large 
enough to hold a considerable amount 
of equipment. Two hasps and padlocks 
are used to secure each box, and the 
box is anchored. The second box is 
about the same size as the wooden box, 
but is made of %-inch steel-sheet, weld- 
ed together. One long side is hinged 
(the hinges are on the inside of the 
box) and is secured with two hasps and 
padlocks. This type of box is much 
heavier, but also considerably more se- 
cure, than the wooden box. 

If the boxes are not kept under a roof, 
it is wise to use some method of water- 
proofing. Roofing paper can be used to 
cover the wooden boxes. With the metal 
box, we use a sheet of plastic material 
inside the box, covering the supplies. 
ROBERT REIS, Director of Recreation. 

Prince Georges County, Maryland 

Here are two types of playground 
equipment boxes (Illustration I) that 
have been used on our playgrounds 
which do not have any other types of 
storage facilities. I hope that they may 
be of some help to those who are having 
the same problem we had several years 
ago. HERBERT RATHNER, Area Super- 
visor, Recreation Board. 

Arlington, Massachusetts 

The park and recreation department 


have used war-surplus metal boxes for 
a number of years and have found them 
to be extremely satisfactory . The boxes 
are 50 by 30 by 14 inches in size, and 
are priced at approximately five dollars. 
We recently purchased some larger, 
wooden war-surplus ammunition stor- 

age boxes but, although these are ade- 
quate, we have found the metal ones 
more satisfactory. We attach a lock to 
each box and leave them on the play- 
ground throughout the summer season. 
SALLY A. RANDALL, Supervisor of 
Girls' and Women's Activities. 


B Looks 


Cu p son R o 





AA AviU A i. 





CR A ^ 




AT H U E T 1 C 









^ 4- U 

1 Utt VOOOO <5Vl. 

Illustration I 







-t 3G 


Illustration II 

Emporia, Kansas 

This box (Illustration II) will hold 
all normal playground equipment such 
as croquet, playground balls, bats, nets, 
paddles, checkers, limited craft supplies, 
and so on. We bolt all hinges from the 
inside and nail galvanized tin strips on 
all corners for added protection. Put- 
ting galvanized tin over the lid of the 
box makes it suitable for leaving out- 
doors during all kinds of weather. 

We try wherever possible, when shel- 
ter houses were not available, to leave 
the equipment box on a neighbor's 
porch or in their garage. If this is im- 
possible, this particular box could be 
chained to a large tree or some piece of 
permanent equipment JAMES A. PET- 
ERSON, Superintendent of Recreation. 

Great Lakes District 

Here is a sketch (Illustration HI) of 
a playground box used for a number of 
years. Instead of storing equipment in 
a school building we found that a box in 
the playground served the whole school 
in a much better way. We also used the 
boxes in isolated parks. 

Over a five-year period we did not 
have a single instance of youngsters 
breaking into them. We found that we 
could nip this in the bud by having 
a checkout system. Youngsters who 

APRIL 1955 

wanted to borrow a ball for overnight 
or over a week-end could do so by just 
asking. As this was generally known, 
the reason for breaking in was gone. 

Eight of these boxes were scattered 
around at schools and parks. They were 
made out of tongue-and-groove siding 
with a good frame of 2-by-4 lumber. 
The hasp was bolted on and well braced, 

with the threads scored so nuts wouldn't 
come off. We painted them a pleasing 
color both inside and out to further in- 
sure their being watertight (at least two 
coats of paint). The box is heavy 
enough so it can't be turned over easily. 
The inside may be partitioned to suit 
equipment to be stored. We always kept 
an inventory sheet on the lid which was 
easily read when the lid was up ; and the 
leader could check contents quickly be- 
fore closing at the end of a period or 
session. When the season was over, 
three or four of our men loaded the 
boxes on a truck and stored them. 
JOHN COLLIER, Great Lakes District 
Representative, National Recreation As- 

Carlinville, Illinois 

We use casket packing boxes on our 
playgrounds. If they are stood on end 
with hinges put on the lid, they look like 
an outdoor closet. Paint can give them 
an attractive appearance. They are 
about the size of a telephone booth and 
they cost about fifteen dollars unless 
you have a cooperative funeral parlor 
director. MARVIN S. WEISS, Superin- 
tendent of Recreation and Parks. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

For the last ten years, we have used 
equipment boxes on five playgrounds. 

Illustration III 


During these years we have done much 
experimenting. We now have develop- 
ed a standard box which fits our needs 
(Illustration IV). 

The size has been determined by the 
size of the truck used in transporting 
the boxes. The inside measurements are 
3 by 3 by 8 feet. They are placed on 
rollers or dolly casters and weigh about 
500 pounds. The rollers make for easier 
movement of the box and give the nec- 
essary elevation from the ground. The 
reason for the weight is to prevent van- 
dals from moving it. In addition, where 
possible, we chain the box to a pole or 
fence to prevent further vandalism. 
Four men are to handle the box. 

We make our own boxes; materials 
cost approximately forty-five dollars 
with total cost about one hundred dol- 
lars depending upon the number of 
boxes made. The wood used in making 
the box is a tongue-and-groove siding 
of 1- by 6-inch yellow pine, with neces- 
sary frame of 2-by-2 lumber. Life of 
these boxes is ten years, with minor re- 
pairs made yearly (such as replacing 
hinges, locks, board, and so on) . After 
ten years, the box needs over all repair- 
ing at approximately one-half the initial 

The box and lid, or sometimes just 
the lid, are covered with twenty -two- 
gauge galvanized sheet metal. The metal 
is painted for better appearance. The 
lid is in two sections for easier manipu- 

lation. Each half is held by a strap 
hinge, and lids are individually locked. 
The lid overhangs the box by 1% inches 
to protect from rain. The metal cover- 
ing one half of the lid overlaps the other 
half by 1% inches, again to protect 
from rain. 

Inside, the box has a board on either 
side on which an 18- by 12- by 36-inch 
movable craft box rests. On the oppos- 
ite side is a partitioned area for storage 
of chlorine (if needed). The remain- 
ing area is used for all necessary play 

In addition to the above, there are 
holes drilled on either side so that vol- 
leyball and paddle tennis standards may 
be slid into the box and then locked 
inside for security. The height of these 
holes in the box is determined by the 
size of the base of these standards. 
HERB A. DAVIS, Superintendent, Public 
Recreation Commission. 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Five years ago our department of 
public recreation solved its problem of 
equipment storage on playgrounds 
where no permanent storage facilities 
were available. We built eight upright 
sheds with slanting metal-covered roofs, 
two 16- by 70-inch front doors, and four 
shelves in each. These were constructed 
by a local lumber yard at a total cost of 
approximately seventy dollars per shed. 
Each is 6 feet 4 inches high in front and 


&'-. *- 

Illustration IV 

Sheds can be moved by a truck, are set 
between posts to prevent tipping. Each 
shelf is designed for certain equipment. 

5 feet 9 inches high in back, 38 inches 
deep, and 52 inches wide. All hasps and 
hinges are bolted and the ends of the 
carriage bolts are riveted. Some of the 
sheds have one hasp and some two, for 
locking purposes. Each is mounted on 
a 4- by 8-inch skid-type runner and has 
a floor made of 1^-inch material. These 
sheds may be moved easily on a truck. 
They are taken to the grounds each sum- 
mer and fastened to two wooden posts 
to prevent their being tipped over. The 
shelves are spaced : first, 38 inches from 
the floor; second, 12 inches above the 
first; third, 12 inches above the second; 
fourth, 15 inches above the third. 
Shelves are 20 inches wide, leaving IS 
inches from shelf edge to door opening. 

There are many advantages to these 
sheds over the old boxes previously 
used. Each shelf is designated for cer- 
tain equipment so it is easy to keep it 
sorted ; the pails, and so on, are kept on 
the floor, and the space between the 
edges of the shelves and the door is ade- 
quate for the rakes, shovels, brooms and 
taller equipment. The inside of the shed 
may be kept in good order at all times 
and equipment is easy to find. Bulletin 
boards may be posted on the end or 
back of the shed. 

All of our sheds are now five years 
old, still in excellent repair, and shouk 
easily last another five to ten years. We 
would be glad to send complete speci- 
fications to anyone requesting them.- 




NO. 38 


It's a space saver! It's a money-saver, too! 

Yes, here's a Playground Combination Set that has been care- 
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playgrounds can install the Porter No. 38, and still provide 
a wide variety of healthful exercise and fun for the children. 
Look at all the apparatus this one unit affords! Two Stand- 
ard See-Saws, one Horizontal Bar, two Swings, a Pair of 
Flying Rings, one Trapeze, and one 16-ft. Porter Safety Slide 
plus the sturdy 10-ft. steel frame that's galvanized inside 
and out and held rigidly together for years and years with 
Tested Malleable Iron fittings of exclusive Porter design. 
The No. 38 Combination Set has price appeal, too. Write for 
the attractively low figure, and complete specifications. Im- 
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Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 


APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


Rural Playgrounds 
Within a Year 

MANY RECREATION departments operate more than six- 
teen playgrounds, other departments have high hopes 
of someday expanding and developing that number. 

Three years ago a small community in Hempfield Town- 
ship, the largest township in Pennsylvania, organized a play- 
ground committee. This committee raised money by vari- 
ous means to purchase playground equipment. It also em- 
ployed a supervisor for a few hours per day; however, be- 
cause of the high leadership expense, the committee appealed 
to the school board for aid. During the following playground 
season, the school board provided one director for the play- 
ground. Other community groups in the township began 
querying the school board regarding recreation for the 
whole township, such as was being conducted in the neigh- 
boring cities of Jeannette and Greensburg. 

The school board, in November 1953, after investigating 
the possibilities and discovering that local people desired 
recreation, employed a full-time, professionally-trained, rec- 
reation director and requested the township supervisors to 
appoint a recreation commission according to Pennsylvania 
law. This was done. 

For six months the director devoted his entire time to 
organizing and meeting with township recreation groups; 
and the ground work and foundation for a program devel- 
oped. One might believe that organizing these small groups 
would be practically impossible ; however, it was discovered 
that it is no harder than organizing a local church group. 
The following procedure was used and is strongly recom- 
mended. First, a meeting on recreation in general was 
called for all persons residing in the township. It was an- 
nounced by newspapers, radio, personal contacts, and notes 
taken home by school children. As each person entered the 
meeting he was given a card to be filled out with his name, 
address, phone number, and local area. The cards were 
collected by the recreation director and, after arranging by 
areas, these people became his contacts. 

He made appointments to meet with these persons in 
each area to discuss the philosophy of recreation generally. 
A date was set for another meeting at which time the con- 
tact people would arrange the meeting place and see that 
the local residents were present. The director would speak 
on "Playgrounds and Recreation in Your Area." 

Attendance was excellent. Upon completion of his talk, 
in each case, a vote was taken for or against recreation for 

WILLIAM R. SEIRUP is the director of recreation and exten- 
sion education for Hempfield Township, Pennsylvania. 


William R. Seirup 

that area. Almost all groups voted "Yes." Tentative officers 
were elected and began to make plans with their groups. 

This procedure sounds smooth on paper but, as in any- 
thing new, we had our problems. Some of the communities 
didn't have any clubs or organizations; in some cases neigh- 
bors didn't even speak to each other. However, the philoso- 
phy of pitching in together to develop a playground for their 
children has broken the ice, and many an old feud between 
families no longer exists. Some of the recreation commit- 
tees have already enlarged to become civic associations. 
In other areas a local group such as parent-teachers, garden 
club, or firemen's group formed the nucleus for organizing 
a playground ; but already, owing to expanding interest and 
expenses to be met, the local playground has incorporated 
the help of all residents. 

In this particular township-wide recreation program, the 
school board appropriated $25,000 to be used for qualified 
personnel only. The recreation commission recommended 
the playground personnel to the school board. 

Each local playground group was required to raise funds, 
purchase or lease land for the playground, purchase facili- 
ties and equipment. The recreation commission assisted 
them whenever requested. Bulletins on the following sub- 
jects were prepared and sent to all local groups: Suggested 
Constitution for Local Recreation Councils; Ways and 
Means of Raising Money; Recommended Minimum Facili- 
ties and Equipment Estimated Prices and Discounts ; Play- 
ground Area and Space Requirements; Facts to Consider 
When Planning a Playground; Home-made, Inexpensive , 
Equipment and Facilities; Insurance; First Aid Kit; Prog- 
ress Reports. 

It is interesting to note that we in Pennsylvania receive 
state aid. In this particular program the reimbursement fac- 
tor is seventy -seven per cent. This means that the residents of 
the township pay, via school tax, approximately $5,500 for 
the recreation program. The total summer playground at- 
tendance for the season was 67,103. Another interesting 
method of figuring is that if each child or grown-up who 
attended our playgrounds was charged eight cents per each 
session attended, of approximately two-and-one-half to three 
hours in length, the entire year-round recreation program 
costs would be met. 

With these facts along with the program and that part 
of the program which cannot be shown on paper, such as 
cooperation among communities, the child's happiness, at- 
titude change, personality, and so on one cannot help but 
recognize recreation offers tremendous values at low cost. 


Park and Recreation Engineers 


Planners of Swimming Pools, Bathhouses, 

Community Buildings, Parks and 



cAtnletic Equipment 


W. J. Voit Rubber Corp. 
2945 East 12th Street 
Los Angeles 11, Calif. 

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Whatever the craft 

you are teaching: woodworking, model 
building, leather, metal, plastics, ceramics 

x-acto knives, 
tools & sets 

designed by craftsmen and precision-made 
for fine craftsmanship 

will help you 
do a better job 

by helping your students get better results 
and more creative satisfaction. 

Send for 16 page booklet "Helpful 
Hints" on use of modeling tools FREE. 
Complete X-acto 28 page catalog FREE 



48-99 Van Dam St., Lang Island City 1, N. Y. 



for the famous 

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you buy ... 

APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 





Theodore R. Deppe 

TTow CAN we best transmit new ideas, new inspiration, and 
'--'- new techniques to our recreation workers? How can 
we develop the maximum potentialities of each of our work- 
ers? How can our in-service training programs be made 
more real, effective, and significant? Those of us charged 
with these responsibilities face a tremendous challenge. It 
is not an easy task. It cannot be done in a slip-shod manner. 

All of us must be on the lookout for new ideas or tech- 
niques that will vitalize our in-service training programs. 
The proper use of audio-visual materials can do much in 
reaching this objective. Audio-visual materials have limit- 
less possibilities; their use is restricted only by our lack of 
knowledge and skill in using them. 

Much can be learned from those who have pioneered in 
the use of audio-visual materials in the fields of advertising, 
education, and business. The effective use of these by the 
Armed Forces and by industry during World War II did 
much to stimulate their use. Recreation administrators have 
only begun to explore the potential of these teaching aids. 
Perhaps, because of the lack of understanding of the proper 
use of these materials, many of us have been guilty of misus- 
ing them or not using them at all. 

It must be recognized that audio-visual materials offer 
no cure-all for important in-service training programs. They 
are, however, tools which, when properly used, will con- 
tribute toward a more effective program. Some of the audio- 
visual aids available to us: 

Still Pictures 

The simplest of all audio-visual materials are still pictures. 
All departments, regardless of size, have access to maga- 
zines, newspaper clippings, catalogues, photographs, and so 
on; therefore a splendid collection of pictorial materials 
can be accumulated at very little expense. It is wise to keep 
these pictures in manila folders until a use can be found for 

THEODORE R. DEPPE is assistant professor of recreation at 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 

The mounting and filing of still pictures are highly de- 
sirable and provide for more effective use. Cardboard or 
posterboard, cut in eight-and one-half- by eleven-inch piect 
makes an excellent backing for mounting. Cardboard in 
this size will fit into most standard files. The use of rubber 
cement or dry mount tissue (the latter can be obtained at 
most photographic shops) provides the best methods of 
mounting the pictures to the backing. In using dry mount 
tissue, a dry mount press or simply a flat iron can be used. 
This method, used for years by photographers for mounting 
photographic materials, assures the most permanent and 
professional job. 

There are many ways that mounted pictures can be used 
in your training program. They can be displayed on a bul- 
letin board or a peg board to give employees new ideas. 
The peg board, which is taking the visual-aids field by storm, 
is basically a sheet of composition or masonite board with 
holes punched all over it. Pegs (golf tees will work) are 
fitted into these holes, which in turn are used to support 
your mounted still pictures, pamphlets, and other objects 
desired for a display. The next time you go downtown shop- 
ping, notice the effectiveness of peg boards in displaying 
products and sales literature. 

Sandpaper, felt, or flock paper can be glued on the back 
of the mounted picture so that it is possible to use the pic- 
ture with the flannel or felt board in a demonstration talk 
before your employees. 

In using still pictures before larger groups, problems are 
presented. If you hold the picture up in front of the group, 
as is often done, it is too small to be seen by those in the 
group. Passing the picture around creates confusion and 
loss of interest. This problem can be solved by placing the 
mounted picture in an opaque projector which projects it 
onto a screen. Another advantage of having the picture 
mounted is that the picture will not buckle, and the focus 
will be much sharper. With the picture projected onto the 
screen, all members of the group can focus their attention 
on the picture at once. 

Many excellent pictures that cannot be removed from 



Dr. Deppe employs flannel board during a demonstration to 
show students in training the proper layout of a playground. 

books or magazines can be effectively used in a group by the 
use of the opaque projector. A book or magazine can be 
placed in the projector. 

Protection of mounted pictures can be insured by the use 
of artist fixative, clear plastic spray, wallpaper lacquer, and 
so on. This covering will permit the cleaning of the surface 
and will protect it from moisture. Products of this type may 
be obtained from your local art, stationery, or paint store. 


By merely adding hand or mechanical lettering to the 
mounted pictures, effective posters can be made. Posters, 
properly displayed, are attention-getters and are informa- 
tional in nature. Their value in public relations is already 
recognized and used to a great extent by most departments. 
You, no doubt, are familiar with various methods of pro- 
i ducing posters. They vary from the simple poster made by 
. adding lettering to still pictures to a more detailed photo- 
l graphic poster. Most recreation administrators can increase 
I the quality and effectiveness of their posters by becoming 
i familiar with the variety of lettering devices available on 
1 the market. There are approximately one hundred lettering 
- methods used in the country today. They can be classified 
: into several different types, such as: (1) stencils, (2) cut- 
i out paper, (3) plastic, cardboard, and cork letters, (4) 
; gummed back letters, (5) mechanical traced lettering, and 
(6) pasteup letters.* 

Slides and Filmstrips 

Slides and filmstrips, to a lesser extent, are used by many 
of the recreation leaders as training aids. Both provide 
excellent group participation opportunities if properly used. 
There are two types of slides available : the 2- by 2-inch pho- 
tographic slide and the S 1 /^- by 4-inch lantern slide. Each 
can be easily and inexpensively made. Filmstrips are more 
costly and difficult to produce, but there are many sources 
available where filmstrips can be rented or purchased for 

* The writer would be glad to give names and addresses of various 
companies handling lettering materials and equipment upon request. 

APRIL 1955 


a very reasonable amount. Projectors are available that 
will project both types of slides as well as filmstrips. If your 
department is not fortunate enough to have such a projector, 
you might get in touch with the public schools in your com- 
munity. If you have maintained proper public relations with 
your school system (and you should), you no doubt will 
be able to borrow a projector. 

Motion Pictures 

Films should be taught, not merely shown. If properly 
utilized, motion pictures are one of our best motivation 
devices and are effective in furnishing information and 
forming desirable attitudes. Motion pictures, more than any 
other audio-visual material, have been misused. How often 
have you witnessed a film being shown with no particular 
purpose, no introduction of the film, faulty projection, and 
little, if any, follow up afterward. 

In using films, the following suggestions should be fol- 
lowed for best results : 

1. First, you should consider whether a film is the most ef- 
fective medium available to accomplish the purpose desired. 

2. Always preview the film before showing it to your em- 

3. Properly introduce the film; prepare the group for it. 
Discuss the purpose of the film and what to look for in it. 

4. Seek to get the best possible projection of the film. Use 
properly trained operators. A smooth performance makes 
for the best possible use. 

5. Provide for a definite follow up. The film might pro- 
voke an active discussion among employees. In some in- 
stances, a demonstration would be appropriate. 

The film, like most audio-visual materials, is not self- 
teaching; a great deal of its effectiveness will be lost if the 
above suggestions are not followed. 

Motion pictures are expensive to produce; however, many 
departments have produced films which are used for train- 
ing purposes. By and large, most departments should con- 
sider the professional films available for use in their in- 
service training programs. Many state universities have 
audio-visual departments with extensive film libraries. The 
best and most complete film reference book is the Educa- 
tional Film Guide published by the H. W. Wilson Company, 
950 University Avenue, New York 52. The Educator's Guide 
to Free Films, published by the Educators Progress Service, 
Randolph, Wisconsin, is one of the best sources of free films. 
Both references are usually available in most of the public 

There are many other facets in this broad field. Audio- 
visual materials provide a most fascinating and challenging 
attraction to those administrators concerned with training 
recreation leaders in service. The techniques mentioned and 
many more are available to us. Use them in training your 
leaders, but the important thing is : use them properly. 
* # * 

Visual Aids for the Public Service by Rachel Marshall 
Goetz (reviewed in RECREATION, March 1954, page 191) is 
a helpful manual covering when, why, and how to use visual 
aids effectively. Public Administration Service, 1313 East 
60th Street, Chicago 37. Price $3.25. 



RYAN'S H. & R. 



if Force Feed 
Instant Shutoff 
50 Ibs. capacity. 

* Easy to fill and 

* No Brushes or 
Screens to clog. 


Send to Dept. R for booklet on four other models 



The Only Net 
for 3 YEARS ! 

outdoors or indoors Send for Free Catalog 


Dept. R, Box 1065, NEW LONDON, CONN. 

Exciting, Penny-Saving 





in each issue 



. . . says one leader about the valu- 
able help in PACK - O - FUN. All 
8CKAI-CUAFT projects use "throw- 
aways" or common household items 
to keep cost down and eliminate 
search for materials. Every project is 
child tested. Directions are simple 
with lots of illustration. Plenty of 
seasonal and holiday ideas. 


and ya 

AMAZED at the 
clever, unusual and useful objects 
made with foil, cartons, wallpaper, 
or scraps of cloth, plastic and wood. 
Puppet above is a good example. 

TODAY . . . only ' 

for 10 big issues 


P. 0. Box S68Y, Pork Ridge, III 
Enclosed it $1.25 for 1 year subscription (10 
issues of 32 pages or more each). 
D I nclote $2 for special TWO YEAR offer. 





Form-A-Stage, a portable prefabri- 
cated stage of all-steel construction, 
quickly and easily erected with only one 
tool (a wrench), is the new "answer-to- 
a-prayer" of those called upon (some- 
times at a minute's notice) to put up 
such a unit for a band concert, show, or 
parade reviewing stand. All parts of 
the Form-A-Stage are cut to exact size 
and fall into place smoothly and speed- 
ily. Available in 5- by 10-foot or 10- by 
10-foot sections, 42 inches high. They 
may be put together to form any size 
area, and any shape. J. E. Burke Com- 
pany, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Dual Purpose Hydrant Sprinkler, 

which may be used on fire hydrants, has 
several uses: as a playground or street 
shower or sprinkler in hot weather; as 
a spray for flooding skating areas in 
winter; to sprinkle down dust; or to 
wash black top and concrete paving. 
With this easily assembled sprinkler 
and adapter, the water stream may be 
directed to the front or to the rear of 
the hydrant. Thomas Brothers, 127 
New Main Street, Yonkers, New York. 

Jiffon is the name of a new quick dry- 
ing plastic enamel. This product elimi- 
nates the long drying time necessary 
with ordinary enamels. Any thing paint- 
ed with it will be surface dry in ten min- 
utes and ready for use in thirty minutes. 
It can be brushed, dipped or sprayed; 
and is recommended for wood, metal, 
leather and glass. Quik-Dri Products, 
Inc., 846 Farmington Avenue, West 
Hartford 7, Connecticut. 

"Have a Hobby," a new short 16 mm 
color film, features a world in minia- 
ture that the entire family can help to 

create. The film demonstrates how as- 
sembling plastic models of everything 
from early American housewares and 
antique autos to jet aircraft can estab- 
lish a sense of joint accomplishment in 
the family. "Have a Hobby" also offers 
hints on caring for finished models and 
ideas for creating dramatic displays for 
the collection. The film is available 
from Monsanto Chemical Company's 
Plastics Division, Springfield, Mass. 

A Heavy Duty Bulletin Board for 

all-around use has a genuine self-seal- 
ing cork face over sturdy fibre board 
base, and a handsome natural oak frame 
with metal wall hangers. It is available 
in two sizes : 18 by 28 inches and 24 by 
36 inches. General Scientific Equipment 
Co., 2700 W. Huntingdon Street, Phila- 
delphia 32, Pennsylvania. 

Feather-Ride Marine Floats are con- 
structed of modern fibreglass which is 
imperious to salt or fresh water. They 
come in sections with inter-connecting 
hinges to facilitate assembling them end 
to end, side to side, in any combination 
widths or lengths. The uniform float- 
ing foundation construction makes it 
possible to make up floating piers for 
any use to support boat houses, float- 
ing walkways, swimming and diving 
floats, and so forth and they are neat 
in appearance and easy to alter or to 
repair. Pointer-Willamette Company, 
Inc., P.O. Box 368, Edmonds. Washing- 

* athletic 

A new compact, colorful thirty-two- 
page booklet showing almost two hun- 
dred athletic items including several 
new ones has been published by the 
W. J. Voit Rubber Corporation. See 
your local Voit dealer or write to the 
corporation, 2945 East 12th Street, Los 
Angeles 23, California. 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




Single sheet instructions are available at low 
cost on all of the articles illustrated above. 
Send the coupon for free samples and com- 
plete catalog. 

And look into Rexlace. You'll find it as new 
and refreshing as the above projects. Give the 
lanyards a back seat this y ear they are hard 
for both campers and instructors. All of the 

above articles are easier, more fun and more 

Rexlace is made from solid plastic. Its slight 
stretch makes it work easily and smartly. It 
keeps its "just-made" look indefinitely no 
coating to wear off and no cotton core to be- 
come exposed, frayed and soiled. Rexlace can 
be washed with a touch of soap and water 
without losing its gloss. 

Send in the coupon for complete information and catalog. 

THE REX CORPORATION, West Acton, Massachusetts 
' Please send me without obligation 









A.PRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


you pay postage only! 

Three Color Films 




- Safety First! 
1 13'/2 mins. 



Safety on Bicycles 

13'/2 mins. 



by Walt Disney 


10 mins. 

Write for Free List! Dept. R 


347 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Branch libraries! 

Books & Pamphlets 

John de Graff, Inc., 64 West 24th 
Street, New York 10. Pp. 470. $5.00. 

ALL IN FUN, George Frederick McKay. 
C. C. Birchard & Company, 285 Co- 
lumbus Avenue, Boston 16. Pp. 37. 

. <D. 

Jones. Inter-River Press, 150 Nassau 
Street, New York 38. Pp. 119. $2.50. 

can Baseball Congress, P.O. Box 44, 
Battle Creek, Michigan. Pp. 32. $.60. 

CAMP COUNSELING Second Edition, A. 
Viola Mitchell and Ida B. Crawford. 
W. B. Saunders Company, West 
Washington Square, Philadelphia 5. 
Pp.406. $4.75.* 

lic Affairs Committee, 22 East 38th 
Street, New York 16. Pp. 28. $.25. 

BOYS AND YOUTH, Clarence G. Moser. 
R. E. Somme, 30 Yale Street, Maple- 
wood, New Jersey. Unpaged. $.50. 

CRAFTS FOR FUN, Evadna Kraus Perry. 
William Morrow and Company, 425 



It's tops in popularity among all ages! 

Biggest value for your money because of low cost, constant use, small space 
required, no hazards, tremendous appeal to skilled and unskilled alike, and 
both social and organic values. 

Now Available in Three Styles 




For Further Details Write 



Fourth Avenue, New York 16. Pp. 
278. $4.00. 

Margaret Bell. American Association 
of Health, Physical Education & Rec- 
reation, 1201 Sixteenth Street, NW, 
Washington 6, D. C. Pp. 14. $.35. 

Edition. Educators Progress Service, 
Box 497, Randolph, Wisconsin. Pp. 
144. $4.75. 

Welfare Council, 245 Cooper Street, 
Ottawa 4, Canada. Pp. 10. $.25. 

American Baseball Congress, Youth 
Building, 115 West Street, Battle 
Creek, Michigan. Pp. 47. $.75. 

can Library Association, 50 E. Huron 
Street, Chicago 11. Pp. 60. $1.50. 

Pp. 48, $.50. Simon & Schuster, Inc., 
Rockefeller Center, 630 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 20.* 

HISTORY OF ART, Jean Anne Vincent. 
Barnes & Noble, Inc., 105 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York 3. Pp.295. $1.50. 

Harry Kursh. W. W. Norton & Com- 
pany, Inc., 105 Fifth Avenue, New 
York 3. Pp.219. $2.95. 

Babe Ruth League, 524 1 / Hamilton 
Avenue. Trenton 9, New Jersey. Pp. 
16. $.30. 

Mechanics Press, 200 East Ontario 
Street, Chicago 11. Pp. 160. $2.50. 

Jessen. The Bruce Publishing Com- 
pany, 400 North Broadway. Milwau- 
kee 1, Wisconsin. Pp. 57. $1.00. 

WOMEN, Donna Mae Miller and Kath- 
erine L. Ley, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York 11. Pp. 502. 

* These publications are available from the 
National Recreation Association at list price 
plus fifteen cents for each book ordered to 
cover postage and handling. Active Associate 
and Affiliate Members of the Association re- 
ceive a ten per cent discount on list price. 
Remittances should accompany orders from 
individuals; organizations and recreation de- 
partments will be billed on their official orders. 
Address orders to Combined Book Service, 
National Recreation Association, 8 West 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 


ing Buck. Abingdon Press, 810 
Broadway, Nashville 2, Tennessee. 
Pp. 72. $3.00 cloth; $1.75 paper.* 

can Museum of Natural History, Cen- 
tral Park West at 79th Street, New 
York 24. Pp.21. $.15. 

dred Hark and Noel McQueen. Plays, 
Inc., 8 Arlington Street, Boston 16. 
Pp.576. $4.00. 

Yves le Toumelin. E. P. Dutton & 
Company, Inc., 300 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 10. Pp. 300. $5.00.* 

WAY, Grace T. Hallock and Ross L. 
Allen. Ginn and Company, Statler 
Building, Boston 17. Pp. 175. $1.04.* 

John de Graff, Inc., 64 West 23rd 
Street, New York 10. Pp. 128. $6.00. 

coln and Katharine Torrey. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, 2 Park Street, 
Boston 7. Pp.214. $5.00.* 

Magazine Articles 

BEACH AND POOL, January 1955 

The New Rescue Tube, George G. 

Diatomite Filtration and Community 

Center Pools, Eugene H. Howland. 
Choosing a Good Heating System for 

Your Pool, W. O. Baker. 
February 1955 

Design of a Modern Aquacenter, 

Hugh M. McClure. 
The Water Level Deck Pool. 
Water Safety in Your Aquatic Pro- 
gram, Charles W. Abbott. 
THE GROUP, February 1955 

The "It" Role in Children's Games, 

Paul V. Gump and Brian Sutton- 

A Study of Peer Relationships, Juan- 

ita M. Luck. 

Spotlight on the Dance, Ellen Moore. 
February 1955 

Make Your Own Indoor Golf Area, 

Anthony E. Orlando. 
Saving Play Space, James D. Dela- 

PAL Playstreets for City Recreation, 

Robert C. de Lellis. 
PARK MAINTENANCE, February 1955 

Annual Swimming Pool Issue 
The Detroit Plan, John J. Considine. 
22 Days of Christmas Pageant 

(Washington, D. C.) 
Pressure Treatment Makes Wood 

Construction Economical 











Wigs, Make-up, 
_ etc. 

Van Horn & Son/ Inc. 


811-13-15 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

Rollin W. Van Horn Gerhard Weidler 

fresidenl fiecvtin Vice-Prcjitfen/ 






16 Beautiful Colors to Choose 
from or Assorted Mixed Colors 

12 1-LB. CELLO BAGS $5.40 

Postpaid Anywhere in U.S.A. 




Write for Folder and Prices 


P. 0. Box 621 



We have specialized in Leathercraft as a rec- 
reational and vocational activities medium 
for the past 25 years. Our projects are de- 
signed for all age groups, and our Factory- 
To-You service gives you top grade merchan- 
dise at substantial savings. If you work with 
youngsters of school age, teen-agers, or adults 
we have the very projects that will fit into 
your crafts program. 


Send for your free copy of our new 1955 
Catalogue of Leathers and Leathercraft Sup- 
plies. Ask for Catalogue No. 1OO. Do it today ! 

Colchester 2, Conn. 


All Metal Tennis Table Co. .... .. 157 

American Association of Group Workers ...... 174 

American Playground Device 
Company ...... . 187 

Association Films, Inc. ... 198 

Association Press ....151-170 

W. A. Auger, Inc. ... . 153 

Backyard Basketball ... _ 160 

W. D. Byron & Sons ... .151 

E. R. Carpenter ... 186 

Chemical Equipment Company _ _ 170 

Chicago Roller Skate Company ... 149 

Cleveland Crafts Company _ 153 

D. M. R. Loop Tennis Company, Inc. ... . 1 98 

Dayton Racquet Company ... 153 

Dimco-Gray Company .153 

Elgin-Refinite _ 186 

The Charles M. Graves Organization ... . 193 

H & R Manufacturing Company _ 196 

Harvard Table Tennis Company ... _ 153 

Hillerich & Bradsby _ . 193 

Homecrafts... . 199 

International City Managers' Association .... 171 
Jayfro Athletic Supply Co. ... -- 196 

McGraw-Hill Book Company 162 

Pack-0-Fun . ._ 196 

The J. E. Porter Corporation ._ 191 

Rawlings Sporting Goods Company.... ._ 157 

The Rex Corporation _ .. 197 

S. & S. Leather Co. ... .. 199 

Universal Manufacturing Corporation.... 186 

Van Horn & Son, Inc.... . 199 

W. J. Voit Rubber Corporation ... . 193 

X-Acto, Inc. .. .. 193 

APRIL 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 

Emotional Problems and What 
You Can Do About Them 

William B. Terhune. William Mor- 
row & Company, Inc., 425 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York 16. Pp. 190. $3.00. 

The sub-title of this book, "First Aid 
to Wiser Living," might also be "First 
Aid to Wiser Leadership," for it dis- 
cusses leadership qualities, practical 
techniques for the handling of specific 
problems and situations, ways of help- 
ing others children, adolescents, and 
adults through understanding of psy- 
chological development or of emergen- 
cies. Basic to good leadership, of course, 
is an understanding of people, and of 

With deep insight, and knowledge of 
areas of emotional disturbances, Dr. 
Terhune, who is associate clinical pro- 
fessor of psychiatry at the Yale School 
of Medicine and has been a pioneer in 
the field of personal and public mental 
hygiene, has drawn upon his wide ex- 
perience to give an even emphasis to 
problems at all age levels. 

ABC's of Camp Music 

Janet E. Tobitt, Girl Scout Equip- 
ment Company, 155 East 4'4th Street, 
New York 17. Pp.46. $.75. 

This forty -six-page booklet, while dis- 
tributed through the Girl Scouts, is not 
written specifically for that one group. 
Its suggestions are excellent for any 
type of camp situation and will also 
be very helpful for day-camp and play- 
ground leaders. It will help any leader 
who knows the importance of music ac- 
tivities but is not a trained musician. 
The illustrations by Elizabeth Ross are 
amusing and informal. 

Miss Tobitt has given us a simple, 
practical and creative approach, illus- 
trating her suggestions with specific 
examples. She has emphasized, also, 
the point that music cannot and should 
not be an isolated activity, but that it 
lends itself admirably to broaden and 
enrich other activities such as dancing, 
drama, nature, and handcraft and she 
shows how to make this correlation. 

Progression, too, is emphasized - 
the importance of providing more and 
better opportunities for interesting mu- 


sic projects as the group and the leader 
increase in skill and interest. 

This booklet will be useful in leader- 
ship training, and its remarkably low 
price makes it possible for every leader 
to have a copy. Highly recommended. 

We have only two minor criticisms. 
The artwork on the cover does not con- 
form to the best elements of design, and 
the bibliography could be improved. 

A Playgroup Handbook for 
Parents and Leaders 

Lovisa C. Wagoner. Olympic Col- 
lege Parent Education Program, Brem- 
erton, Washington. Pp. 137. $1.50. 

This manual defines a playgroup, not 
as a kindergarten, or a child care cen- 
ter or a nursery school, but as "a care- 
fully planned but informal arrangement 
for pre-school children to meet regular- 
ly, to enjoy each other, to learn from 
each other as they use the material and 
equipment provided. The cooperative 
playgroup is organized and adminis- 
tered by the parents of the children at- 

The book grew out of practical ex- 
perience. For those departments and 
those leaders who are planning play- 
groups for pre-school children, and who 
are working to develop a cooperative 
plan with parents, it will be most help- 
ful in many ways. 

Songs Children Like: Folk Songs 
from Many Lands 

Association for Childhood Educa- 
tion International, 1200 Fifteenth 
Street, NW, Washington 5, D. C. Pp. 
48. $1.00. 

A charming and unusual collection 
of songs surely children will like them. 
One wonders if anybody associated with 
children would want to be without such 
a wealth of material, most of it unfa- 
miliar to American musicians, but sing- 
able and appealing. Friendly footnotes 
suggest wider use of the songs to be 
accompanied by clapping hands or 
skipping to the chorus. In some in- 
stances directions for accompanying 
play are given. A song written by an 
eight year old boy and a Halloween bit 
composed by a third grade are followed 

by the challenge, "Why not make up a 
song of your own?" 

Songs from twenty nations include a 
delightful lullaby from Japan, a Span- 
ish hymn, an Indonesian play song with 
quacking like a duck, and songs from 
Hawaii, China, and Latin America. 

How to Help Folks Have Fun 

Helen and Larry Eisenberg. Asso- 
ciation Press, 291 Broadway, New 
York 7. Pp.64. $1.00.* 

A gaily covered, pocket-size booklet 
on social recreation. Designed primarily 
as an "idea starter," it should be helpful 
to volunteer and amateur leaders who 
are faced with planning social programs 
for their groups. Also, it should be 
particularly helpful to church and rural 
leaders, parents, and to those who have 
not been trained in recreation or had a 
good deal of experience in planning so- 
cial affairs, but who have to do it once 
in a while. For professional recreation 
leaders, it will serve as a "refresher." 
but will be found rather elementary. 

Guide Lines for Group Leaders 

Janet P. and Clyde E. Murray. 
Whiteside Press, Inc., 425 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York 16. Pp. 224. $3.95.* 

Mr. and Mrs. Murray are writing out 
of a rich background of experience. 
Their book is easy to read and the au- 
thors have very effectively woven phil- 
osophy and down to earth psychology 
throughout. It should be especially help- 
ful to volunteer leaders, professional 
students, and to those in beginner po- 
sitions which include face to face lead- 
ership with groups. 

The book helps to dispel some of the 
mystery, fears, and discouragements of 
group leaders and offers common-sense 
advice. The situations used as illustra- 
tions are very real, as the experiences 
of leaders are analyzed and discussed. 
Good and bad features of leadership, 
types of individuals and their problems 
are shown. 

Human needs as seen by the authors 
are discussed warmly and include: the 
need to be loved; acceptance; recogni- 
tion; belonging; feeling of adequacy: 
security; new experience; and creative 

Nine principles of good group work 
practices are clarified and discussed ex- 
tensively. It is pointed out quite em- 
phatically that these are guides and not 
rules, that they are criteria against 
which a leader can test his practice. It 
is believed that with experience the 
principles will become a part of the 
leader's thinking. W. C. Sutherland 
Director, Personnel Department, NRj 

* See footnote on page 198. 


Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 


Social Recreation 

Playground Leadership 


Playground Leadership 


Social Recreation 

Playground Leadership 


Playground Leadership 


Arts and Crafts 

April, May and June, 1955 

Los Angeles County, California B. P. Gruendyke, Superintendent of Parks and Recreation, 834 W. 
April 11-21 Olympic Boulevard 

Fontana, California Bart R. McDermott, Director of Recreation 

April 25-28 

Redding, California Merritt A. Nelson, Superintendent of Recreation-Parks, City Hall 

May 9-12 

Hayward, California 
May 16-19 

Missouri Recreation Workshop Robert L. Black, Missouri Division of Resources and Development, 

Harold L. Teel, Superintendent, Park, Recreation and Parkway 

May 28-June 3 

Berks County, Pennsylvania 
June 8-10 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
June 13 and 14 

Youngstown, Ohio 
June 16 and 17 

Greensburg, Pennsylvania * 
June 13-16 

Galesburg, Illinois 
April 18-21 

Rockford, Illinois 
April 26-28 

Fayette County, Kentucky 
May 2-5 

Wichita, Kansas 
May 16-19 

4-H Club Round-Up 
Stillwater, Oklahoma 
May 31-June 3 

New Ulm, Minnesota 
June 6 and 7 

Owatonna, Minnesota 
June 8-11 

Fergus Falls, Minnesota 
June 13 and 14 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 
June 20-23 

Decatur, Illinois 
June 9 and 10 

Toledo, Ohio 
June 13-16 

Topeka, Kansas 
March 28-April 7 

Midland, Michigan 
May 23-26 

Winona Lake, Indiana 
June 9 

Toledo, Ohio 
June 13-16 

Jefferson City 

Lloyd H. Miller. Director, Recreation Board of Berks County, 

Albert E. Reese, Jr., Director of Recreation, 135 N. Lime Street 

O. S. Ellis, Director-Treasurer, The Youngstown Playground Asso- 
ciation, 2218 Ohio Avenue 

Othmar B. Wuenschel, Recreation Director, Greensburg Recreation 

Mrs. Lucille McClymonds, Galesburg Girl Scout Council, Room 403, 
Peoples' Building 

Hal Moyer, Executive Director, Ken-Rock Community Center, 2905 
Bildahl Street 

John F. Gettler, County Playground and Recreation Board, 400 La- 
fayette Drive, Lexington 

Pat Haggerty, Superintendent of Recreation, Board of Park Com- 

George E. Hull, Assistant State 4-H Club Leader, Extension Service 
County Agent Work 

Joe Harmon, Director of Recreation 

Edward Brandeen, Director of Recreation 

L. E. Wermager, Superintendent of Public Schools 

Miss Marilyn J. Thompson, Supervisor of Recreation, 52 School 

Russell J. FovaU Superintendent of Recreation, 243 S. Water Street 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor, Division of Recreation, 214-18 Safely 

R. Foster Blaisdell, Superintendent of Recreation 

David Russel, Director, Midland Community Center, 127 Townsend 

Floyd M. Todd, Free Methodist Church of North America 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor, Division of Recreation, 214-18 Safety 

* In cooperation with Latrobe, Jeannette and Hempfield Township. 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. For 
details as to location of course, content of course, registration procedure and the like, please communicate with the sponsor of the 
course listed above. 


8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter 

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Actually, good luck of this sort was a rarity 
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Peary's was a motto Americans find easy to 
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Safe as America 
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Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 

May, June and July, 1955 


Social Recreation 

Playground Leadership 


Playground Leadership 


Social Recreation 

Playground Leadership 


Playground Leadership 


Creative Recreation 


Arts and Crafts 

Redding, California 
May 9-12 

Hayward, California 
May 16-19 

Missouri Recreation Workshop 
May 28-June 3 

Berks County, Pennsylvania 
June 8-10 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
June 13 and 14 

Youngstown, Ohio 
June 16 and 17 

Danville, Virginia 
June 20-23 

Vineland, New Jersey 
June 9 and 10 

*Greensburg, Pennsylvania 
June 13-16 

Upper Darby, Pennsylvania 
June 20-22 

Shepherdstown, West Virginia 
July 5-8 

Fayette County, Kentucky 
May 2-5 

Wichita, Kansas 
May 16-19 

4-H Club Round-Up 
Still water, Oklahoma 
May 31-June 3 

New Ulm, Minnesota 
June 6 and 7 

Owatonna, Minnesota 
June 8-11 

Fergus Falls, Minnesota 
June 13 and 14 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 
June 20-23 

Decatur, Illinois 
Ji:ne9 and 10 

Toledo, Ohio 
June 13-16 

Westchester County, New York 
June 22-24 

Midland, Michigan 
May 23-26 

Winona Lake, Indiana 
June 9 

Toledo, Ohio 
June 13-16 

Merritt A. Nelson, Superintendent of Recreation-Parks, City Hall 

Harold L. Teel, Superintendent, Park, Recreation and Parkway 

Robert L. Black, Missouri Division of Resources and Development, 
Jefferson City 

Lloyd H. Miller, Director, Recreation Board of Berks County, 

Albert E. Reese, Jr., Director of Recreation, 135 N. Lime Street 

O. S. Ellis, Director-Treasurer, The Youngstown Playground Asso- 
ciation, 2218 Ohio Avenue 

Miss Constance Rollison, Supervisor of Special Activities, Recrea- 
tion Department 

Jack A. Claes, Supervisor of Recreation, Recreation Commission, 
City Hall 

Othmar B. Wuenschel, Recreation Director, Greensburg Recreation 
Board, 305 S. Maple 

Herbert S. Herzog, Director of Health, Physical Education and Rec- 
reation, Upper Darby School District 

Dr. 0. S. Ikenberry, President, Shepherd College 

John F. Gettler, Director, County Playground and Recreation Board, 
400 Lafayette Drive, Lexington 

Pat Haggerty, Superintendent of Recreation, Board of Park Com- 

George E. Hull, Assistant State 4-H Club Leader, Extension Service 
County Agent Work 

Joseph Harmon, Director of Recreation 
Edward Brandeen, Director of Recreation 

Odis LeGrand, Supervisor, Department of Elementary Physical Ed- 
ucation, Fergus Falls Public Schools 

Miss Marilyn J. Thomson, Supervisor of Recreation, 52 School Street 
Russell J. Foval, Superintendent of Recreation, 243 S. Water Street 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor, Division of Recreation, 214-18 Safety 

Miss Vivian 0. Wills, Assistant Superintendent, Westchester County 
Recreation Commission, County Office Building, White Plains 

David Russell, Director, Midland Community Center, 127 Townsend 

Floyd M. Todd, Free Methodist Church of North America 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor, Division of Recreation, 214-18 Safety 

In cooperation with Latrobe, Jeannette and Hempfield Township. 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. For 
details as to location of course, content of course, registration procedure and the like, please communicate with the sponsor of the 
course listed above. 



jf *REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 

wk Your Recreation 




VJood news for hard-pressed program directors ERASO* Posters 
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MAY 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 


OTTO T. MALLER Y Chairman of the Board 

PAUL MOORE, JR First Vice-President 

SUSAN M. LEE Second Vice-President 

GRANT TITSWORTH Third Vice-President 


GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY Treasurer Emeritus 



F. GREGG BEMIS Boston, Mass. 



HOODING CARTER Greenville, Miss. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER Jacksonville, Fla. 

MRS. ROLLIN BROWN Los Angeles, Calif. 





MRS. HOWARD A. FRAME Los Altos, Calif. 


ROBERT GARRETT Baltimore, Md. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX Michigan City, Ind. 

MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON Tucson, Ariz. 

SUSAN M. LE New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MALLEBY Philadelphia, Pa. 

FREDRIC R. MANN Philadelphia, Pa. 

HENRY W. MEEBJ Chicago, 111. 


CARL F. MILLIKEN Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OCDEN L. MILLS New York, N. Y. 

PAUL MOORE, JR Jersey City, N. J. 


MRS. RICHARD E. RIECEL Montchanin, Del. 

WILLIAM S. SIMPSON Bridgeport, Conn. 

MRS. SICMUND STERN San Francisco, Calif. 



J. C. WALSH Yonkers, N. Y. 


Executive Director's Office 




Correspondence and Consultation 



Program Service 


Recreation Magazine 


Special Publications 



Personnel Service 


Research Department 


Hospital Recreation Consulting Service 

Work with Volunteers 


International Recreation Service 


Field Department 




Service to States 

Areas and Facilities Planning and Surveys 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Secretary 
for Women and Girls 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses 


New England District 
WALDO R. HAINSWORTH, Northbridge, Mass. 

Middle Atlantic District 

JOHN W. FAUST East Orange, N. J. 


Great Lakes District 

JOHN J. COLLIER Toledo, Ohio 

ROBERT L. HORNBY Madison, Wis. 


Southern District 

Miss MARION PREECE. . .Washington, D. C. 
RALPH VAN FLEET Clearwater, Fla. 

Midwest District 

ARTHUR TODD Kansas City, Mo. 

Southwest District 


Pacific Northwest District 

WILLARD H. SHUMARD Seattle. Wash. 

Pacific Southwest District 

LYNN S. RODNEY Los Angeles, Calif. 

Affiliate Membership 

Affiliate membership in the National 
Recreation Association is open to all non- 
profit private and public organizations 
whose function is wholly or primarily the 
provision or promotion of recreation serv- 
ices or which include recreation as an im- 
portant part of their total program and 
whose cooperation in the work of the asso- 
ciation would in the opinion of the asso- 
ciation's Board of Directors, further the 
ends of the national recreation movement. 

Active Associate Membership 

Active associate membership in the 
National Recreation Association is open to 
all individuals who are actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed basis 
or as volunteers in a nonprofit private or 
public recreation organization and whose 
cooperation in the work of the association 
would, in the opinion of the association's 
Board of Directors, further the ends of the 
national recreation movement. 


The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
to year is made possible by the splendid 
cooperation of several hundred volunteer 
sponsors throughout the country, and the 
generous contributions of thousands of sup- 
porters of this movement to bring health, 
happiness and creative living to the boys 
and girls and the men and women of 
America. If you would like to join in the 
support of this movement, you may send 
your contribution direct to the association. 

The National Recreation Association is a nation- 
wide, nonprofit, nonpolitical and nonsectarian civic 
organization, established in 1906 and supported by 
voluntary contributions, and dedicated to the serv- 
ice of all recreation executives, leaders and agen- 

cies, public and private, to the end that every child 
in America shall have a place to play in safety and 
that every person in America, young and old, shall 
have an opportunity for the best and most satisfy- 
ing use of his expanding leisure time. 

For further information regarding the association's services and membership, please write to the 
Executive Director, National Recreation Association, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 


MAY 1955 




Editorial Assistant, AMELIA HENLY 

Business Manager, ALFRED H. WILSON 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 


Price 50 Cents 

No. 5 

On the Cover 

Unless we miss our guess, this bright young miss 
enjoys her backyard play! And, rightly, it's "all in 
the family" because she is a granddaughter of the 
NRA. Her granddaddy is George Nesbitt, head of 
the Association's Correspondence and Consultation 
Bureau. We are grateful to her father, William H. 
Nesbitt, a camera enthusiast, who took and de- 
veloped this picture. 

Next Month 

Emphasis on camping, with suggestions for eve- 
ning camp programs, campfires, and, also, play- 
ground activities. An interesting how-to article, 
"Outdoor Recreation and An Adventure," on a 
canoe trip. Executives will not want to miss "Nam- 
ing the Recreation Area." 

Photo Credits 

Page 211, Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C.; 
213, Howard Staples & Associates, Seattle; 215, Uni- 
versity of Southern California; 217, (bottom right, 
top right, bottom left, top left) Division of Public- 
ity, Frankfort, Ky., (center) Shell Oil Company; 
224-225, (right top, center, left center top) Madison 
Square Boys' Club, New York City, (top left, bottom 
center right) Chicago Park District, (right bottom, 
left bottom, bottom center right) Paul Berg, St. 
Louis Post Dispatch Pictures, (top center right) 
Columbus Recreation Department; 226, Recreation 
Commission, Tacoma, Wash.; 227, Milwaukee Jour- 
nal; 228, Charlotte B. Norris, Los Angeles; 231, De- 
partment of Parks and Recreation, Detroit; 233, 
(top) B. F. Yack, Wyandotte, Michigan, (bottom) 
Creighton Sanders, Vancouver, Wash.; 237, Fran 
Nestler, Pittsburgh Photographic Library. 

RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a 
service organization supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, at 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New 
York; is on file in public libraries and is indexed in 
the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. 
Canadian and foreign subscription rate $4.50. Re- 
entered as second-class matter April 25. 1950, at the 
Post Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879- Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. Microfilms of cur- 
rent issues available University Microfilms, 3 1 3 N. First 
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Space Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 East 
44th Street, New York 17, New York; Mark Minahan, 
168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; Keith 
H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, and 
593 Market Street, Suite 304, San Francisco 5, 

Copyright, 1955, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



Spring Cleaning or Family Play and Community Life 

(Editorial) John W. Faust 204 

Recreation For Families William M. Smith, Jr. 210 

Fun Without Tears Ruth E. Hartley 213 

Howdy Pardner (1955 National Recreation Congress) 215 

Families Play in State Parks William E. Schupp 216 

Music as Recreation in the Mile High City 

(Denver) Robert Smith 218 

Recreation in Correctional Institutions Donald H. Goff 220 


Swimming Classes for Rural Children Louise Colley 222 

Research Reviews and Abstracts George D. Butler 235 

Parklets in Pittsburgh 

Robert J. Templeton and Allen E. Risendorph 236 

Organization of Service to Senior Citizens Karl F. Edler 240 


Let's Plan a Circus 224 

Day Camp Program for "Why-Daddies". . . .Melvin J. Rebholz 226 

Happiness Through Recreation (Idea of the Month) 

John J. Considine 230 

Indian Came of Double Ball (How To Do It) .Frank A. Staples 232 
Sports Games 233 


Letters 206 

Things You Should Know 208 

Hospital Capsules Beatrice H. Hill 221 

Reporter's Notebook 242 

Personnel Eligible Lists Don't Always Work .... Jay Ver Lee 244 

Market News 246 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Periodicals, 

Magazine Articles 247 

Index of Advertisers 247 

New Publications 248 

How To Do It ! Idea of the Month See Program 

Recreation Leadership Training Courses Inside Front Cover 

MAY 1955 



or Family Play and Community Life 

! NOT AGAIN! Why just last Fri- 
day you vacuumed and polished ! 
Now you start all over !" Have you ever 
heard that before? 

Relax though, the spring cleaning we 
discuss here is of a different order or, 
as the lawyers say, the cleaning of the 

In the fall, years ago, we used to take 
over our uncle's camp in the Adiron- 
dacks for two weeks. Miles from a rail- 
road and from neighbors, we could fill 
our souls to overflowing with quiet, 
sights, sounds, fragrances in prepara- 
tion for the long winter months in the 

Our first ritual upon arriving, after 
starting a blaze in the huge fireplace, 
was the cleaning of the spring. All twigs, 
leaves, and bark were cleaned away 
until one could see the clear golden 
sand and bubbling water at the bottom. 
In the morning there it was, a gold- 
lined bowl framed with russet, maroon, 
and green moss, contributing its over- 
flow of sparkling water through its own 
small channel into the Raquette River. 

Families are like that. For families 
are the wellsprings of community and 
national life. 

Communities are but aggregations of 
neighborhoods. Neighborhoods, in turn, 
are but aggregations of families. These 
family wellsprings feed and make the 
larger currents of neighborhoods and 
community life. They must be kept 
clean, as clear-flowing and sparkling as 
that camp spring. It is here that one 
finds "the grass roots" often referred 
to. Here are the foundations and the 
true strength of America. 

If these wellsprings are roiled by 

JOHN W. FAUST is a Middle Atlantic 
District representative of the National 
Recreation Association. 

tensions, discontent, and unhappiness, 
if they are muddied by racial and relig- 
ious bigotry, choked by dull, dreary lei- 
sure with no "living for the fun of 
it" how can they make any but that 
kind of a contribution to the stream of 
neighborhood and community living? 

Dr. Paul Poponoe, one of the greatest 
and wisest authorities on family rela- 
tions, says, "Use of leisure time is an- 
other key to successful family life. Many 
a broken home might have been pre- 
vented had husband and wife enjoyed a 
reasonable amount of wholesome, inex- 
pensive, constructive, and mutually- 
shared recreation that broke the monot- 
ony of daily work, gave them things to 
think about and talk about together, and 
satisfied the imperative human needs of 
companionship, recognition, and self- 
expression. . . Parents should give more 
forethought to helping their young peo- 
ple develop inner resources and learn 
something about the almost lost art of 
recreation, for which city life has sub- 
stituted paid entertainment. Adequate 
and satisfying recreation is essential at 
any age, but vital after marriage." 

One of America's foremost religious 
leaders, Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, in 
a pamphlet he wrote for the National 
Recreation Association, said: "Did you 
ever stop to think that nothing beauti- 
ful ever came into life until folks began 
to play? 

"The spirit of play, which is the 
crown of work and of home life, is also 
the crown of religion. 

"There is great satisfaction in life for 
those who take it always in a sporting 
spirit, for those who are living for the 
fun of it." 

I see in all this a direct and inescap- 
able challenge, particularly to leaders 
and programs in the public recreation 
field. Here recreation is an end in 

John W. Faust 

itself. At the same time, there is full 
recognition and realization of the valid 
attendant by-products of such programs 
in the areas of education, health, con- 
duct, social integration, and so on. 

This is one of the most imf ortant 
criteria in evaluating a commun- y rec- 
reation program. Are we just Another 
agency pulling the family apart? There 
are many agencies which do. Or do we, 
by our programs, strengthen family ties 
and solidarity both within and outside 
the home? Do we add fun, sparkle, and 
savor to family living? 

Only recently, a young couple with 
four small children asked me to their 
home one evening to talk over a family 
concern. It was: "How can we set up 
competition to those agencies whose 
programs pull our family apart? How 
can we make our family life more al- 
luring and satisfying?" 

This is just one example of an intense 
longing on the part of parents for an- 
swers to these questions. This was il- 
lustrated overwhelmingly during my 
twenty-one years of experience on the 
board of the National Congress of Par- 
ents and Teachers. As recreation chair- 
man, I conducted hundreds of "fathers' 
night" discussion groups and gave hun- 
dreds of talks on family life, followed 
by question periods. Nineteen out of 
twenty times, when I was asked to lead 
discussion, it was on some variation of 
such topics as "The Spirit of Play in the 
Home" or "Family Life What Makes 
it Tick." These people, too, wanted to 
know how to make family life more al- 

An amusing confirmation of the long- 
ing of parents for help was a telephone 
invitation to talk to college women's 
clubs in five cities. Since practically all 
members were mothers, I suggested a 
talk on "Recreation and Family Life." 



There was a polite gasp on the phone, 
"But we have been studying that as our 
club program for two years with a pro- 
fessor from the university!" When I ex- 
plained that study and action are not 
synonymous, my topic was eagerly ac- 

Over 350 women attended. I talked 
briefly, and then came the questions 
for forty-five minutes some hypothe- 
tical, but an avalanche of personal ones. 
This experience pointed up the short 
circuit between study courses, books 
and so on, and the building of a play 
tradition in family living. It was evi- 
dent that only in few instances had the 
"study program" resulted in action at 

Parents are confused as to where to 
begin and how in backyards, play- 
grounds, indoor play rooms, workshops, 
or with books, equipment, supplies. 
The crux of doing something about 
family play, however, is the will to do 
and "living for the fun of it" in all 
family chores and relationships. 

Books, facilities, and equipment have 
their places and uses, but the resources 
for beginning are in the hands of all 
families for example, the games, 
songs, and stories parents enjoyed as 
children, and those the children learn at 
school. These, plus picnics, backyard 
or afield, or dining together for one 
meal a day are all a family needs to 
begin, if they have the will to do so. 
The public recreation department, li- 
brary, museums, and other resources 
can be used as family interest grows. 

Too few departments are concerned 
with the challenge and rare opportunity 
for service to the foundations of com- 
munity life families. One department 
answered the challenge in this manner. 
Helped by the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tion Council, it secured the use of five 
schools for a different night each week. 
The superintendent of recreation em- 
ployed seven part-time leaders with dif- 
ferent skills music, drama, arts, shop, 
social recreation, dance, pre-school. The 
families in each neighborhood were in- 
vited to come to their own school for 
the designated date. During the first 
part of the evening they divided by age 
and interests, under the supervision of 
the seven leaders. But the climax the 
big pay-off was the last forty-five min- 
utes when all the dads and mothers and 

MAY 1955 

children came together in the gym for 
community singing, social games, a 
grand march and square dancing. You 
never heard such laughter and merri- 
ment, especially among the children at 
seeing the elephantine antics of their 
elders. Did something happen to those 
families in those homes ; to those neigh- 
borhoods? It did! No statistics, true, 
but it could be seen and felt. 

In another city, family needs are met 
in a variety of ways. Two years after 
the recreation program was started, the 
judge of the domestic (not juvenile) 
relations court came up to me and said, 
"My business has fallen off fifty per 
cent. For the first time in their lives 
some mother and fathers have had a 
chance to get away from the four walls 
of the house, bellyaches and doctor's 
bills. They have been able to sing -in a 
chorus, play in a symphony, bowl, 
dance, do crafts, and so on. They have 
returned home looking more interesting 
to their children and more alluring to 
each other." 

We figured that the fifty per cent cut 
was just over twice what the city spent 
for the recreation program. This city 
also held parents' clinics on activities 
for rainy days and Sunday afternoons, 
for convalescents and shut-ins, for chil- 
dren's and family fun. 

Another city prepared and publicized 
bulletins on family party and picnic 
programs, with directions for games 
and other activities, and on how to build 
a backyard fireplace for cook-outs and 
picnics. They also made up party and 
picnic loan kits for family use, with a 
suggested list of activities. 

Many cities have had backyard play- 
ground contests with suggestions and 
help to families. Others have had gar- 
den contests and exhibits of hobbies. 

Two women both state P.T.A. rec- 
reation chairmen, have made history in 
their states. One made a drive for back- 
yard fireplaces as focal points for out- 
door family fun. In her third year her 
twelve districts reported over 14,000 
family picnics. She also urged setting 
up a mother-daughter "studio corner" 
in the home to match the father-son 
workbench where items for home dec- 
oration and beautification and gifts 
could be created. 

The other woman, who had been a 
play leader before her marriage, took 


her own and a neighboring family to 
the state's educational radio studio one 
night a week and put on a family play 
night. She became famous as "The 
Games Lady" in homes throughout the 
state. TV has opened up unlimited pos- 
sibilities in this area. 

In evolving a family life where situa- 
tions are deftly handled with a relaxed 
and smiling touch, where there is laugh- 
ter and gaiety, and where molehills re- 
main molehills, no vehicle surpasses the 
social period of the evening meal. In 
the largess of its parental and family 
rewards, it stands just after Christmas 
and Thanksgiving. 

Just stop a minute flash your mind 
back to your own youth. What stands 
out and makes you smile? I'll wager 
that one thing is the warmth and fun 
around the table at suppertime. There 
is no occasion in family living so rich 
in possibilities for weaving back and 
forth those tiny invisible silver threads 
which bind the family together as a unit 
whether actually together or far 
apart. Here, where love and laughter, 
humor and understanding reign, are 
laid those deep unseen foundations but- 
tressing the emotional stability and the 
benign social integration of our chil- 
dren. And don't say this is Victorian 
and can't be done in the fast tempo of 
modern civilization. It is being done in 
thousands of homes throughout the 

The programs of far too many excel- 
lent national, state, and local public and 
private agencies serving all ages are 
pulling the family apart. One national 
agency, recognizing this, has begun, I 
am told, an experimental family pro- 
gram. But who is equipped with better 
tools and techniques for the recreational 
use of leisure time per se, who is in a 
more advantageous position to swing 
into action on it, than qualified leaders 
in the public recreation field? 

Let's lay hold on it, and actually do 
more about it! 

There are two lines in an old gospel 
hymn of my youth which put it neatly : 

"Lay hold on life and let it be, 
Thy joy and crown eternally." 




for SAFETY on 

Your Playground 

Flexi seats bronze bearing hangers 

laminated stainless steel bedway 

for fun and physical fitness. 







Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
may be exchanged with others on the wide range of 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree tvith the authors of our articles. 

The Editors. 

Brief Comments 

"In your March issue you printed my 
letter on our 'Master Social Calendar.' 
I know you would like to know that I 
have received letters from all over the 
country in regard to it." 

VINCENT D. BELLEW, Superintend- 
ent of Recreation, Tuckahoe, New 

* * * 

" 'Letters' in RECREATION is a section 
which has taken on increasing impor- 
tance through the years until, today, 
one finds it an indispensable part of 
one's scrutiny of your significant maga- 

THOMAS S. YUKIE, Director of Rec- 
reation, Levittown, New York. 

Swimming Pools Series 


I have certainly enjoyed reading your 
article on outdoor swimming pools in 
the January and February issues and I 
have found that the various recreation 
directors with whom I have talked have 
taken special note of these articles and 
are quoting from them to their commis- 
sions. The articles have certainly cre- 
ated a great deal of interest. 

CHARLES M. GRAVES, Park and Rec- 
reation Engineer, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Playground Equipment Boxes 


We built a sturdy wooden box for 
storing playground equipment out- 
doors, but within a few years the boys 
were tearing it apart ; therefore, I would 
advise a metal one. Packing-material 
bins are advertised by the Standard 
Equipment Company, 3175 Fulton 
Street, Brooklyn 8, New York and if 
the material of which they are made is 
heavy enough, these might be used. 
N. W. EDMUND, Chairman, Barring- 
ton Recreation Commission, Bar- 
rington, New Jersey. 

Park and Recreation Conference 


The third training institute of the 
Mid-Continent Regional Park and Rec- 
reation Conference, held in conjunction 
with the University of Minnesota Con- 
tinuation Center, was very successfully 
received. There was an attendance of 
more than one hundred delegates from 
Canada, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minne- 
sota. This three-day meeting covered all 
facets of the park and recreation field 
and included some inspiring talks by 
outstanding speakers. 

The facilities and appointments at the 
Continuation Center again proved ideal 
for such a training institute, and the 
comments of the delegates indicated 
their interest in such kinds of meetings. 
FELIX K. DHAININ, Landscape Arch- 
itect - Administrative, Minneapolis, 

Recreation and Adult Education 


Malcolm Knowles does the field a 
service in his article in your February 
issue. He begins the ball rolling on this 
problem of definition and differentia- 
tion of specialities in the education and 
recreation fields. I am a bit disappoint- 
ed, however, in his optimism concerning 
the future merger of adult education 

Does Your Spring and Summer Program 

Aerial Tennis is an Ideal 
Game for Outdoor Play 

It is adaptable to out- 
door play. Economical to 
maintain. Replace broken 
feathers in the live rubber 
base with replacement 

If your sporting goods 
dealer can not supply you 
with authentic Aerial Ten- 
nis equipment, write us di- 


4834 Belinder Ave. Kansas City 3, Kansas 


When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


and recreation. I am not so sure that 
adult education has to be "recreational- 
ly" palatable, nor that recreation must 
include educational objectives. 

Recreation, in its essence, functions 
to restore autonomy to the individual 
whether this autonomy be psychologi- 
cal, physiological, or social in nature. 
To accomplish this feat, it takes many 
avenues. At times it may be heavily 
structured. Contrarily, the individual 
trout fisherman may be reconstituting 
his personality very much alone on 
some frosty morning as he drops bait 
into a swirling pool. Likewise, the spon- 
taneous aspect of recreation, its enthusi- 
asms and aesthetic appreciations are not 
tied to educational concerns. 

Adult education, on the other hand, 
must address itself to a citizenry which 
is very mobile, complex, ambivalent, 
and often uninformed. Increased re- 
sponsibilities sit astraddle the shoulders 
of him who would be responsible and 
confidently competent in today's hurly- 
burly society. The changing demands 
of tomorrow often make futile our un- 
derstandings and techniques of yester- 
day. This, it seems to me, is the charge 
to adult education. Without such deep 
concerns adult education is but a fluffy 
preoccupation with conveniently satis- 
fying and enjoyable, individualistic ac- 

I like Mr. Knowles' reference to the 
"highest enjoyment of all, the enjoy- 
ment of self -improvement." The diffi- 
culty, however, appears to lie in the fact 
that such enjoyment is usually retro- 
spective in nature. One does not always 
love the practice involved in achieving 
musicianship, nor the midnight oil 
burned over the years in ceremonious 
dedication to the hallowedness of ad- 
vanced degrees! Recreation, on the 
other hand, is a here-and-now satisfac- 
tion; tangible, alive, real, and immedi- 
ately enjoyed. 

For these reasons, I believe that we 
need to differentiate rather than merge 
recreation and adult education, in ad- 
dition to seeing the blessings of each. 
CHANNING M. BRIGGS, Acting Direc- 
tor of the Division of Group Work 
and Recreation, George Williams 
College, Chicago, Illinois. 


I was delighted to read the editorial, 
"Recreation and Adult Education" by 
Malcolm S. Knowles. It has been my 
belief for some time that these two fields 
were inseparable. In fact, for over a 
year now the recreation department has 
sponsored an adult class in parent-child 
relations, and we hope in the future to 
offer more classes in various subjects 

for adults. Recreation, it seems to me, 
is definitely an area of education even 
for the children and other youngsters 
who participate in the program. With 
this view in mind, it would not seem to 
me that we could take the education out 
of recreation for adults. I would like 
to hear views from other recreation per- 

FRANKLIN C. HILL, Superintendent 
of Recreation, Bainbridge, Georgia. 

A Treasury of Living 


Here is an interesting item for you. 
The book which was published after 
Mr. Braucher's death, A Treasury of 
Living, was on television yesterday. A 
Charleston station, WCHS TV, is pre- 
senting a series of programs each Sun- 
day afternoon called "The Church's 
Big Story." The subject yesterday was 
the church in the field of recreation. I 
loaned the book to the minister in 
charge of the program and he quoted 
from it and held the book up before the 
camera so that it could be easily seen. 
His quote was from page 113, the last 
six lines of "Play and Worship." 

ROBERT E. KRESGE, Superintendent 
of Recreation, Charleston, West 

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Write for information to Dr. Milton A. Gabrielsen 
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c4tkletic equipment 


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2945 East 12th Street 
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New York 1 1 , Chicago 1 0, Los Angeles 1 1 

MAY 1955 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 


REATION MAGAZINE will be the National 
Recreation Congress Issue carrying a 
Congress section which will include : an 
article on what to see and do in the city 
of Denver and on the way there; last 
minute news about the big meeting; a 
listing of commercial exhibitors; and 
so on. 

In addition, this issue will again em- 
phasize to some extent the working re- 
lationships of municipal recreation de- 
partments and the local schools in 
providing community-wide recreation 
services. If any of our readers have 
something to contribute on this subject, 
be sure to have it in our hands by May 

City of $1,783,086,557 has been sub- 
mitted by Mayor Wagner to the Board 
of Estimate. Public hearings on the 
proposed budget, which covers the fiscal 
year starting July 1, are now being held. 
It must be approved by May 21. This 
budget allocates the department of 
parks $26,150,319, an increase of $1.- 
650,422 over 1954-55; part of the ad- 
ditional funds will be used for twenty- 
six new neighborhood playgrounds. 

PROBLEM lies in a scientific attack on all 
phases of child conflict and maladjust- 
ment, according to one of the conclu- 
sions reached in a recent conference on 
exploring psychiatric research in juve- 
nile delinquency, sponsored by the Wel- 
fare and Health Council of New York 
City, 44 E. 23rd Street, New York City. 
Participating were twenty-five psychi- 
atric and other professional leaders. 
The conferees recommended that study 
of child conflict and maladjustment 
should be coordinated with action, not 
only in clinics and welfare agencies, but 
also in the home, the school and the 
community. It has been announced that 
a full report will be published within 
the next few months. 

HIGHER IN 1954 is shown in a recent 
study conducted by a committee of the 

American Football Coaches Associa- 
tion. Fatalities showed the highest 
total since 1949 and were almost seven 
per cent higher than the average in the 
twenty-three years that records have 
been kept. The committee calls for 
physical examinations, and greater em- 
phasis on tackling and blocking prac- 
tice among other recommendations in 
an article, "Football Fatalities Higher 
in 1954," in the April 1955 issue of 
Safety Education. 

PLAYGROUNDS are also covered in the 
April 1955 issue of Safety Education, 
in their Safety Lesson Unit. Reprints 
of this section are available, one to nine 
copies, for six cents each, lower prices 
for larger quantities. Address: School 
and College Division, National Safety 
Council, 425 N. Michigan Avenue, Chi- 
cago 11, Illinois. 

FOREIGN VISITORS have generously been 
offered to date by the recreation de- 
partments of over sixty communities, 
in cooperation with the Cooperative 
Community Recreation Project for Ex- 
change of Persons proposal by the 
NRA's International Recreation Service 
and the United States Department of 
State. Every department interested in 
sharing in this program is urged to in- 
dicate its interest as soon as possible. 

ferson County, Kentucky, will leave by 
plane June 19 for a unique six-day 
goodwill mission to Cuba. Each mem- 
ber has been required to earn, by his 
own efforts, forty dollars to help defray 
the cost of the trip. The group will 
carry special greetings to Cuban youth 
leaders and officials from the Interna- 
tional Recreation Service of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 

edition of How to Make It, a biblio- 
graphy of free and inexpensive pamph- 
lets on arts and crafts, is now available 
for fifty cents postpaid from Curricu- 
lum Laboratory, Temple University, 
Philadelphia 22, Pennsylvania. 

^ CAN YOU HELP? The Puyallup, Wash- 
ington, Recreation Commission has a 
problem. They are being asked to pay 
the same high, liability insurance pre- 
mium for their department roller-skat- 
ing program which involves no more 
than twenty hours per month as is 
charged to a commercial roller-skating 
rink. They want suggestions, and an- 
swers to the following questions: Have 
any studies been made nationally con- 
cerning recreational roller-skating pro- 
grams and liability insurance for the 
same? Could some effort be made to 
make such a study? What reports are 
available as to the hazard and risks in- 
volved in such a program as compared 
to a commercial rink? Are there any 
reports as to the hazards or risks in- 
volved in the former as compared to a 
recreational baseball program for both 
children and adults? 

of the National Recreation Association, 
the new 1955 group accident insurance 
plan established for the Association by 
the American Casualty Company of 
Reading, Pennsylvania, is now ready. 
The plan covers baseball and softball 
teams in the eight-to-twelve-year-old 
group, thirteen-to-eighteen, and over 
eighteen. Write the NRA for further in- 

in the January 1955 Sporting Goods 
Dealer carried the title "Little Fellas 
Build Big Business." The lead article. 
"To Secure for Every Child a Place to 
Play in Safety," urged sporting goods 
dealers to take this NRA objective for 
their own. The whole supplement car- 
ried interesting facts and information, 
and suggests to us that cooperation be- 
tween such dealers and local recreation 
departments should be a two-way street. 

CESS was at one time expressed by the 
late Professor Albert Einstein : 

If A is success in life, the rule might be 
expressed : 

A equals X plus Y plus Z 

X being work, and Y being play, and Z 
keeping your mouth shut. 

Our Apologies 

In the letter from Jackson M. Ander- 
son, Consultant in Recreation and Out- 
door Education, AAHPER, on our Let- 
ters page in April, paragraph three 
should read: "As early as 1917, the 
National Education Association set 
forth as one of the seven basic objec- 
tives of education 'the worthy use of 
leisure time.' ' 





An International Recreation Congress 

NCE AGAIN the recreation, play, and 
leisure-time forces of the world 
will be brought together in an Interna- 
tional Recreation Congress at Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., October 1, 

The First International Recreation 
Congress was held in Los Angeles in 
1932, just prior to the Olympic Games 
of that year. Herbert Hoover, while 
President of the United States, was hon- 
orary president of the congress. A dis- 
tinguished international advisory com- 
mittee sponsored it and helped in its 

A Second International Recreation 
Congress was then scheduled for Berlin 
in 1936 and was turned over to the Ger- 
man committee for organizing in ac- 
cordance with the principle adopted of 
giving responsibility to the host country 
each time. Subsequent developments 
in the international situation, however, 
caused the National Recreation Assoc- 
iation of the United States of America 
to withdraw from participating in the 
congress in Germany in 1936 and in 
Italy in 1938. 

Immediately following World War II 
various groups began to urge that an in- 
ternational recreation congress again 
be held. Frequently it has been suggest- 
ed that the congress be related to the 
Olympics, the United Nations, and other 
movements and institutions. 

In the meantime, the concept of rec- 
reation has become more widely under- 
stood throughout the world. An increas- 
ing number of inquiries have come 
from foreign countries. Visitors to our 
office have expressed deep interest in 
the recreation movement as they have 
observed it here. The wide-spread con- 
cern of the American people generally, 
in the international situation, and the 
ready acceptance of the value of techni- 
cal assistance of all kinds to underde- 
veloped countries, were some of the fac- 
tors which have made the reviving of an 
international recreation congress de- 

MAY 1955 

October l-5 9 1956 

Leaders in the field of recreation in 
America have also become convinced 
that the field of recreation has a real 
contribution to make to international 
understanding and that a privately or- 
ganized and privately sponsored effort 
to bring together leaders from other 
lands to discuss enriched living through 
recreation could have values far beyond 
those accruing to the recreation profes- 
sion alone. 

There is a wide range of programs in 
other lands for individual community 
development which here in America 
come under the general term "recrea- 
tion." For purposes of the International 
Recreation Congress we use this term 
to cover many of the programs that in 


A group of top level leaders 
from all parts of the world respon- 
sible for parks, recreation, youth 
service, and related programs for 
the people will be brought to 
America under the Exchange of 
Persons Program in June, 1956 
for a four-month study and ob- 
servation of the recreation move- 
ment under the proposed plan. 

They will be sponsored by the 
International Recreation Service 
of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation and will be guests of local 
recreation departments. At the 
close of their study they will at- 
tend the International Recreation 
Congress at Philadelphia. 

Any other foreign visitors who are in 
America on one of the various exchange 
of persons programs public or private 
who may have an interest in this im- 
portant aspect of American life will be 
welcome to attend the International 
Recreation Congress at Philadelphia. 
For further information write to: Inter- 
national Recreation Congress, 8 West 
Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 

other lands are carried on under vari- 
ous headings including parks, play- 
grounds, community centers, clubs, rec- 
reation and group work, informal edu- 
cation, popular education, youth serv- 
ice, and adult education. In terms of ac- 
tivities we are thinking of music, drama, 
games, sports, crafts, camping, nature, 
and hobbies of various kinds carried 
on for personal satisfaction and devel- 

The National Recreation Association 
has, therefore, accepted the responsibil- 
ity for calling and organizing an Inter- 
national Recreation Congress in 1956 
and the International Recreation Serv- 
ice of the Association, along with its 
expanded program of service to other 
lands, will provide the executive leader- 
ship for the congress which is to be or- 
ganized separate from any other move- 
ment or institution, but which will wel- 
come cooperation and assistance from 
all who are interested in this broad field 
of human service. 

Philadelphia seems particularly ap- 
propriate for this meeting, both for his- 
torical and modern reasons. Here the 
Declaration of Independence took place. 
Here man's right to the pursuit of hap- 
piness was proclaimed. Today Philadel- 
phia, after years of struggle for a com- 
prehensive public recreation service, en- 
visions and has taken steps to bring 
about a notable program of recreation 
services for all its people. So here, in 
the cradle of American freedom, lead- 
ers from other lands will join together 
to exchange information and experience 
on how leisure can be used for life en- 
richment through recreation. 

The congress will also have signifi- 
cance for the American recreation 
movement because 1956 is the fiftieth 
anniversary of the founding of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 

We shall welcome suggestions from 
all on how this congress can best serve 
the recreation needs of people every- 
where. T. E. RIVERS, Executive Secre- 
tary, International Recreation Service. 



In its most meaningful, creative and grow- 
ing sense, it has much to offer families today. 

William M. Smith, Jr. 

THIS TOPIC probably evokes in the reader a strange mix- 
ture of memories and emotions. Some will think of pop- 
ping corn and eating apples in a Grandma Moses' Christ- 
mas card setting. Some will think of Sunday afternoon 
rides, engineered by father, endured by mother, enjoyed by 
the children, and resented by the teen-ager. Some will be re- 
minded of "every Thursday night at the 'Y'," when the 
craft materials are left out "for family fun" and nobody 
comes. Others will recall birthday parties, anniversaries, 
family reunions, or what do you do with a mixed age 

As are all areas of family living, recreation is loaded with 
emotions, feelings, hidden meanings. For that reason it is 
of more than passing significance. Wherever our profes- 
sional niche may be, as professionals it is appropriate to 
ask ourselves frequently exactly what meaning our work, 
our plans, our programs have for others. It is especially 
urgent that we raise such questions with reference to the 
families who make up the communities where we live and 
work. What are we doing to them in our efforts to do for 

// recreation is truly for families, what is it like? 

1. If recreation is for families, it fits the family and the 
persons involved. Jean Shick Grossman relates how a soft- 
spoken, unschooled mother in a settlement house parents' 
group remarked simply, "If you want a child to practice the 
piano, you should first find out if he's fittable for music." 
Some of us, in our eagerness to be able to list "number of 
participants" or "number of activities carried out," over-do 
our doing good. We try to get everyone in the community or 
in the family to do the same thing in the same way at the 
same time. However, when or as we do that, we should ap- 
propriately change the label from recreation to regimenta- 

When recreation fits the family it becomes a real and vital 
part of everyday living, not something crowded in as an 

DR. SMITH is professor of family relationships, College of 
Home Economics, The Pennsylvania State University. 

afterthought, something elaborate and unrelated to the rest 
of living. In a family, moods pass from one member to an- 
other by contagion. When one becomes carefree, happy, 
relaxed, he finds his feelings reflected in those about him. 
This process can go on regardless of the specific activity in 
which the family is engaged provided that members are in- 
teracting with one another. At least part of the time rec- 
reation should stimulate or promote interaction. 

Periodicals and how-to-do-it books are filled with plans 
and suggestions for activities which are too frequently more 
appropriate for the well-equipped craft shop than for family 
recreation. [Simple crafts projects and other adaptable and 
carry-over activities can, however, be introduced to family 
group members in a recreation department program which 
is so planned. Ed.]. An activity with family-appeal should 
offer a variety of different things to do so that each family 
member can use his skills and talents, modest or ambitious. 

Going on a picnic is such an activity. Picking up sticks 
for a fire is not age-graded. Neither are many of the other 
activities incidental to meal preparation outdoors. Planning 
and constructing an outdoor fireplace or other play equip- 
ment falls in the same category. So does the making of 
Christmas cards and holiday decorations. From beginning 
to end everyone can have a hand in the goings-on if he so 
chooses. Fitting the family also brings up the question of 
the costs of recreation in time, energy, and money. Costs 
should be seen in relation to all of the other areas of a fam- 
ily's daily living. Mother-daughter skating lessons adver- 
tised in the paper sound like fun, but it might be that the 
time schedule obviously suits the teacher, not the families 
whose members are in school or at work through the day. 

2. If recreation is for families, it leaves room for priv- 
acy. If there is any place in this cluttered-up world of ac- 
tivity where a person can find some opportunity for quiet 
rest it should be his home. We spend so much of our time 
doing that we need some leisure just to be. 

Recreation for the family is not activity alone. Just being 
together, each person lost in his own thoughts, may be a 
recreational experience. Our son, at age half-past-three, 



Parents are enjoying watching their children at play. A hap- 
py, relaxed mood is passed on from one member of the family 
to another; this feeling cannot be crowded in as afterthought. 

used to say, "Sunday is the 'funnest' day in the week. It's 
fun when we're together. On that day we're all home to- 
gether and we eat together, and we go for a ride together." 
In planning for recreation in families it is important to 
leave time for private, personal use. So many organizations 
are now family-centered, or claim to be, that the family it- 
self has discovered its privacy invaded. Four scout meet- 
ings, four Sunday school parents' meetings, and four PTA 
meetings get to be quite a dose. With each child in the 
family this type of participation is multiplied and cuts into 
free time as well as family time. At a Scout court of honor 
recently, one of the leaders asking for volunteers empha- 
sized that the fathers have more fun than the boys, that he 
used to spend one night a week in scout work, now some- 
times spends six. How much is left for the family's private 
world if one or two members go out every night in the week? 

3. Recreation for families helps individuals get a new 
lease on life. To hold interest in life and to make the best 
of our own personal and family emotional resources we need 
to get away from our jobs once in a while, to gain perspec- 
tive. Many of us achieve this or try to do so through some 
form of recreation. Some find wreck-creation instead. We 
work so hard at our bridge that we are difficult to live with. 

It has been said that since we have homes today that work 
well, we need to give more attention to homes that play well. 
After all, a child does not begin with a distinction between 
work and play. That is an attitude which we adults teach 
him from our own storehouse of prejudices. We teach 
children that it is good to work but a waste of time to play ; 
so we have masses of adults who are recreationally illiterate, 
throwing away millions of dollars in trying to buy happi- 
ness, and full of guilt feelings because they play. We have 

heard persons apologize for spending 
an evening folk dancing because they 
did not have anything "to show for it." 
They considered it an unproductive ac- 

As individuals we need to learn to 
take some things lightly rather than giv- 
ing equally serious attention to all mat- 
ters. When troubles come, when tem- 
pers rise, it may be the best prescription 
in the book to get away for a while in 
another activity, so that we may return 
to look at things from another angle. 
This does not mean that we use play as 
an escape, to change the subject, to 
avoid responsibility. A recreation ex- 
perience is more than an escape. It 
strengthens us for tackling problems 
that face us. Riding a hobby horse fre- 
quently gives us such a pick-up. From 
that saddle, the world can look brighter. 

4. Recreation for families builds re- 
lationships. It is at this point that some of us who are con- 
cerned about human relationships in and outside of the fam- 
ily feel that recreation has so much to contribute, and some- 
times has missed the ball. Here are some examples : 

The children come home breathlessly from a morning at 
the tot lot with the news, "We're going to have a pet show 
tomorrow. Can I take my goldfish? Can I take my dog? 
Can I, huh?" The family is all drawn into the excitement; 
and then later, a committee of mothers is asked to judge 
the "best pet." Now who can face the doleful eyes of her 
own child as she points out some other entry as "best"? 
And who can say that the tears of a four-year-old are worth 
that day or event? Learning to be good losers? There are 
more appropriate and more timely ways to learn or to teach 
that lesson without spoiling a day for the families. 

Another example comes from a community which opens 
a gymnasium to the town's small fry during vacations. In- 
stead of directing some group games or helping the chil- 
dren see how many different and new ways they might have 
fun, the adults set child against child in competitive events 
where only a few can win. Mothers and fathers have to 
spend the next week consoling the majority of the partici- 
pants who did not win and did not get their names and faces 
in the paper. 

But recreation can build relationships when son beats 
father at checkers and finds that dad thought it a good game 
anyway when the whole family plays canasta and the ten- 
year-old discovers that the eight-year-old "brat" sister also 
knows how to score when the children come home with 
"new" folksongs which mother and dad sang twenty-five 
years ago and can learn again in a new arrangement in 
dozens of ways, recreation can, and does, build relationships. 

5. Recreation for families lasts throughout the cycle of 
family life. The professional recreation worker would not 
label play "for children only," but some communities appear 
to do so. In families, however, recreation makes one more 

MAY 1955 


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Sports Equipment 

opportunity for age barriers to be crossed. It is a kind of 
insurance policy for the later years. College students fre- 
quently claim that they have left at home two persons who 
are "strangers to each other," a father and mother who were 
so busy working separately through the child-rearing years 
that they forgot to be man and wife in the sharing of inter- 
ests and companionship. 

The beginning family o